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    Last Name

    Stephen J Glick PhD

    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    AddressCenter for Devices and Radiological Health
    10903 New Hampshire Ave, Bldg 62 Rm 3108
    Silver Spring MD 20993
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
      DivisionNuclear Medicine

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology


        Biographic Information


        1991, Ph.D., Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute,

        1988, M.S., Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute,

        1982, B.S., Electrical Engineering, University of Vermont

        Professional Experience:

        2009 - present, Professor, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA

        2009 - present, Professor, Graduate Sciences of Biomedical Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA

        2001-2009, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA

        1997-2001, Associate Professor, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worceseter, MA

        1991-1997, Assistant Professor, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

        1986-1991, Research Associate, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.

        1985-86, Research Assistant, Department of Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA.

        Current Research Interests

        Photo of Stephen Glick Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) Imaging Systems

        • Monte Carlo modeling of PET systems
        • Optimization of PET systems
        • 3D tomographic reconstruction methods for PET
        • Time-of-flight PET
        • Evaluation of image quality

        Volumetric X-ray Imaging of the Breast

        • Flat-panel, cone-beam CT breast imaging
        • Breast tomosynthesis
        • Optimization of breast imaging systems

        Current Grant Funding

        Title: "Feasibility of CT Mammography Using Flat-Panel Detectors" – NIH/NIBIB – EB02133 ,

        Detection of lesions in planar mammograms is a difficult task, predominantly due to the masking effect of superimposed parenchymal breast patterns. Tomographic imaging can provide the radiologist with image slices through the three-dimensional (3D) breast, possibly reducing this masking effect. The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the feasibility of using an amorphous silicon, flat-panel imager for volumetric computed tomography (CT) of the breast. Our hypothesis is that dedicated CT mammography using state-of-the-art digital detectors can provide high quality images and three-dimensional visualization of breast tissue, with a radiation dose approximately equivalent to that given in screening mammography. We propose to investigate the characteristics of such a system by integrating a commercial prototype, flat-panel imager, with an optical bench plate containing precision rotational and translational stages. This would allow the acquisition of projection images by rotating phantoms in angular steps over 360o. We also propose to theoretically investigate optimal CT mammography system configurations using mathematical models of signal and noise propagation through the flat-panel detector, and realistic models of the lesion detection task in breast imaging. Design and acquisition parameters such as tomographic sampling requirements, imaging geometry, x-ray converter characteristics, and x-ray energy spectrum incident on the breast will be investigated. Previous reports have suggested great potential for tomographic breast imaging. To evaluate improvements in tomographic mammography, if any, we plan to compare lesion detection accuracy using human observer studies and simulated images generated with planar mammography, tomosynthesis, and CT mammography. An important component of these observer studies will be the use of realistic models for lesions and breast tissue. These models will be determined based on the statistical characterization of surgically removed lesion and breast tissue

        Title: "Iterative Reconstruction for Breast Tomosynthesis" NIH/NCI - CA102758

        The detection of lesions in conventional mammography is a difficult task, predominantly due to the masking effect of superimposed parenchymal breast patterns. Limited angle, tomographic mammography, also referred to as breast tomosynthesis, is a technique that has been proposed to reduce this masking effect, by providing the radiologist with tomographic image slices through the breast. The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the use of statistically based iterative reconstruction (IR) methods for breast tomosynthesis. Statistical IR methods have a number of potential advantages over some previously proposed tomosynthesis methods including; 1) a more accurate modeling of the noise in the data, 2) the capability for modeling the physics of x-ray transport, thus providing an integrated approach for compensation of scatter and detector blur, and 3) the capability of incorporating a priori  information on the object to be reconstructed. Our hypothesis is that breast tomosynthesis using statistical IR methods can provide improved detection of malignant lesions as compared to backprojection tomosynthesis, as well as to conventional two-view digital mammography. To test this hypothesis, human observer psychophysical studies will be performed comparing conventional two-view digital mammography and tomosynthesis. We also propose to investigate a number of issues related to the acquisition process of breast tomosynthesis including; 1) alternative acquisition geometries, 2) the impact of varying levels of breast compression, 3) the impact of scatter, and 4) the optimal anti-scatter grid. Evaluation and optimization of different imaging system designs and acquisition processes will be conducted by evaluating lesion detection accuracy using realistically simulated tomosynthesis breast images.

        Post Docs

        Posted: 04/11/06

        A postdoctoral fellowship is available within the Medical Physics group atthe University of Massachusetts Medical School, Department of Radiology. The Medical Physics group consists of physicists, engineers, and mathematicians,working on medical imaging problems. The successful candidate will work onprojects related to x-ray tomosynthesis and CT, primarily focused on breast imaging.

        Candidates must have a doctoral degree in medical physics, physics, engineering or computer science. Proven expertise in computer programming (C and C++) is essential as is familiarity with Unix and using a large computer cluster. Experience with digital radiographicimaging systems, x-ray imaging experiments, mathematics through linear algebra,digital signal processing, and tomographic image reconstruction is also essential.

        This position requires excellent communication skills with a focus on scientificwriting and presenting research at conferences. The position carries a minimum two-year commitment, and promotion to junior faculty is possible.

        To apply, send a letter of application, a curriculum vitae, a list of graduatecourses, and names of three references to: Stephen Glick, Ph.D., University ofMassachusetts Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, 55 Lake Avenue North,Worcester , MA, 01655 , or

        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Ikejimba LC, Glick SJ, Choudhury KR, Samei E, Lo JY. Assessing task performance in FFDM, DBT, and synthetic mammography using uniform and anthropomorphic physical phantoms. Med Phys. 2016 Oct; 43(10):5593.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Makeev A, Clajus M, Snyder S, Wang X, Glick SJ. Evaluation of position-estimation methods applied to CZT-based photon-counting detectors for dedicated breast CT. J Med Imaging (Bellingham). 2015 Apr; 2(2):023501.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Glick SJ, Didier C. Investigating the effect of characteristic x-rays in cadmium zinc telluride detectors under breast computerized tomography operating conditions. J Appl Phys. 2013 Oct 14; 114(14):144506.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Kalluri KS, Mahd M, Glick SJ. Investigation of energy weighting using an energy discriminating photon counting detector for breast CT. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):081923.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Makeev A, Glick SJ. Investigation of statistical iterative reconstruction for dedicated breast CT. Med Phys. 2013 Aug; 40(8):081904.
          View in: PubMed
        6. O'Connor JM, Das M, Dider CS, Mahd M, Glick SJ. Generation of voxelized breast phantoms from surgical mastectomy specimens. Med Phys. 2013 Apr; 40(4):041915.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Vedantham S, Shi L, Glick SJ, Karellas A. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT. Med Phys. 2013 Jan; 40(1):011901.
          View in: PubMed
        8. Yngvesson SK, St Peter B, Siqueira P, Kelly P, Glick S, Karellas A, Khan A. Feasibility demonstration of frequency domain terahertz imaging in breast cancer margin determination. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2012 Feb 9; 8221.
          View in: PubMed
        9. Das M, Gifford HC, O'Connor JM, Glick SJ. Penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction for improved microcalcification detection in breast tomosynthesis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2011 Apr; 30(4):904-14.
          View in: PubMed
        10. Das M, Gifford HC, O'Connor JM, Glick SJ. Evaluation of a variable dose acquisition technique for microcalcification and mass detection in digital breast tomosynthesis. Med Phys. 2009 Jun; 36(6):1976-84.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Chen Y, Liu B, O'Connor JM, Didier CS, Glick SJ. Characterization of scatter in cone-beam CT breast imaging: comparison of experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. Med Phys. 2009 Mar; 36(3):857-69.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Glick SJ, Thacker S, Gong X, Liu B. Evaluating the impact of X-ray spectral shape on image quality in flat-panel CT breast imaging. Med Phys. 2007 Jan; 34(1):5-24.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Glick SJ. Breast CT. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2007; 9:501-26.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Vandenberghe S, Staelens S, Byrne CL, Soares EJ, Lemahieu I, Glick SJ. Reconstruction of 2D PET data with Monte Carlo generated system matrix for generalized natural pixels. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Jun 21; 51(12):3105-25.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Gong X, Glick SJ, Liu B, Vedula AA, Thacker S. A computer simulation study comparing lesion detection accuracy with digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT breast imaging. Med Phys. 2006 Apr; 33(4):1041-52.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Soares EJ, Glick SJ, Hoppin JW. Noise characterization of block-iterative reconstruction algorithms: II. Monte Carlo simulations. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Jan; 24(1):112-21.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Thacker SC, Glick SJ. Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for flat-panel CT breast imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2004 Dec 21; 49(24):5433-44.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Jan S, Santin G, Strul D, Staelens S, Assié K, Autret D, Avner S, Barbier R, Bardiès M, Bloomfield PM, Brasse D, Breton V, Bruyndonckx P, Buvat I, Chatziioannou AF, Choi Y, Chung YH, Comtat C, Donnarieix D, Ferrer L, Glick SJ, Groiselle CJ, Guez D, Honore PF, Kerhoas-Cavata S, Kirov AS, Kohli V, Koole M, Krieguer M, van der Laan DJ, Lamare F, Largeron G, Lartizien C, Lazaro D, Maas MC, Maigne L, Mayet F, Melot F, Merheb C, Pennacchio E, Perez J, Pietrzyk U, Rannou FR, Rey M, Schaart DR, Schmidtlein CR, Simon L, Song TY, Vieira JM, Visvikis D, Van de Walle R, Wieërs E, Morel C. GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2004 Oct 7; 49(19):4543-61.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Gong X, Vedula AA, Glick SJ. Microcalcification detection using cone-beam CT mammography with a flat-panel imager. Phys Med Biol. 2004 Jun 7; 49(11):2183-95.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Stodilka RZ, Soares EJ, Glick SJ. Characterization of tomographic sampling in hybrid PET using the Fourier crosstalk matrix. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2002 Dec; 21(12):1468-78.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Stodilka RZ, Glick SJ. Evaluation of geometric sensitivity for hybrid PET. J Nucl Med. 2001 Jul; 42(7):1116-20.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Suryanarayanan S, Karellas A, Vedantham S, Baker SP, Glick SJ, D'Orsi CJ, Webber RL. Evaluation of linear and nonlinear tomosynthetic reconstruction methods in digital mammography. Acad Radiol. 2001 Mar; 8(3):219-24.
          View in: PubMed
        23. Suryanarayanan S, Karellas A, Vedantham S, Glick SJ, D'Orsi CJ, Baker SP, Webber RL. Comparison of tomosynthesis methods used with digital mammography. Acad Radiol. 2000 Dec; 7(12):1085-97.
          View in: PubMed
        24. Soares EJ, Byrne CL, Glick SJ. Noise characterization of block-iterative reconstruction algorithms: I. Theory. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000 Apr; 19(4):261-70.
          View in: PubMed
        25. Licho R, Glick SJ, Xia W, Pan TS, Penney BC, King MA. Attenuation compensation in 99mTc SPECT brain imaging: a comparison of the use of attenuation maps derived from transmission versus emission data in normal scans. J Nucl Med. 1999 Mar; 40(3):456-63.
          View in: PubMed
        26. Kohli V, King MA, Glick SJ, Pan TS. Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Apr; 43(4):1025-37.
          View in: PubMed
        27. Pretorius PH, King MA, Pan TS, de Vries DJ, Glick SJ, Byrne CL. Reducing the influence of the partial volume effect on SPECT activity quantitation with 3D modelling of spatial resolution in iterative reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Feb; 43(2):407-20.
          View in: PubMed
        28. King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS, Glick SJ, Soares EJ. Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 2. Attenuation compensation algorithms. J Nucl Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 3(1):55-64.
          View in: PubMed
        29. Glick SJ, King MA, Pan TS, Soares EJ. An analytical approach for compensation of non-uniform attenuation in cardiac SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1995 Oct; 40(10):1677-93.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Glick SJ, Penney BC, King MA, Byrne CL. Noniterative compensation for the distance-dependent detector response and photon attenuation in SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1994; 13(2):363-74.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Glick SJ, Hawkins WG, King MA, Penney BC, Soares EJ, Byrne CL. The effect of intrinsic attenuation correction methods on the stationarity of the 3-D modulation transfer function of SPECT. Med Phys. 1992 Jul-Aug; 19(4):1105-12.
          View in: PubMed
        32. King MA, Hademenos GJ, Glick SJ. A dual-photopeak window method for scatter correction. J Nucl Med. 1992 Apr; 33(4):605-12.
          View in: PubMed
        33. King MA, Coleman M, Penney BC, Glick SJ. Activity quantitation in SPECT: a study of prereconstruction Metz filtering and use of the scatter degradation factor. Med Phys. 1991 Mar-Apr; 18(2):184-9.
          View in: PubMed
        34. Glick SJ, King MA, Knesaurek K. An investigation of the 3D modulation transfer function used in 3D post-reconstruction restoration filtering of SPECT imaging. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991; 363:107-22.
          View in: PubMed
        35. Penney BC, Glick SJ, King MA. Relative importance of the error sources in Wiener restoration of scintigrams. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1990; 9(1):60-70.
          View in: PubMed
        36. Knesaurek K, King MA, Glick SJ, Penney BC. Investigation of causes of geometric distortion in 180 degrees and 360 degrees angular sampling in SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct; 30(10):1666-75.
          View in: PubMed
        37. Glick SJ, King MA, Penney BC. Characterization of the modulation transfer function of discrete filtered backprojection. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1989; 8(2):203-13.
          View in: PubMed
        38. King MA, Penney BC, Glick SJ. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images. J Nucl Med. 1988 Dec; 29(12):1980-9.
          View in: PubMed
        39. King MA, Glick SJ, Penney BC, Schwinger RB, Doherty PW. Interactive visual optimization of SPECT prereconstruction filtering. J Nucl Med. 1987 Jul; 28(7):1192-8.
          View in: PubMed
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