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    Gerald Schwarting PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentCell and Developmental Biology
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone508-856-1678
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentCell Biology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentNeuroscience

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Cell and Developmental Biology Department

        Academic Background

        Gary Schwarting received his B. A. from the University of Connecticut in 1969, and his Ph. D. from the University of Munich, Germany in 1974. He was an NIH post-doctoral fellow at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology from 1975-77. He joined the Shriver Center in 1977 and has been on the University of Massachusetts Medical School faculty since 2000.

        Axon Guidance in the Developing Olfactory System

        We are investigating the factors that regulate the guidance of connections between sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and their targets (glomeruli) in the olfactory bulb (OB). We have previously demonstrated that neuropilin-1+ (Nnn-1) axons grow exclusively to targets in the medial and lateral OB but not the ventral or dorsal OB. Recently we have recently shown demonstrated that a glycan, Lactosamine also plays a role in axon guidance. The glycosyltransferase b3GnT1 is expressed in neurons in the olfactory epithelium and is the key determinant of Lactosamine expression. It is expressed on the cilia, cell soma and axons on a subset of mature sensory neurons and on targets in the ventral OB, a region where Npn-1 axons are excluded by the repulsive guidance cue Sema3A. In mice lacking b3GnT1, there is a profound axon guidance defect. Axons that normally target the posterior OB are misdirected toward the anterior OB (Figure 1). Interestingly, it has recently been shown that regulation of cAMP and other signaling molecules play a role in axon guidance and are currently investigating the possibility that N-glycosylation by b3GnT1 may play an important role in the expression of key signaling molecules in the OE and OB. These studies suggest that axon guidance is governed by restricted expression of permissive and non-permissive cues that successively restrict subsets of axons into more refined target regions of the developing OB. Our objective is to identify additional guidance mechanisms that further subdivide these targeting compartments into smaller and smaller segments of the OB until precise convergence of axons onto a small number of glomeruli is achieved.

        Cell Migration in the Developing Olfactory System

        In collaboration with Dr Stuart Tobet and Colorado State University, we are investigating factors that regulate the migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. In embryonic mice about 1500 GnRH neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in the nose across the cribriform plate to the forebrain. The migration of these neurons is essential for reproductive competence in mature mammals, including humans. We have previously shown that GnRH neurons use axons as their guides and that these neurons express a variety of receptors that govern their migration. These axon guides express the netrin-1 receptor deleted in colon cancer (DCC) and turn toward a source of netrin-1 in the ventral forebrain. GnRH neurons normally follow those guides to the ventral forebrain, but in DCC and netrin-1 mutant mice, axons fail to turn ventrally and most GnRH neurons migrate into the cerebral cortex rather than the hypothalamus (see Figure 2). GnRH neurons also express CXCR4, the receptor for stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1), which is expressed in a gradient in the nasal mesenchyme. In CXCR4 null mice, most GnRH neurons fail to migrate out of the nasal mesenchyme during embryonic development. In individuals with Kallmann’s syndrome, GnRH neurons fail to migrate properly but only in a small percentage of cases has a genetic link been identified. Our objectives are to identify additional factors that regulate GnRH neuron migration and to better understand the causes of Kallmann’s and similar syndromes.

        Ongoing Projects

        Glycoconjugates in Cell-Cell Interactions
        Mechanisms of GNRH Neuron Migration During Development

        Figures


        Schwarting figure 1

        Figure 1. The M72 odorant receptor is expressed on axons that project to a dorsal target (A) and to medial glomerulus (B). In b3GnT1 null mice, the dorsal M72 glomerulus is shifted to the rostral-medial OB (C). In wild-type mice each glomerulus contains axons expressing only one OR, but in null mice glomeruli express more than one OR (D).

        Schwarting figure 2

        Figure 2. GnRH neurons migrate from the vomeronasal organ (VNO) across the cribriform plate (CP) into the forebrain. They turn ventrally following DCC+ axons toward the median eminence (me) and arcuate nucleus (arc). Factors that regulate migration at various stages include netrin-1, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and their respective receptors CXCR4 and DCC.



        Rotation Projects

        Potential Rotation Projects

        Project #1: The soluble chemoattractant/repellent netrin-1 is expressed in the ventricular zone of the developing olfactory bulb and by neurons in the olfactory epithelium in the early mouse embryo at a time when the olfactory system is being patterned. Two netrin-1 receptors, DCC and Unc5h3 are expressed by different cell types in the developing olfactory system. The trajectories of axon subsets and positions of neuronal populations will be examined in Netrin-1, DCC, and Unc5h3 mutant mice from embryonic day 12 to birth, the time frame in which patterning of the olfactory system takes place. Explant culture experiments will also be carried out in conjunction with the use of function-blocking antibodies to determine the role of these proteins in olfactory development.

        Project #2: In vitro slice preparations from developing mammalian embryos have significantly advanced the understanding of migratory behavior of cells in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and most recently in our studies of the hypothalamus. Our in vitro organotypic slice procedures allow us to directly examine the movements of cells across the developing rodent nasal septum and through the brain. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) allows the targeted expression of a fluorescent marker that can be visualized in live cells. A mouse line that expresses GFP specifically in LHRH cells is now on hand in my lab and will allow us to follow the migration of identified LHRH cells in vivo and in vitro as they move along olfactory and brain pathways. Techniques include the preparation of slices of entire embryonic heads, in which functional migratory connections can be maintained between the nasal cavity and basal forebrain in vitro. Immunofluorescence, confocal and light microscopic techniques allow us to follow live migrating LHRH cells into the forebrain and will allow us to test molecules that are important for regulating cell migration.



        Post Docs

        A postdoctoral position is available to study in this laboratory. Contact Dr. Schwarting for additional details.

        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Henion TR, Schwarting GA. N-Linked Polylactosamine Glycan Synthesis Is Regulated by Co-Expression of ß3GnT2 and GCNT2. J Cell Physiol. 2014 Apr; 229(4):471-8.
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        2. Knoll JG, Clay CM, Bouma GJ, Henion TR, Schwarting GA, Millar RP, Tobet SA. Developmental profile and sexually dimorphic expression of kiss1 and kiss1r in the fetal mouse brain. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2013; 4:140.
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        3. Henion TR, Madany PA, Faden AA, Schwarting GA. ß3GnT2 null mice exhibit defective accessory olfactory bulb innervation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 52:73-86.
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        4. Knott TK, Madany PA, Faden AA, Xu M, Strotmann J, Henion TR, Schwarting GA. Olfactory discrimination largely persists in mice with defects in odorant receptor expression and axon guidance. Neural Dev. 2012; 7:17.
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        5. Schwarting GA, Henion TR. Regulation and function of axon guidance and adhesion molecules during olfactory map formation. J Cell Biochem. 2011 Oct; 112(10):2663-71.
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        6. Henion TR, Faden AA, Knott TK, Schwarting GA. ß3GnT2 maintains adenylyl cyclase-3 signaling and axon guidance molecule expression in the olfactory epithelium. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 27; 31(17):6576-86.
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        7. Gill JC, Wadas B, Chen P, Portillo W, Reyna A, Jorgensen E, Mani S, Schwarting GA, Moenter SM, Tobet S, Kaiser UB. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal population is normal in size and distribution in GnRH-deficient and GnRH receptor-mutant hypogonadal mice. Endocrinology. 2008 Sep; 149(9):4596-604.
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        8. Schwarting GA, Henion TR. Olfactory axon guidance: the modified rules. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Jan; 86(1):11-7.
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        9. Schwarting GA, Henion TR. Lactosamine differentially affects olfactory sensory neuron projections to the olfactory bulb. Dev Neurobiol. 2007 Oct; 67(12):1627-40.
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        10. Schwarting GA, Wierman ME, Tobet SA. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal migration. Semin Reprod Med. 2007 Sep; 25(5):305-12.
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        11. Schwarting GA, Gridley T, Henion TR. Notch1 expression and ligand interactions in progenitor cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium. J Mol Histol. 2007 Dec; 38(6):543-53.
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        12. Henion TR, Schwarting GA. Patterning the developing and regenerating olfactory system. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Feb; 210(2):290-7.
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        13. Bless E, Raitcheva D, Henion TR, Tobet S, Schwarting GA. Lactosamine modulates the rate of migration of GnRH neurons during mouse development. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug; 24(3):654-60.
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        14. Schwarting GA, Henion TR, Nugent JD, Caplan B, Tobet S. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12) and chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 are required for migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to the forebrain. J Neurosci. 2006 Jun 21; 26(25):6834-40.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Tobet SA, Schwarting GA. Minireview: recent progress in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal migration. Endocrinology. 2006 Mar; 147(3):1159-65.
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        16. Henion TR, Raitcheva D, Grosholz R, Biellmann F, Skarnes WC, Hennet T, Schwarting GA. Beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 glycosylation is required for axon pathfinding by olfactory sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23; 25(8):1894-903.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Bless EP, Walker HJ, Yu KW, Knoll JG, Moenter SM, Schwarting GA, Tobet SA. Live view of gonadotropin-releasing hormone containing neuron migration. Endocrinology. 2005 Jan; 146(1):463-8.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Schwarting GA, Raitcheva D, Crandall JE, Burkhardt C, Püschel AW. Semaphorin 3A-mediated axon guidance regulates convergence and targeting of P2 odorant receptor axons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 19(7):1800-10.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Schwarting GA, Raitcheva D, Bless EP, Ackerman SL, Tobet S. Netrin 1-mediated chemoattraction regulates the migratory pathway of LHRH neurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Jan; 19(1):11-20.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Heger S, Seney M, Bless E, Schwarting GA, Bilger M, Mungenast A, Ojeda SR, Tobet SA. Overexpression of glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons disrupts migratory fate and female reproductive function in mice. Endocrinology. 2003 Jun; 144(6):2566-79.
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        21. Tobet SA, Bless EP, Schwarting GA. Developmental aspect of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone system. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Dec 20; 185(1-2):173-84.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Schwarting GA, Kostek C, Bless EP, Ahmad N, Tobet SA. Deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) regulates the migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons to the basal forebrain. J Neurosci. 2001 Feb 1; 21(3):911-9.
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        23. Crandall JE, Dibble C, Butler D, Pays L, Ahmad N, Kostek C, Püschel AW, Schwarting GA. Patterning of olfactory sensory connections is mediated by extracellular matrix proteins in the nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. J Neurobiol. 2000 Dec; 45(4):195-206.
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        24. Schwarting GA, Kostek C, Ahmad N, Dibble C, Pays L, Püschel AW. Semaphorin 3A is required for guidance of olfactory axons in mice. J Neurosci. 2000 Oct 15; 20(20):7691-7.
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        25. Pays L, Schwarting G. Gal-NCAM is a differentially expressed marker for mature sensory neurons in the rat olfactory system. J Neurobiol. 2000 May; 43(2):173-85.
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        26. Bless EP, Westaway WA, Schwarting GA, Tobet SA. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor manipulation on migrating gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons through the entire migratory route in vivo and in vitro. Endocrinology. 2000 Mar; 141(3):1254-62.
          View in: PubMed
        27. Yoshida K, Rutishauser U, Crandall JE, Schwarting GA. Polysialic acid facilitates migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons on vomeronasal axons. J Neurosci. 1999 Jan 15; 19(2):794-801.
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        28. Raabe EH, Yoshida K, Schwarting GA. Differential laminin isoform expression in the developing rat olfactory system. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1997 Jul 18; 101(1-2):187-96.
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        29. Tobet SA, Sower SA, Schwarting GA. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone containing neurons and olfactory fibers during development: from lamprey to mammals. Brain Res Bull. 1997; 44(4):479-86.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Tobet SA, Hanna IK, Schwarting GA. Migration of neurons containing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in slices from embryonic nasal compartment and forebrain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996 Dec 23; 97(2):287-92.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Tobet SA, Chickering TW, King JC, Stopa EG, Kim K, Kuo-Leblank V, Schwarting GA. Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid and gonadotropin-releasing hormone during neuronal migration through the olfactory system. Endocrinology. 1996 Dec; 137(12):5415-20.
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        32. Yoshida K, Tobet SA, Crandall JE, Jimenez TP, Schwarting GA. The migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons in the developing rat is associated with a transient, caudal projection of the vomeronasal nerve. J Neurosci. 1995 Dec; 15(12):7769-77.
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        33. Tobet SA, Chickering TW, Hanna I, Crandall JE, Schwarting GA. Can gonadal steroids influence cell position in the developing brain? Horm Behav. 1994 Dec; 28(4):320-7.
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        34. Yamamoto M, Schwarting GA, Crandall JE. Altered 9-O acetylation of disialogangliosides in cerebellar Purkinje cells of the nervous mutant mouse. Brain Res. 1994 Oct 31; 662(1-2):223-32.
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        35. Mahanthappa NK, Cooper DN, Barondes SH, Schwarting GA. Rat olfactory neurons can utilize the endogenous lectin, L-14, in a novel adhesion mechanism. Development. 1994 Jun; 120(6):1373-84.
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        36. Schwarting GA, Drinkwater D, Crandall JE. A unique neuronal glycolipid defines rostrocaudal compartmentalization in the accessory olfactory system of rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994 Apr 15; 78(2):191-200.
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        37. Cualing H, Siegel R, Schwarting GA, Suchy SF, McCluer RH, Bernal S. The expression of H-like blood group glycolipids in small cell carcinoma of the lung. Hybridoma. 1993 Jun; 12(3):239-47.
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        38. Tobet SA, Crandall JE, Schwarting GA. Relationship of migrating luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons to unique olfactory system glycoconjugates in embryonic rats. Dev Biol. 1993 Feb; 155(2):471-82.
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        39. Mahanthappa NK, Schwarting GA. Peptide growth factor control of olfactory neurogenesis and neuron survival in vitro: roles of EGF and TGF-beta s. Neuron. 1993 Feb; 10(2):293-305.
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        40. Schwarting GA, Story CM, Deutsch G. A monoclonal anti-glycoconjugate antibody defines a stage and position-dependent gradient in the developing sympathoadrenal system. Histochem J. 1992 Nov; 24(11):842-51.
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        41. Kaye EM, Alroy J, Raghavan SS, Schwarting GA, Adelman LS, Runge V, Gelblum D, Thalhammer JG, Zuniga G. Dysmyelinogenesis in animal model of GM1 gangliosidosis. Pediatr Neurol. 1992 Jul-Aug; 8(4):255-61.
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        42. Leclerc N, Schwarting GA, Herrup K, Hawkes R, Yamamoto M. Compartmentation in mammalian cerebellum: Zebrin II and P-path antibodies define three classes of sagittally organized bands of Purkinje cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jun 1; 89(11):5006-10.
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        43. deVeber GA, Schwarting GA, Kolodny EH, Kowall NW. Fabry disease: immunocytochemical characterization of neuronal involvement. Ann Neurol. 1992 Apr; 31(4):409-15.
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        44. Schwarting GA, Deutsch G, Gattey DM, Crandall JE. Glycoconjugates are stage- and position-specific cell surface molecules in the developing olfactory system, 2: Unique carbohydrate antigens are topographic markers for selective projection patterns of olfactory axons. J Neurobiol. 1992 Mar; 23(2):130-42.
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        45. Schwarting GA, Deutsch G, Gattey DM, Crandall JE. Glycoconjugates are stage- and position-specific cell surface molecules in the developing olfactory system, 1: The CC1 immunoreactive glycolipid defines a rostrocaudal gradient in the rat vomeronasal system. J Neurobiol. 1992 Mar; 23(2):120-9.
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        46. Suchy SF, Schwarting GA, Lethco BA, Ramirez JJ. The expression of a fucosyl-ganglioside in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following entorhinal cortical lesions. Neurosci Lett. 1991 Sep 30; 131(1):105-8.
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        47. Tobet SA, Whorf RC, Schwarting GA, Fischer I, Fox TO. Differential hormonal modulation of brain antigens recognized by the AB-2 monoclonal antibody. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1991 Sep 19; 62(1):91-8.
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        48. Yamamoto M, Schwarting G. The formation of axonal pathways in developing cranial nerves. Neurosci Res. 1991 Sep; 11(4):229-60.
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        49. Schwarting GA, Crandall JE. Subsets of olfactory and vomeronasal sensory epithelial cells and axons revealed by monoclonal antibodies to carbohydrate antigens. Brain Res. 1991 May 3; 547(2):239-48.
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        50. Schwarting GA, Tischler AS, Donahue SR. Fucosylation of glycolipids in PC12 cells is dependent on the sequence of nerve growth factor treatment and adenylate cyclase activation. Dev Neurosci. 1990; 12(3):159-71.
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        51. Schwarting GA, Williams MA, Evans JE, McCluer RH. Characterization of SSEA-1 glycolipids from the brain of a patient with fucosidosis. Glycoconj J. 1989; 6(3):293-302.
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        52. Schwarting GA, Gajewski A. Heparin inhibits specific glycosyltransferase activities in interleukin 2 activated murine T cells. Biosci Rep. 1988 Aug; 8(4):389-99.
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        53. Schwarting GA, Yamamoto M. Expression of glycoconjugates during development of the vertebrate nervous system. Bioessays. 1988 Jul; 9(1):19-23.
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        54. Suchy SF, Yamamoto M, Barbero L, Schwarting GA. A monoclonal antibody, WCC4, recognizes a developmentally regulated ganglioside containing alpha-galactose and alpha-fucose present in the rat nervous system. Brain Res. 1988 Feb 2; 440(1):25-34.
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        55. Stout RD, Schwarting GA, Suttles J. Evidence that expression of asialo-GM1 may be associated with cell activation. Correlation of asialo-GM1 expression with increased total cellular RNA and protein content in normal thymocyte and spleen cell populations. J Immunol. 1987 Oct 1; 139(7):2123-9.
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        56. MacDougall SL, Schwarting GA, Parkinson D, Sullivan AK. Increased fucosylation of glycolipids in a human leukaemia cell line (K562-Clone I) with decreased sensitivity to NK-mediated lysis. Immunology. 1987 Sep; 62(1):75-80.
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        57. Chou DK, Schwarting GA, Evans JE, Jungalwala FB. Sulfoglucuronyl-neolacto series of glycolipids in peripheral nerves reacting with HNK-1 antibody. J Neurochem. 1987 Sep; 49(3):865-73.
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        58. Schwarting GA, Gajewski A, Carroll P, DeWolf WC. Inhibition of ganglioside sialyltransferase activity and stimulation of neutral glycolipid exocytosis by heparin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987 Jul; 256(1):69-77.
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        59. Schwarting GA, Jungalwala FB, Chou DK, Boyer AM, Yamamoto M. Sulfated glucuronic acid-containing glycoconjugates are temporally and spatially regulated antigens in the developing mammalian nervous system. Dev Biol. 1987 Mar; 120(1):65-76.
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        60. Dubey DP, Staunton DE, Parekh AC, Schwarting GA, Antoniou D, Lazarus H, Yunis EJ. Unique proliferation-associated marker expressed on activated and transformed human cells defined by monoclonal antibody. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1987 Feb; 78(2):203-12.
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        61. Suttles J, Schwarting GA, Hougland MW, Stout RD. Expression of asialo GM1 on a subset of adult murine thymocytes: histological localization and demonstration that the asialo GM1-positive subset contains both the functionally mature and the proliferating thymocyte subpopulations. J Immunol. 1987 Jan 15; 138(2):364-72.
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        62. Schwarting GA, Gajewski A, Barbero L, Tischler AS, Costopoulos D. Complex glycosphingolipids of the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12: enhanced fucosylglycolipid synthesis following nerve growth factor treatment. Neuroscience. 1986 Oct; 19(2):647-56.
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        63. Suttles J, Schwarting GA, Stout RD. Flow cytometric analysis reveals the presence of asialo GM1 on the surface membrane of alloimmune cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1986 Mar 1; 136(5):1586-91.
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        64. Peyman JA, Schwarting GA, Sullivan AK. Differences in the plasma membrane glycoproteins of cultured myeloblastoid and promyelocytic human leukemia (HL60) cells. Leuk Res. 1986; 10(8):973-88.
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        65. Yamamoto M, Boyer AM, Schwarting GA. Fucose-containing glycolipids are stage- and region-specific antigens in developing embryonic brain of rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 May; 82(9):3045-9.
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        66. Katz HR, Schwarting GA, LeBlanc PA, Austen KF, Stevens RL. Identification of the neutral glycosphingolipids of murine mast cells: expression of Forssman glycolipid by the serosal but not the bone marrow-derived subclass. J Immunol. 1985 Apr; 134(4):2617-23.
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        67. Mercurio AM, Schwarting GA, Robbins PW. Glycolipids of the mouse peritoneal macrophage. Alterations in amount and surface exposure of specific glycolipid species occur in response to inflammation and tumoricidal activation. J Exp Med. 1984 Oct 1; 160(4):1114-25.
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        68. Schwarting GA, Carroll PG, DeWolf WC. Fucosyl-globoside and sialosyl-globoside are new glycolipids isolated from human teratocarcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 May 16; 112(3):935-40.
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        69. Schwarting GA, Gajewski A. Glycolipids of murine lymphocyte subpopulations. Structural characterization of thymus gangliosides. J Biol Chem. 1983 May 10; 258(9):5893-8.
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        70. Harris MT, Schwarting GA, Stout RD. Expression of asialo GM1 by both Thy-1-positive and Thy-1-negative lymphocytes: evidence for modification of asialo GM1 by sialic acid. Thymus. 1981 Sep; 3(3):169-84.
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        71. Harris MT, Schwarting GA, Stout RD. Selective expression of asialo GM1 on maturational subsets of lymphocytes in normal and athymic mice. Thymus. 1981 Sep; 3(3):153-67.
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        72. Schwarting GA, Gajewski A. Glycolipids of murine lymphocyte subpopulations: a defect in the levels of sialidase-sensitive sialosylated asialo GM1 in beige mouse lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1981 Jun; 126(6):2403-7.
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        73. Schwarting GA, Parkinson DR, Munson D, Zielinski C. Asialo GM1, as a cell-surface marker in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 29; 304(5):300-1.
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        74. Macklin WB, Schwarting GA, Lees MB, Cohen SR. Production and purification of antibody to bovine white matter proteolipid apoprotein. J Neurochem. 1981 Jan; 36(1):101-6.
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        75. Bearman SI, Schwarting GA, Kolodny EH, Babior BM. Incorporation of glucosamine by activated human neutrophils. A myeloperoxidase-mediated process. J Lab Clin Med. 1980 Nov; 96(5):893-902.
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        76. Schwarting GA. Quantitative analysis of neutral glycosphingolipids from human lymphocyte subpopulations. Biochem J. 1980 Sep 1; 189(3):407-12.
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        77. Schwarting GA, Summers A. Gangliotetraosylceramide is a T cell differentiation antigen associated with natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol. 1980 Apr; 124(4):1691-4.
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        78. Fletcher KS, Bremer EG, Schwarting GA. P blood group regulation of glycosphingolipid levels in human erythrocytes. J Biol Chem. 1979 Nov 25; 254(22):11196-8.
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        79. Schwarting GA, Kundu SK, Marcus DM. Reaction of antibodies that cause paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) with globoside and Forssman glycosphingolipids. Blood. 1979 Feb; 53(2):186-92.
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        80. Stein KE, Schwarting GA, Marcus DM. Glycolipid markers of murine lymphocyte subpopulations. J Immunol. 1978 Feb; 120(2):676-9.
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        81. Schwarting GA, Marcus DM. The reactions of antibodies to paragloboside (lacto-N-neotetraosyl ceramide) with human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1977 Apr; 118(4):1415-9.
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        82. Schwarting GA, Marcus DM, Metaxas M. Identification of sialosylparagloboside as the erythrocyte receptor for an 'anti-p' antibody. Vox Sang. 1977; 32(5):257-61.
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        83. De Baecque C, Johnson AB, Naiki M, Schwarting G, Marcus DM. Ganglioside localization in cerebellar cortex: an immunoperoxidase study with antibody to GM1 ganglioside. Brain Res. 1976 Sep 10; 114(1):117-22.
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        84. Stein-Douglas K, Schwarting GA, Naiki M, Marcus DM. Gangliosides as markers for murine lymphocyte subpopulations. J Exp Med. 1976 Apr 1; 143(4):822-32.
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        85. Marcus DM, Schwarting GA. Immunochemical properties of glycolipids and phospholipids. Adv Immunol. 1976; 23:203-40.
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