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    Joseph R DiFranza MD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone774-442-5658
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
      DepartmentPsychiatry

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Biography

        Joseph DiFranza, MD, Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health, is a recognized national expert on adolescent tobacco utilization. Since 1980, Dr. DiFranza has been conducting research on the topic of tobacco. His research covers a range of tobacco-related topics including the onset of nicotine dependence, the effects of tobacco advertising, tobacco industry public relations programs, tobacco-related complications of pregnancy, school smoking cessation programs, and the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. Dr. DiFranza is recognized nationally for his contribution to the efforts to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children.

        Click here to view Dr. Difranza's curriculum vitae

        CurrentPositions

        Longitudinal Preceptor Program

        Education

        University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, Doctor of Medicine, 1981
        University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Bachelor of Science, Summa Cum Laude, Psychology 1976
        Honor Societies: Phi Beta Kappa, Kappa Phi
        University of Massachusetts Medical Center Family Practice Residency Program, Worcester, 1981 1984
        Fellowship in faculty development, University of North Carolina , 1984 1985
        Board Certified by the American Board of Family Medicine 1984, recertified 1990-1997, 1996-2003, 2004-

        Affiliations

        Tobacco Control Resource Center, Board of Directors (1985-present)
        American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research Tobacco Consortium 2001

        Scholarly Activity

        National Institute on Drug Abuse. “The Transition to Nicotine Dependence.” October 2001- September 2006. $1.8 million. 5 RO1 DA14666-01

        Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: The Synar Amendment: Past, Present and Future. July 1, 2001- June 30, 2004. $121,754 #0456644



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Huang W, Difranza JR, Kennedy DN, Zhang N, Ziedonis D, Ursprung S, King JA. Progressive levels of physical dependence to tobacco coincide with changes in the anterior cingulum bundle microstructure. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67837.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Schuck K, Kleinjan M, Otten R, Engels RC, Difranza JR. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure? J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 27(6):533-40.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Martin SA, Celli BR, Difranza JR, Krinzman SJ, Clarke JG, Beam H, Howard S, Foster M, Goldberg RJ. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban. BMC Pulm Med. 2012; 12(1):64.
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        4. Difranza JR, Masaquel A, Barrett AM, Colosia AD, Mahadevia PJ. Systematic literature review assessing tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for serious respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children. BMC Pediatr. 2012; 12:81.
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        5. Difranza JR, Savageau JA, Wellman RJ. A comparison of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Addict Behav. 2012 Jul; 37(7):856-61.
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        6. Difranza JR, Ursprung WW, Biller L. The developmental sequence of tobacco withdrawal symptoms of wanting, craving and needing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Jan; 100(3):494-7.
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        7. Pbert L, Druker S, Difranza JR, Gorak D, Reed G, Magner R, Sheetz AH, Osganian S. Effectiveness of a school nurse-delivered smoking-cessation intervention for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov; 128(5):926-36.
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        8. Difranza JR. Which interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors can be expected to reduce smoking? Tob Control. 2012 Jul; 21(4):436-42.
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        9. Difranza JR. Research opportunities concerning youth and the family smoking prevention and tobacco control act. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jan; 14(1):54-61.
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        10. Difranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau J, Ursprung WW. An evaluation of a clinical approach to staging tobacco addiction. J Pediatr. 2011 Dec; 159(6):999-1003.e1.
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        11. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA. Does progression through the stages of physical addiction indicate increasing overall addiction to tobacco? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Feb; 219(3):815-22.
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        12. Difranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau JA, Ursprung WW. The assessment of tobacco dependence in young users of smokeless tobacco. Tob Control. 2012 Sep; 21(5):471-6.
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        13. King J, Huang W, Chen W, Heffernan M, Shields J, Rane P, Bircher R, Difranza JR. A comparison of brain and behavioral effects of varenicline and nicotine in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30; 223(1):42-7.
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        14. Ursprung WW, Morello P, Gershenson B, Difranza JR. Development of a measure of the latency to needing a cigarette. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Apr; 48(4):338-43.
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        15. Difranza JR. Who are you going to believe? Adolescents and nicotine addiction. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jan; 48(1):1-2.
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        16. Soteriades ES, Spanoudis G, Talias MA, Warren CW, Difranza JR. Children's loss of autonomy over smoking: the global youth tobacco survey. Tob Control. 2011 May; 20(3):201-6.
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        17. Difranza JR. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method. Harm Reduct J. 2010; 7:26.
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        18. DiFranza JR. Commentary on Fidler & West (2010): Curtailing tobacco sales to minors. Addiction. 2010 Nov; 105(11):1989-90.
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        19. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW. A systematic review of the International Classification of Diseases criteria for the diagnosis of tobacco dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 Sep; 35(9):805-10.
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        20. Doubeni CA, Reed G, Difranza JR. Early course of nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun; 125(6):1127-33.
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        21. Difranza J. A new approach to the diagnosis of tobacco addiction. Addiction. 2010 Mar; 105(3):381-2.
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        22. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW, Lauzon B, Bancej C, Wellman RJ, Ziedonis D, Kim SS, Gervais A, Meltzer B, McKay CE, O'Loughlin J, Okoli CT, Fortuna LR, Tremblay M. A systematic review of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 May; 35(5):373-82.
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        23. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Ursprung WW, Sabiston C. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale. Psychol Addict Behav. 2009 Dec; 23(4):656-65.
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        24. Ursprung WW, DiFranza JR. The loss of autonomy over smoking in relation to lifetime cigarette consumption. Addict Behav. 2010 Jan; 35(1):14-8.
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        25. DiFranza J. Tobacco dependence in light smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Sep; 11(9):1122-3; author reply 1124-5.
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        26. O'Loughlin J, Karp I, Koulis T, Paradis G, Difranza J. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 1; 170(5):585-97.
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        27. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW, Carson A. New insights into the compulsion to use tobacco from an adolescent case-series. J Adolesc. 2010 Feb; 33(1):209-14.
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        28. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher KE. Enforcement of underage sales laws as a predictor of daily smoking among adolescents: a national study. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9:107.
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        29. Tutt D, Bauer L, Difranza J. Restricting the retail supply of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Policy. 2009 Apr; 30(1):68-82.
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        30. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, DiFranza JR. Perceived accessibility of cigarettes among youth: a prospective cohort study. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Mar; 36(3):239-42.
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        31. Savageau JA, Mowery PD, DiFranza JR. Symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes with non-daily use. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jan; 6(1):25-35.
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        32. Ursprung WW, DiFranza SM, Costa AD, DiFranza JR. Might expectations explain early self-reported symptoms of nicotine dependence? Addict Behav. 2009 Feb; 34(2):227-31.
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        33. Difranza J. Smoking is not a mental illness. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2008 Aug; 2(4):411-4.
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        34. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, Difranza JR. Perceived accessibility as a predictor of youth smoking. Ann Fam Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 6(4):323-30.
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        35. DiFranza JR, Riggs N, Ann Pentz M. Time to re-examine old definitions of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1109-11.
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        36. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW. The latency to the onset of nicotine withdrawal: a test of the sensitization-homeostasis theory. Addict Behav. 2008 Sep; 33(9):1148-53.
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        37. DiFranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. Sci Am. 2008 May; 298(5):82-7.
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        38. Pbert L, Flint AJ, Fletcher KE, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza JR. Effect of a pediatric practice-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention for adolescents: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e738-47.
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        39. Difranza JR. Nicotine withdrawal in subthreshold smokers. Addiction. 2008 Mar; 103(3):511-2; author reply 512-3.
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        40. DiFranza JR, Richmond JB. Let the children be heard: lessons from studies of the early onset of tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):623-4.
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        41. Wellman R, McMillen R, Difranza J. Assessing college students' autonomy over smoking with the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Mar-Apr; 56(5):549-53.
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        42. Li Z, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Kulkarni P, King JA. Imaging brain activation in nicotine-sensitized rats. Brain Res. 2008 Mar 14; 1199:91-9.
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        43. Scragg R, Wellman RJ, Laugesen M, DiFranza JR. Diminished autonomy over tobacco can appear with the first cigarettes. Addict Behav. 2008 May; 33(5):689-98.
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        44. Difranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. J Fam Pract. 2007 Dec; 56(12):1017-22.
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        45. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Pbert L, O'Loughlin J, McNeill AD, Ockene JK, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Wood C, Dussault G, Wellman RJ. Susceptibility to nicotine dependence: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth 2 study. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):e974-83.
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        46. Laugesen M, Scragg R, Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. Prev Med. 2007 Dec; 45(6):454-9.
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        47. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, O'Loughlin J, Pbert L, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Hazelton J, Friedman K, Dussault G, Wood C, Wellman RJ. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth-2 study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Jul; 161(7):704-10.
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        48. Kozlowski LT, Giovino GA, Edwards B, Difranza J, Foulds J, Hurt R, Niaura R, Sachs DP, Selby P, Dollar KM, Bowen D, Cummings KM, Counts M, Fox B, Sweanor D, Ahern F. Advice on using over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy-patch, gum, or lozenge-to quit smoking. Addict Behav. 2007 Oct; 32(10):2140-50.
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        49. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Sensitization to nicotine: how the animal literature might inform future human research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):9-20.
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        50. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ. Early dating and smoking initiation: Some thoughts about a common cause. Addiction. 2006 Dec; 101(12):1682-3.
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        51. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec; 160(12):1285-96.
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        52. Fernando WW, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Oct; 188(3):335-42.
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        53. Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint AJ, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza J. Smoking prevention and cessation intervention delivery by pediatric providers, as assessed with patient exit interviews. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3):e810-24.
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        54. Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Difranza JR. A comparison of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in adult smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):575-80.
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        55. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun; 117(6):e1237-48.
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        56. DiFranza JR. Best practices for enforcing state laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 Nov-Dec; 11(6):559-65.
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        57. Karp I, O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Hanley J, Difranza J. Smoking trajectories of adolescent novice smokers in a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Jul; 15(6):445-52.
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        58. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint A, Young MH, Druker S. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the hooked on nicotine checklist and the modified Fagerström tolerance questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2006 Mar; 31(3):486-95.
          View in: PubMed
        59. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J. The effect of abstinence on cigarette consumption upon the resumption of smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):711-6.
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        60. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Wood C. Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):717-21.
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        61. DiFranza JR, Dussault GF. The federal initiative to halt the sale of tobacco to children--the Synar Amendment, 1992-2000: lessons learned. Tob Control. 2005 Apr; 14(2):93-8.
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        62. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):9-26.
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        63. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Friedman K, Hazelton J. Measuring adults' loss of autonomy over nicotine use: the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):157-61.
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        64. O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Kim W, DiFranza J, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Wong S, Hanley J, Tyndale RF. Genetically decreased CYP2A6 and the risk of tobacco dependence: a prospective study of novice smokers. Tob Control. 2004 Dec; 13(4):422-8.
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        65. Wheeler KC, Fletcher KE, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. Screening adolescents for nicotine dependence: the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Sep; 35(3):225-30.
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        66. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Dussault GF. Short term patterns of early smoking acquisition. Tob Control. 2004 Sep; 13(3):251-7.
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        67. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Rigotti NA, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Trait anxiety and nicotine dependence in adolescents: a report from the DANDY study. Addict Behav. 2004 Jul; 29(5):911-9.
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        68. DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M. Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr; 113(4 Suppl):1007-15.
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        69. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Recollections and repercussions of the first inhaled cigarette. Addict Behav. 2004 Feb; 29(2):261-72.
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        70. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Preventing cancer by controlling youth tobacco use. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):261-7.
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        71. O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tyndale RF, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Clarke PB, Hanley J, Paradis G. Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Oct; 25(3):219-25.
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        72. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. Seasonality in onset of youth smoking parallels seasonality in cigarette sales. Tob Control. 2003 Sep; 12(3):339.
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        73. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR. Parent's socioeconomic status, adolescents' disposable income, and adolescents' smoking status in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003 Jul; 93(7):1155-60.
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        74. Pbert L, Moolchan ET, Muramoto M, Winickoff JP, Curry S, Lando H, Ossip-Klein D, Prokhorov AV, DiFranza J, Klein JD. The state of office-based interventions for youth tobacco use. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun; 111(6 Pt 1):e650-60.
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        75. DiFranza JR. Adolescents' acquisition of cigarettes through noncommercial sources. J Adolesc Health. 2003 May; 32(5):331-2; author reply 332.
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        76. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Nicolaou M. Symptoms of nicotine dependence and other predictors of student smoking at school: implications for school smoking policy. J Sch Health. 2003 Apr; 73(4):154-8.
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        77. Sargent JD, DiFranza JR. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003 Mar-Apr; 53(2):102-23.
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        78. DiFranza JR. A gadget can't fix what's wrong with the tobacco distribution system. J Public Health Policy. 2003; 24(3-4):269-73.
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        79. O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tarasuk J, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Paradis G, Tyndale RF, Clarke P, Hanley J. Assessment of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescents: a comparison of five indicators. Tob Control. 2002 Dec; 11(4):354-60.
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        80. DiFranza JR. Is it time to abandon youth access programmes? Tob Control. 2002 Sep; 11(3):282; author reply 283-4.
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        81. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Rigotti NA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study. Tob Control. 2002 Sep; 11(3):228-35.
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        82. DiFranza JR. Implications of the autonomy theory of nicotine dependence. MedGenMed. 2002 Aug 28; 4(3):8.
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        83. O'Loughlin J, Tarasuk J, Difranza J, Paradis G. Reliability of selected measures of nicotine dependence among adolescents. Ann Epidemiol. 2002 Jul; 12(5):353-62.
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        84. Difranza JR, Clark DM, Pollay RW. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention. Tob Induc Dis. 2002; 1(2):97-109.
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        85. O'Loughlin J, Kishchuk N, DiFranza J, Tremblay M, Paradis G. The hardest thing is the habit: a qualitative investigation of adolescent smokers' experience of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002 May; 4(2):201-9.
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        86. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the DANDY (Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youths) study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Apr; 156(4):397-403.
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        87. DiFranza JR, Coleman M. Sources of tobacco for youths in communities with strong enforcement of youth access laws. Tob Control. 2001 Dec; 10(4):323-8.
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        88. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Bouchard J. Is the standard compliance check protocol a valid measure of the accessibility of tobacco to underage smokers? Tob Control. 2001 Sep; 10(3):227-32.
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        89. DiFranza JR, Celebucki CC, Mowery PD. Measuring statewide merchant compliance with tobacco minimum age laws: the Massachusetts experience. Am J Public Health. 2001 Jul; 91(7):1124-5.
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        90. DiFranza JR. State and federal compliance with the Synar Amendment: federal fiscal year 1998. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001 May; 155(5):572-8.
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        91. DiFranza JR, Peck RM, Radecki TE, Savageau JA. What is the potential cost-effectiveness of enforcing a prohibition on the sale of tobacco to minors? Prev Med. 2001 Feb; 32(2):168-74.
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        92. DiFranza JR, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Ockene JK, Savageau JA, St Cyr D, Coleman M. Initial symptoms of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Tob Control. 2000 Sep; 9(3):313-9.
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        93. DiFranza JR. State and federal compliance with the Synar amendment: federal fiscal year 1997. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Sep; 154(9):936-42.
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        94. Difranza JR. Youth access: the baby and the bath water. Tob Control. 2000 Jun; 9(2):120-1.
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        95. Laugesen M, Scollo M, Sweanor D, Shiffman S, Gitchell J, Barnsley K, Jacobs M, Giovino GA, Glantz SA, Daynard RA, Connolly GN, Difranza JR. World's best practice in tobacco control. Tob Control. 2000 Jun; 9(2):228-36.
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        96. DiFranza JR, Coleman M, St Cyr D. A comparison of the advertising and accessibility of cigars, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and loose tobacco. Prev Med. 1999 Nov; 29(5):321-6.
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        97. DiFranza JR. Are the federal and state governments complying with the Synar Amendment? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Oct; 153(10):1089-97.
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        98. DiFranza JR, Librett JJ. State and federal revenues from tobacco consumed by minors. Am J Public Health. 1999 Jul; 89(7):1106-8.
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        99. DiFranza JR, Rigotti NA. Impediments to the enforcement of youth access laws. Tob Control. 1999; 8(2):152-5.
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        100. DiFranza JR, Celebucki CC, Seo HG. A model for the efficient and effective enforcement of tobacco sales laws. Am J Public Health. 1998 Jul; 88(7):1100-1.
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        101. Rigotti NA, DiFranza JR, Chang Y, Tisdale T, Kemp B, Singer DE. The effect of enforcing tobacco-sales laws on adolescents' access to tobacco and smoking behavior. N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 9; 337(15):1044-51.
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        102. DiFranza JR, Lew RA. Morbidity and mortality in children associated with the use of tobacco products by other people. Pediatrics. 1996 Apr; 97(4):560-8.
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        103. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Aisquith BF. Youth access to tobacco: the effects of age, gender, vending machine locks, and "it's the law" programs. Am J Public Health. 1996 Feb; 86(2):221-4.
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        104. DiFranza JR, Godshall WT. Tobacco industry efforts hindering enforcement of the ban on tobacco sales to minors: actions speak louder than words. Tob Control. 1996; 5(2):127-31.
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        105. DiFranza JR. The AMA, tobacco, and the public health. JAMA. 1996 Jan 24-31; 275(4):276-7; author reply 278-9.
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        106. Tye J, Altman DG, DiFranza JR. Marketing adolescent tobacco addiction. Md Med J. 1995 Oct; 44(10):767-73.
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        107. DiFranza JR, Lew RA. Effect of maternal cigarette smoking on pregnancy complications and sudden infant death syndrome. J Fam Pract. 1995 Apr; 40(4):385-94.
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        108. DiFranza J. Youth and tobacco. N C Med J. 1992 Oct; 53(10):524.
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        109. DiFranza JR, Brown LJ. The Tobacco Institute's "It's the Law" campaign: has it halted illegal sales of tobacco to children? Am J Public Health. 1992 Sep; 82(9):1271-3.
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        110. DiFranza JR. Preventing teenage tobacco addiction. J Fam Pract. 1992 Jun; 34(6):753-6.
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        111. DiFranza JR, McAfee T. The Tobacco Institute: helping youth say "yes" to tobacco. J Fam Pract. 1992 Jun; 34(6):694-6.
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        112. Brown LJ, DiFranza JR. Pharmacy promotion of tobacco use among children in Massachusetts. Am Pharm. 1992 May; NS32(5):45-8.
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        113. DiFranza JR, Brown LJ. Women's intuition. J Fam Pract. 1992 Mar; 34(3):264.
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        114. DiFranza JR, Richards JW, Paulman PM, Wolf-Gillespie N, Fletcher C, Jaffe RD, Murray D. RJR Nabisco's cartoon camel promotes camel cigarettes to children. JAMA. 1991 Dec 11; 266(22):3149-53.
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        115. DiFranza JR, Tye JB. Who profits from tobacco sales to children? JAMA. 1990 May 23-30; 263(20):2784-7.
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        116. DiFranza JR, Guerrera MP. Alcoholism and smoking. J Stud Alcohol. 1990 Mar; 51(2):130-5.
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        117. DiFranza JR. School tobacco policy: a medical perspective. J Sch Health. 1989 Nov; 59(9):398-400.
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        118. DiFranza JR, Guerrera MP. Hard-core smokers. JAMA. 1989 May 12; 261(18):2634-5.
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        119. DiFranza JR, Moser BE, Ockene JK. Smoking cessation counseling by family physicians. J Fam Pract. 1988 Apr; 26(4):377, 380-5.
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        120. DiFranza JR, Norwood BD, Garner DW, Tye JB. Legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco. JAMA. 1987 Jun 26; 257(24):3387-9.
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        121. DiFranza JR, Winters TH, Goldberg RJ, Cirillo L, Biliouris T. The relationship of smoking to motor vehicle accidents and traffic violations. N Y State J Med. 1986 Sep; 86(9):464-7.
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        122. DiFranza JR, Winters TH. Smoking and drunk driving. N Engl J Med. 1985 Nov 28; 313(22):1421-2.
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        123. Winters TH, DiFranza JR. Passive smoking: a public health problem. Public Health Rev. 1985; 13(3-4):309-23.
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