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    Sharone Green MD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone508-856-4182
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentCenter for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic Background

        Education:

        • B.A., Queens College, 1983
        • M.D., Eastern Virginia Medical School, 1986

        Post-Graduate Training:

        • Internal Medicine - Washington Hospital Center, 1986-89
        • Infectious Diseases - University of Massachusetts Medical Center, 1989-92
        Photo: Sharone Green, MD

        Research Interests

        • Immunopathogenesis of viral infections
        • Human T cell responses to flavivirus infections including dengue and West Nile virus
        • Human immune responses to novel viral vaccines

        My laboratory studies T lymphocyte responses to viral infections and their role in protection as well as immunopathogenesis of disease. The study of T cell responses to natural viral infections can be utilized towards the development and testing of viral vaccines. Dengue virus, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis viruses are the current model systems under study.

        Dengue viruses

        Dengue viruses, of which there are four serotypes, are transmitted from human-to-human by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In some individuals, dengue virus infections manifest as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which is characterized by plasma leakage, and can lead to life-threatening shock. Our laboratory hypothesizes that DHF is an example of immunopathology caused by the ‘over’ responses of memory T cells. The role of other arms of the adaptive immune system in regulating disease severity, such as pre-existing antibodies that mediate neutralization, enhancement and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) are also under investigation. As part of an ongoing multi-center international NIH-funded Program Project, I spent over 4 years in Thailand trying to elucidate the role of immune activation in the development of plasma leakage in children with DHF. These field studies are currently ongoing and valuble samples from these children are utilized in our laboratory to address these immune mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.

        West Nile virus

        West Nile virus (WNV), another mosquito-borne virus which is rapidly emerging in the United States, often produces subclinical infection or an acute viral syndrome, West Nile fever. Ina minority of infected people the infectioncauses neurological illness -l WNV encephalitis. CD8 + T cells can be demonstrated in the brains of individuals who have succumbed to WNV encephalitis.T cells likely play a role in protecting the host from neuroinvasion and once neuroinvasion has occurred, T cells may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. Studies are underway for detailed analysis of memory T cell responses in humans infected by WNV, including CTL responses and interferon gamma production by WNV-specific T cells using IFN-gamma ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining assays. In addition, we have established a murine model of WNV encephalitis to study the role of flavivirus cross-reactive T cells in protection from WNV illness as well as their role in disease pathogenesis.

        Heterologous immunity to flaviviruses

        Flaviviruses co-circulate in many parts of the world. Due to relatively conserved genomic sequences, the effect of pre-existing immunity to one flavivirus on host immune responses to a secondary flavivirus can vary. In the case of dengue viruses, secondary infection may lead to an increase in disease severity. Some human epidemiologic and animal model studies suggest that other combinations of flaviviruses may lead to protection from disease. My laboratory is investigating the role of pre-existent flavivirus cross-reactive T cell and antibody responses on epitope hierarchy, disease outcome and viral burden in murine models, including human HLA transgenic mice.

        Novel vaccines

        Novel vaccines, such as DNA vaccines and chimeric virus vaccines, may induce antibody and/or T cell memory in immunized individuals. My laboratory is actively involved in evaluating T cell responses to such novel vaccines in the hope of developing much needed first and second generation vaccines for the US and the developing world.



        Rotation Projects

        Sharone Green, M.D.

        Academic Role: Associate Professor

        Faculty Appointment(s) In:
        Medicine

        Other Affiliation(s):
        Center for Infectious Disease and Vaccine Research

        Potential Rotation Projects

        • Flavivirus-specific T lymphocytes -characterization of T lymphocytes (human or murine) with novel specificities for epitopes ofdengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis or West Nile viruses; functional characterization of T cell effector responses; quantitation of epitope-specific CD4 and/or CD8 T cells


        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Srikiatkhachorn A, Wichit S, Gibbons RV, Green S, Libraty DH, Endy TP, Ennis FA, Kalayanarooj S, Rothman AL. Dengue viral RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are associated with disease severity and preexisting dengue immune status. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51335.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Yoon IK, Getis A, Aldstadt J, Rothman AL, Tannitisupawong D, Koenraadt CJ, Fansiri T, Jones JW, Morrison AC, Jarman RG, Nisalak A, Mammen MP, Thammapalo S, Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV, Endy T, Pimgate C, Scott TW. Fine Scale Spatiotemporal Clustering of Dengue Virus Transmission in Children and Aedes aegypti in Rural Thai Villages. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jul; 6(7):e1730.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Shrestha B, Pinto AK, Green S, Bosch I, Diamond MS. CD8+ T cells use TRAIL to restrict West Nile virus pathogenesis by controlling infection in neurons. J Virol. 2012 Sep; 86(17):8937-48.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Yoon IK, Rothman AL, Tannitisupawong D, Srikiatkhachorn A, Jarman RG, Aldstadt J, Nisalak A, Mammen MP, Thammapalo S, Green S, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV, Getis A, Endy T, Jones JW, Koenraadt CJ, Morrison AC, Fansiri T, Pimgate C, Scott TW. Under-Recognized Mildly Symptomatic Viremic Dengue Virus Infections in Rural Thai Schools and Villages. J Infect Dis. 2012 May 21.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Kurane I, Matsutani T, Suzuki R, Takasaki T, Kalayanarooj S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. T-cell responses to dengue virus in humans. Trop Med Health. 2011 Dec; 39(4 Suppl):45-51.
          View in: PubMed
        6. Mathew A, West K, Kalayanarooj S, Gibbons RV, Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S, Libraty D, Jaiswal S, Rothman AL. B-cell responses during primary and secondary dengue virus infections in humans. J Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 204(10):1514-22.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Bigham AW, Buckingham KJ, Husain S, Emond MJ, Bofferding KM, Gildersleeve H, Rutherford A, Astakhova NM, Perelygin AA, Busch MP, Murray KO, Sejvar JJ, Green S, Kriesel J, Brinton MA, Bamshad M. Host genetic risk factors for West Nile virus infection and disease progression. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24745.
          View in: PubMed
        8. Friberg H, Bashyam H, Toyosaki-Maeda T, Potts JA, Greenough T, Kalayanarooj S, Gibbons RV, Nisalak A, Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S, Stephens HA, Rothman AL, Mathew A. Cross-Reactivity and Expansion of Dengue-Specific T cells During Acute Primary and Secondary Infections in Humans. Sci Rep. 2011; 1:51.
          View in: PubMed
        9. Endy TP, Anderson KB, Nisalak A, Yoon IK, Green S, Rothman AL, Thomas SJ, Jarman RG, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV. Determinants of inapparent and symptomatic dengue infection in a prospective study of primary school children in kamphaeng phet, Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011; 5(3):e975.
          View in: PubMed
        10. Stewart BS, Demarest VL, Wong SJ, Green S, Bernard KA. Persistence of virus-specific immune responses in the central nervous system of mice after West Nile virus infection. BMC Immunol. 2011; 12:6.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Smith HL, Monath TP, Pazoles P, Rothman AL, Casey DM, Terajima M, Ennis FA, Guirakhoo F, Green S. Development of Antigen-Specific Memory CD8+ T Cells Following Live-Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb; 203(4):513-22.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Green S, Ennis FA, Mathew A. Long term recall of memory CD8 T cells in mice to first and third generation smallpox vaccines. Vaccine. 2011 Feb 11; 29(8):1666-76.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Potts JA, Thomas SJ, Srikiatkhachorn A, Supradish PO, Li W, Nisalak A, Nimmannitya S, Endy TP, Libraty DH, Gibbons RV, Green S, Rothman AL, Kalayanarooj S. Classification of dengue illness based on readily available laboratory data. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Oct; 83(4):781-8.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Potts JA, Gibbons RV, Rothman AL, Srikiatkhachorn A, Thomas SJ, Supradish PO, Lemon SC, Libraty DH, Green S, Kalayanarooj S. Prediction of dengue disease severity among pediatric Thai patients using early clinical laboratory indicators. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010; 4(8):e769.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Singh R, Rothman AL, Potts J, Guirakhoo F, Ennis FA, Green S. Sequential immunization with heterologous chimeric flaviviruses induces broad-spectrum cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15; 202(2):223-33.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Trobaugh DW, Yang L, Ennis FA, Green S. Altered effector functions of virus-specific and virus cross-reactive CD8+ T cells in mice immunized with related flaviviruses. Eur J Immunol. 2010 May; 40(5):1315-27.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Friberg H, Burns L, Woda M, Kalayanarooj S, Endy TP, Stephens HA, Green S, Rothman AL, Mathew A. Memory CD8(+) T cells from naturally acquired primary dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive. Immunol Cell Biol. 2011 Jan; 89(1):122-9.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Srikiatkhachorn A, Gibbons RV, Green S, Libraty DH, Thomas SJ, Endy TP, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Nimmannitaya S, Kalayanarooj S. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: the sensitivity and specificity of the world health organization definition for identification of severe cases of dengue in Thailand, 1994-2005. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 15; 50(8):1135-43.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Fried JR, Gibbons RV, Kalayanarooj S, Thomas SJ, Srikiatkhachorn A, Yoon IK, Jarman RG, Green S, Rothman AL, Cummings DA. Serotype-specific differences in the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever: an analysis of data collected in Bangkok, Thailand from 1994 to 2006. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010; 4(3):e617.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Srikiatkhachorn A, Green S. Markers of dengue disease severity. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010; 338:67-82.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Vejbaesya S, Luangtrakool P, Luangtrakool K, Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn DW, Endy TP, Mammen MP, Green S, Libraty DH, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Stephens HA. TNF and LTA gene, allele, and extended HLA haplotype associations with severe dengue virus infection in ethnic Thais. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 15; 199(10):1442-8.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Mammen MP, Pimgate C, Koenraadt CJ, Rothman AL, Aldstadt J, Nisalak A, Jarman RG, Jones JW, Srikiatkhachorn A, Ypil-Butac CA, Getis A, Thammapalo S, Morrison AC, Libraty DH, Green S, Scott TW. Spatial and temporal clustering of dengue virus transmission in Thai villages. PLoS Med. 2008 Nov 4; 5(11):e205.
          View in: PubMed
        23. Mathew A, O'Bryan J, Marshall W, Kotwal GJ, Terajima M, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. Robust intrapulmonary CD8 T cell responses and protection with an attenuated N1L deleted vaccinia virus. PLoS One. 2008; 3(10):e3323.
          View in: PubMed
        24. Pavlin JA, Hickey AC, Ulbrandt N, Chan YP, Endy TP, Boukhvalova MS, Chunsuttiwat S, Nisalak A, Libraty DH, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Jarman R, Gibbons RV, Broder CC. Human metapneumovirus reinfection among children in Thailand determined by ELISA using purified soluble fusion protein. J Infect Dis. 2008 Sep 15; 198(6):836-42.
          View in: PubMed
        25. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 23; 26(31):3947-57.
          View in: PubMed
        26. Putnak JR, de la Barrera R, Burgess T, Pardo J, Dessy F, Gheysen D, Lobet Y, Green S, Endy TP, Thomas SJ, Eckels KH, Innis BL, Sun W. Comparative evaluation of three assays for measurement of dengue virus neutralizing antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Jul; 79(1):115-22.
          View in: PubMed
        27. Kennedy JS, Co M, Green S, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill MA, Adams JP, Rothman AL, Yu Q, Johnson-Leva R, Pal R, Wang S, Lu S, Markham P. The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Aug 18; 26(35):4420-4.
          View in: PubMed
        28. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Feb 20; 26(8):1098-110.
          View in: PubMed
        29. Libraty DH, Myint KS, Murray CK, Gibbons RV, Mammen MP, Endy TP, Li W, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Hospenthal DR, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. A comparative study of leptospirosis and dengue in Thai children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007; 1(3):e111.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Anderson KB, Chunsuttiwat S, Nisalak A, Mammen MP, Libraty DH, Rothman AL, Green S, Vaughn DW, Ennis FA, Endy TP. Burden of symptomatic dengue infection in children at primary school in Thailand: a prospective study. Lancet. 2007 Apr 28; 369(9571):1452-9.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Srikiatkhachorn A, Krautrachue A, Ratanaprakarn W, Wongtapradit L, Nithipanya N, Kalayanarooj S, Nisalak A, Thomas SJ, Gibbons RV, Mammen MP, Libraty DH, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Green S. Natural history of plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic fever: a serial ultrasonographic study. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Apr; 26(4):283-90; discussion 291-2.
          View in: PubMed
        32. Laoprasopwattana K, Libraty DH, Endy TP, Nisalak A, Chunsuttiwat S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Green S. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by plasma obtained before secondary dengue virus infections: potential involvement in early control of viral replication. J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 15; 195(8):1108-16.
          View in: PubMed
        33. Kalayanarooj S, Gibbons RV, Vaughn D, Green S, Nisalak A, Jarman RG, Mammen MP, Perng GC. Blood group AB is associated with increased risk for severe dengue disease in secondary infections. J Infect Dis. 2007 Apr 1; 195(7):1014-7.
          View in: PubMed
        34. Srikiatkhachorn A, Ajariyakhajorn C, Endy TP, Kalayanarooj S, Libraty DH, Green S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Virus-induced decline in soluble vascular endothelial growth receptor 2 is associated with plasma leakage in dengue hemorrhagic Fever. J Virol. 2007 Feb; 81(4):1592-600.
          View in: PubMed
        35. Green S, Rothman A. Immunopathological mechanisms in dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Oct; 19(5):429-36.
          View in: PubMed
        36. Myint KS, Endy TP, Mongkolsirichaikul D, Manomuth C, Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Libraty DH. Cellular immune activation in children with acute dengue virus infections is modulated by apoptosis. J Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1; 194(5):600-7.
          View in: PubMed
        37. Monath TP, Liu J, Kanesa-Thasan N, Myers GA, Nichols R, Deary A, McCarthy K, Johnson C, Ermak T, Shin S, Arroyo J, Guirakhoo F, Kennedy JS, Ennis FA, Green S, Bedford P. A live, attenuated recombinant West Nile virus vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 25; 103(17):6694-9.
          View in: PubMed
        38. Bashyam HS, Green S, Rothman AL. Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells display quantitative and qualitative differences in their response to variant epitopes of heterologous viral serotypes. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):2817-24.
          View in: PubMed
        39. Rothman AL, Green S, Libraty DH, Ennis FA. Dengue: translating scientific progress into workable solutions. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2005 Oct; 3(5):689-92.
          View in: PubMed
        40. Raekiansyah M, Pramesyanti A, Bela B, Kosasih H, Ma'roef CN, Tobing SY, Rudiman PI, Alisjahbana B, Endi TP, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Rothman AL, Sudiro TM. Genetic variations and relationship among dengue virus type 3 strains isolated from patients with mild or severe form of dengue disease in Indonesia and Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005 Sep; 36(5):1187-97.
          View in: PubMed
        41. Laoprasopwattana K, Libraty DH, Endy TP, Nisalak A, Chunsuttiwat S, Vaughn DW, Reed G, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Green S. Dengue Virus (DV) enhancing antibody activity in preillness plasma does not predict subsequent disease severity or viremia in secondary DV infection. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1; 192(3):510-9.
          View in: PubMed
        42. Mathew A, Terajima M, West K, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Kennedy JS. Identification of murine poxvirus-specific CD8+ CTL epitopes with distinct functional profiles. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2212-9.
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        43. Endy TP, Nisalak A, Chunsuttitwat S, Vaughn DW, Green S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL, Libraty DH. Relationship of preexisting dengue virus (DV) neutralizing antibody levels to viremia and severity of disease in a prospective cohort study of DV infection in Thailand. J Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 15; 189(6):990-1000.
          View in: PubMed
        44. Pichyangkul S, Endy TP, Kalayanarooj S, Nisalak A, Yongvanitchit K, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Libraty DH. A blunted blood plasmacytoid dendritic cell response to an acute systemic viral infection is associated with increased disease severity. J Immunol. 2003 Nov 15; 171(10):5571-8.
          View in: PubMed
        45. Stephens HA, Klaythong R, Sirikong M, Vaughn DW, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Endy TP, Libraty DH, Nisalak A, Innis BL, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Chandanayingyong D. HLA-A and -B allele associations with secondary dengue virus infections correlate with disease severity and the infecting viral serotype in ethnic Thais. Tissue Antigens. 2002 Oct; 60(4):309-18.
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        46. Libraty DH, Young PR, Pickering D, Endy TP, Kalayanarooj S, Green S, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. High circulating levels of the dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 early in dengue illness correlate with the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 15; 186(8):1165-8.
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        47. Raengsakulrach B, Nisalak A, Maneekarn N, Yenchitsomanus PT, Limsomwong C, Jairungsri A, Thirawuth V, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Suntayakorn S, Sittisombut N, Malasit P, Vaughn D. Comparison of four reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedures for the detection of dengue virus in clinical specimens. J Virol Methods. 2002 Sep; 105(2):219-32.
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        48. Endy TP, Chunsuttiwat S, Nisalak A, Libraty DH, Green S, Rothman AL, Vaughn DW, Ennis FA. Epidemiology of inapparent and symptomatic acute dengue virus infection: a prospective study of primary school children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jul 1; 156(1):40-51.
          View in: PubMed
        49. Endy TP, Nisalak A, Chunsuttiwat S, Libraty DH, Green S, Rothman AL, Vaughn DW, Ennis FA. Spatial and temporal circulation of dengue virus serotypes: a prospective study of primary school children in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jul 1; 156(1):52-9.
          View in: PubMed
        50. Zivna I, Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Stephens HA, Chandanayingyong D, Nisalak A, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. T cell responses to an HLA-B*07-restricted epitope on the dengue NS3 protein correlate with disease severity. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 1; 168(11):5959-65.
          View in: PubMed
        51. Mangada MM, Endy TP, Nisalak A, Chunsuttiwat S, Vaughn DW, Libraty DH, Green S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Dengue-specific T cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained prior to secondary dengue virus infections in Thai schoolchildren. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jun 15; 185(12):1697-703.
          View in: PubMed
        52. Gagnon SJ, Mori M, Kurane I, Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Suntayakorn S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Cytokine gene expression and protein production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with acute dengue virus infections. J Med Virol. 2002 May; 67(1):41-6.
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        53. Libraty DH, Endy TP, Kalayanarooj S, Chansiriwongs W, Nisalak A, Green S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Assessment of body fluid compartment volumes by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy in children with dengue. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 May-Jun; 96(3):295-9.
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        54. Libraty DH, Endy TP, Houng HS, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Suntayakorn S, Chansiriwongs W, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Differing influences of virus burden and immune activation on disease severity in secondary dengue-3 virus infections. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 1; 185(9):1213-21.
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        55. Krishnamurti C, Kalayanarooj S, Cutting MA, Peat RA, Rothwell SW, Reid TJ, Green S, Nisalak A, Endy TP, Vaughn DW, Nimmannitya S, Innis BL. Mechanisms of hemorrhage in dengue without circulatory collapse. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Dec; 65(6):840-7.
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        56. Sudiro TM, Zivny J, Ishiko H, Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Nisalak A, Norman JE, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Analysis of plasma viral RNA levels during acute dengue virus infection using quantitative competitor reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 2001 Jan; 63(1):29-34.
          View in: PubMed
        57. Gagnon SJ, Leporati A, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn DW, Stephens HA, Suntayakorn S, Kurane I, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. T cell receptor Vbeta gene usage in Thai children with dengue virus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001 Jan-Feb; 64(1-2):41-8.
          View in: PubMed
        58. Vaughn DW, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Innis BL, Nimmannitya S, Suntayakorn S, Endy TP, Raengsakulrach B, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Nisalak A. Dengue viremia titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):2-9.
          View in: PubMed
        59. Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Nimmannitya S, Suntayakorn S, Nisalak A, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. Elevated plasma interleukin-10 levels in acute dengue correlate with disease severity. J Med Virol. 1999 Nov; 59(3):329-34.
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        60. Green S, Pichyangkul S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Kurane I, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. Early CD69 expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with dengue hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis. 1999 Nov; 180(5):1429-35.
          View in: PubMed
        61. Mathew A, Kurane I, Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Suntayakorn S, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Impaired T cell proliferation in acute dengue infection. J Immunol. 1999 May 1; 162(9):5609-15.
          View in: PubMed
        62. Green S, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Nimmannitya S, Suntayakorn S, Nisalak A, Lew R, Innis BL, Kurane I, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. Early immune activation in acute dengue illness is related to development of plasma leakage and disease severity. J Infect Dis. 1999 Apr; 179(4):755-62.
          View in: PubMed
        63. Sudiro TM, Ishiko H, Rothman AL, Kershaw DE, Green S, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Ennis FA. Microplate-reverse hybridization method to determine dengue virus serotype. J Virol Methods. 1998 Aug; 73(2):229-35.
          View in: PubMed
        64. Mathew A, Kurane I, Green S, Stephens HA, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Suntayakorn S, Chandanayingyong D, Ennis FA, Rothman AL. Predominance of HLA-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to serotype-cross-reactive epitopes on nonstructural proteins following natural secondary dengue virus infection. J Virol. 1998 May; 72(5):3999-4004.
          View in: PubMed
        65. Rothman AL, Yamada Y, Jameson J, Cruz J, West K, Green S, Ennis FA. Assessment of human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte responses in experimental viral vaccine studies. Dev Biol Stand. 1998; 95:95-104.
          View in: PubMed
        66. Rico-Hesse R, Harrison LM, Nisalak A, Vaughn DW, Kalayanarooj S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA. Molecular evolution of dengue type 2 virus in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998 Jan; 58(1):96-101.
          View in: PubMed
        67. Green S, Kurane I, Pincus S, Paoletti E, Ennis FA. Recognition of dengue virus NS1-NS2a proteins by human CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte clones. Virology. 1997 Aug 4; 234(2):383-6.
          View in: PubMed
        68. Vaughn DW, Green S, Kalayanarooj S, Innis BL, Nimmannitya S, Suntayakorn S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Nisalak A. Dengue in the early febrile phase: viremia and antibody responses. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):322-30.
          View in: PubMed
        69. Kalayanarooj S, Vaughn DW, Nimmannitya S, Green S, Suntayakorn S, Kunentrasai N, Viramitrachai W, Ratanachu-eke S, Kiatpolpoj S, Innis BL, Rothman AL, Nisalak A, Ennis FA. Early clinical and laboratory indicators of acute dengue illness. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):313-21.
          View in: PubMed
        70. Sudiro TM, Ishiko H, Green S, Vaughn DW, Nisalak A, Kalayanarooj S, Rothman AL, Raengsakulrach B, Janus J, Kurane I, Ennis FA. Rapid diagnosis of dengue viremia by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using 3'-noncoding region universal primers. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997 Apr; 56(4):424-9.
          View in: PubMed
        71. Kurane I, Rothman AL, Livingston PG, Green S, Gagnon SJ, Janus J, Innis BL, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Ennis FA. Immunopathologic mechanisms of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Arch Virol Suppl. 1994; 9:59-64.
          View in: PubMed
        72. Green S, Kurane I, Edelman R, Tacket CO, Eckels KH, Vaughn DW, Hoke CH, Ennis FA. Dengue virus-specific human CD4+ T-lymphocyte responses in a recipient of an experimental live-attenuated dengue virus type 1 vaccine: bulk culture proliferation, clonal analysis, and precursor frequency determination. J Virol. 1993 Oct; 67(10):5962-7.
          View in: PubMed
        73. Kobayashi K, Takeda A, Green S, Tuazon CU, Ennis FA. Direct detection of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) immune complexes in the sera of HIV-1-infected persons. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep; 168(3):729-32.
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