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    Stephen O Heard MD

    TitleChair and Professor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentAnesthesiology
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone508-856-3266
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
      DepartmentSurgery

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic Background

        M.D. University of Texas, Houston, TX, 1978


        Postdoctoral Training

        Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, Residency in Internal Medicine, 1978-1981
        University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Residency in Anesthesiology, 1981-83
        University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Fellowship in Critical Care Medicine, 1983-84

        Photo: Stephen O. Heard, M.D.I attend in both the operating room and surgical intensive care units, however, my clinical and research interests center on critical care medicine. I enjoy the challenge of caring for the critically-ill patient and receive great satisfaction in seeing a patient for whom I have cared survive such an illness. The surgical intensive care units at UMass Memorial Medical Center provide care for a diverse patient population: cardiothoracic, vascular, trauma, neurosurgical, transplant, urologic, orthopedic, burns and general surgery. In some of these units, “medical” patients are also cared for by the ICU team. This is an exciting time for critical care medicine - both in general and at UMass Memorial. A plethora of prospective, randomized studies pertaining to the care of the critically-ill patient has been conducted and has enabled us to improve the care and outcome of these patients. Furthermore, coordinated care is very important in the treatment of these patients. At UMass Memorial, the administrative structure of critical care was changed. The silo approach to the patient has been abandoned and provision of care is much more coordinated and spans across many departments and divisions. In addition, telemedicine in the form of the eICU allows behind the scenes backup monitoring of all patients. The changes have resulted in documented and gratifying improvements in patient outcomes.

        My research interests include strategies to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), sepsis and septic shock, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and monitoring. Over the past several years, UMass Memorial has been a part of a number clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of catheters impregnated with antibiotics to prevent CRBSI, passive immunotherapy with anti-endotoxin or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a antibodies in patients with sepsis, and alveolar lavage with surfactant in the treatment of patients with ARDS. The department also has an active and vibrant basic science and clinical research effort in noninvasive monitoring headed byDr. Babs Soller with whom I collaborate.

        I believe active involvement in organized medicine is very important. I am a member of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, the Massachusetts Society of Anesthesiologists, the Society of Critical Care Medicine, and the American College of Chest Physicians. I have either held leadership positions or served on committees in all of these organizations. In addition, I have lobbied for our specialty at both the state and federal levels. My goal is to help and encourage more physicians to become involved in state and national specialty societies.

        Lastly, the number of patients waiting for an organ far exceeds the number or organs that are donated. UMass Memorial Medical Center is a member of an initiative sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the federal government to increase organ donation. UMass Memorial has been a leader in New England in providing organs following either brain death or cardiac death.



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Caramiciu JA, Adams JP, McKown BT, French CD, Ruggieri ER, Heard SO. Effects of an in-house coordinator and practitioner referral rather than proxy referral on tissue donation rates. Transplant Proc. 2014 Jun; 46(5):1274-80.
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        2. Zhao H, Heard SO, Mullen MT, Crawford S, Goldberg RJ, Frendl G, Lilly CM. An evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the 1991 American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine and the 2001 Society of Critical Care Medicine/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/American College of Chest Physicians/American Thoracic Society/Surgical Infection Society sepsis definition. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun; 40(6):1700-6.
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        3. Loftus RW, Brown JR, Koff MD, Reddy S, Heard SO, Patel HM, Fernandez PG, Beach ML, Corwin HL, Jensen JT, Kispert D, Huysman B, Dodds TM, Ruoff KL, Yeager MP. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jun; 114(6):1236-48.
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        4. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Summary of recommendations: Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-related Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):1087-99.
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        5. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2011 May; 39(4 Suppl 1):S1-34.
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        6. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):e162-93.
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        7. Walz JM, Avelar RL, Longtine KJ, Carter KL, Mermel LA, Heard SO. Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine in preventing catheter colonization. Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov; 38(11):2095-102.
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        8. Watson NC, Heard SO. The use of lactate as a biomarker. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 Sep; 25(5):301-2.
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        9. Jones N, Cocchiarella A, Faris K, Heard SO. Pancreatitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient chronically treated with corticosteroids. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):172-4.
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        10. Matheos T, Walz JM, Adams JP, Johnson K, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill M, Heard SO. Comparison of the duration of antimicrobial activity of 2 different antimicrobial central venous catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Mar; 31(3):295-7.
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        11. Walz JM, Memtsoudis SG, Heard SO. Prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):131-8.
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        12. Walz JM, Faris K, Heard SO. Who let the bugs in? Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep; 36(9):2689-90.
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        13. Soller BR, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Cooke WH, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Crookes BA, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Oxygen saturation determined from deep muscle, not thenar tissue, is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan; 36(1):176-82.
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        14. Soller BR, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Walz JM, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Noninvasively determined muscle oxygen saturation is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Feb; 104(2):475-81.
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        15. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, May A, Pearl RG, Heard S, An R, Bowers PJ, Burton P, Klausner MA, Corwin MJ. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 6; 357(10):965-76.
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        16. Soller BR, Hagan RD, Shear M, Walz JM, Landry M, Anunciacion D, Orquiola A, Heard SO. Comparison of intramuscular and venous blood pH, PCO(2) and PO(2) during rhythmic handgrip exercise. Physiol Meas. 2007 Jun; 28(6):639-49.
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        17. Walz JM, Zayaruzny M, Heard SO. Airway management in critical illness. Chest. 2007 Feb; 131(2):608-20.
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        18. Walz JM, Paterson CA, Seligowski JM, Heard SO. Surgical site infection following bowel surgery: a retrospective analysis of 1446 patients. Arch Surg. 2006 Oct; 141(10):1014-8; discussion 1018.
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        19. Walz JM, Heard SO. Making tracheal intubation safer in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov; 33(11):2716-7.
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        20. Waxman AB, Ward N, Thompson T, Lilly CM, Lisbon A, Hill N, Nasraway SA, Heard S, Corwin H, Levy M. Roundtable debate: Controversies in the management of the septic patient--desperately seeking consensus. Crit Care. 2005 Feb; 9(1):E1.
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        21. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO. Care of the injured Jehovah's Witness patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2004 Nov; 16(7):548-53.
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        22. Munson EL, Heard SO, Doern GV. In vitro exposure of bacteria to antimicrobial impregnated-central venous catheters does not directly lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Chest. 2004 Nov; 126(5):1628-35.
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        23. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, Astiz ME, Chalfin DB, Dasta JF, Heard SO, Martin C, Napolitano LM, Susla GM, Totaro R, Vincent JL, Zanotti-Cavazzoni S. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep; 32(9):1928-48.
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        24. Soller BR, Khan T, Favreau J, Hsi C, Puyana JC, Heard SO. Investigation of muscle pH as an indicator of liver pH and injury from hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2003 Oct; 114(2):195-201.
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        25. Dickson EW, Doern GV, Trevino L, Mazzoni M, Heard SO. Prevention of descending pneumonia in rts with perflubron-delivered tobramycin. Acad Emerg Med. 2003 Oct; 10(10):1019-23.
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        26. Soller BR, Idwasi PO, Balaguer J, Levin S, Simsir SA, Vander Salm TJ, Collette H, Heard SO. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 2003 Sep; 31(9):2324-31.
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        27. Heard SO. Gastric tonometry: the hemodynamic monitor of choice (Pro). Chest. 2003 May; 123(5 Suppl):469S-74S.
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        28. O'grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2002 Dec; 30(8):476-89.
          View in: PubMed
        29. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Dec; 23(12):759-69.
          View in: PubMed
        30. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov; 110(5):e51.
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        31. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO, Bankey PE. A subclavian artery injury, secondary to internal jugular vein cannulation, is a predictable right-sided phenomenon. Anesth Analg. 2002 Sep; 95(3):564-6, table of contents.
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        32. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 Aug 9; 51(RR-10):1-29.
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        33. Smyrnios NA, Connolly A, Wilson MM, Curley FJ, French CT, Heard SO, Irwin RS. Effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide quality improvement program on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun; 30(6):1224-30.
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        34. Dickson EW, Heard SO, Tarara TE, Weers JG, Brueggemann AB, Doern GV. Liquid ventilation with perflubron in the treatment of rats with pneumococcal pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb; 30(2):393-5.
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        35. Dickson EW, Blehar DJ, Carraway RE, Heard SO, Steinberg G, Przyklenk K. Naloxone blocks transferred preconditioning in isolated rabbit hearts. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2001 Sep; 33(9):1751-6.
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        36. Heard SO. Catheter-related infection: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2001 Jul; 30(4):419-29.
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        37. Soller BR, Heard SO, Cingo NA, Hsi C, Favreau J, Khan T, Ross RR, Puyana JC. Application of fiberoptic sensors for the study of hepatic dysoxia in swine hemorrhagic shock. Crit Care Med. 2001 Jul; 29(7):1438-44.
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        38. Soller BR, Cingo N, Puyana JC, Khan T, Hsi C, Kim H, Favreau J, Heard SO. Simultaneous measurement of hepatic tissue pH, venous oxygen saturation and hemoglobin by near infrared spectroscopy. Shock. 2001 Feb; 15(2):106-11.
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        39. Dickson EW, Sivilotti ML, Mangolds G, Renzi FP, Heard SO, Mori K, Burns MJ. Core rewarming via warm lavage liquid ventilation in a swine model of hypothermia-associated ventricular fibrillation. Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Jan; 8(1):82-4.
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        40. Megerian CA, Reily J, O'Connell FM, Heard SO. Outpatient tympanomastoidectomy: factors affecting hospital admission. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Nov; 126(11):1345-8.
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        41. Heard SO, Lisbon A, Toth I, Ramasubramanian R. An evaluation of a new continuous blood pressure monitoring system in critically ill patients. J Clin Anesth. 2000 Nov; 12(7):509-18.
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        42. Puyana JC, Soller BR, Parikh B, Heard SO. Directly measured tissue pH is an earlier indicator of splanchnic acidosis than tonometric parameters during hemorrhagic shock in swine. Crit Care Med. 2000 Jul; 28(7):2557-62.
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        43. Fang WC, Saltzman J, Rososhansky S, Szabo G, Heard SO, Banner B, Chari R, Katz E. Acceptance of an ABO-incompatible mismatched (AB(+) to O(+)) liver allograft with the use of daclizumab and mycophenolate mofetil. Liver Transpl. 2000 Jul; 6(4):497-500.
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        44. Heard SO, Puyana JC. The anti-inflammatory effects of perfluorocarbons: let's get physical. Crit Care Med. 2000 Apr; 28(4):1241-2.
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        45. Dickson EW, Porcaro WA, Fenton RA, Heard SO, Reindhardt CP, Renzi FP, Przyklenk K. "Preconditioning at a distance" in the isolated rabbit heart. Acad Emerg Med. 2000 Apr; 7(4):311-7.
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        46. Talke P, Chen R, Thomas B, Aggarwall A, Gottlieb A, Thorborg P, Heard S, Cheung A, Son SL, Kallio A. The hemodynamic and adrenergic effects of perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion after vascular surgery. Anesth Analg. 2000 Apr; 90(4):834-9.
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        47. Jodka PG, Heard SO. Management of the septic patient in the operating room. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2000; 38(4):1-29.
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        48. Wiswell TE, Smith RM, Katz LB, Mastroianni L, Wong DY, Willms D, Heard S, Wilson M, Hite RD, Anzueto A, Revak SD, Cochrane CG. Bronchopulmonary segmental lavage with Surfaxin (KL(4)-surfactant) for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Oct; 160(4):1188-95.
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        49. Abraham E, Baughman R, Fletcher E, Heard S, Lamberti J, Levy H, Nelson L, Rumbak M, Steingrub J, Taylor J, Park YC, Hynds JM, Freitag J. Liposomal prostaglandin E1 (TLC C-53) in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a controlled, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. TLC C-53 ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1999 Aug; 27(8):1478-85.
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        50. Heard SO, Longtine K, Toth I, Puyana JC, Potenza B, Smyrnios N. The influence of liposome-encapsulated prostaglandin E1 on hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesth Analg. 1999 Aug; 89(2):353-7.
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        51. Dickson EW, Reinhardt CP, Renzi FP, Becker RC, Porcaro WA, Heard SO. Ischemic preconditioning may be transferable via whole blood transfusion: preliminary evidence. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 1999 Aug; 8(2):123-9.
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        52. Schlichtig R, Heard SO. Sublingual PCO2 measurement: the nitroglycerin of monitoring? Crit Care Med. 1999 Jul; 27(7):1380-1.
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        53. Heard SO, Fink MP. Counterregulatory control of the acute inflammatory response: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has anti-inflammatory properties. Crit Care Med. 1999 May; 27(5):1019-21.
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        54. Darouiche RO, Raad II, Heard SO, Thornby JI, Wenker OC, Gabrielli A, Berg J, Khardori N, Hanna H, Hachem R, Harris RL, Mayhall G. A comparison of two antimicrobial-impregnated central venous catheters. Catheter Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jan 7; 340(1):1-8.
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        55. Puyana JC, Soller BR, Zhang S, Heard SO. Continuous measurement of gut pH with near-infrared spectroscopy during hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 1999 Jan; 46(1):9-15.
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        56. Napolitano LM, Wagle M, Heard SO. Endoscopic placement of nasoenteric feeding tubes in critically ill patients: a reliable alternative. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 1998 Dec; 8(6):395-400.
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        57. Heard SO. Suppression of gastric acid secretion: preventing excess gas. Intensive Care Med. 1998 Nov; 24(11):1123-5.
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        58. Marik P, Heard SO, Varon J. Interpretation of the pulmonary artery occlusion (wedge) pressure: physician's knowledge versus the experts' knowledge. Crit Care Med. 1998 Oct; 26(10):1761-4.
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        59. Heard SO, Fink MP, Gamelli RL, Solomkin JS, Joshi M, Trask AL, Fabian TC, Hudson LD, Gerold KB, Logan ED. Effect of prophylactic administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim) on the frequency of nosocomial infections in patients with acute traumatic brain injury or cerebral hemorrhage. The Filgrastim Study Group. Crit Care Med. 1998 Apr; 26(4):748-54.
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        60. Vijayakumar E, Bosscher H, Renzi FP, Baker S, Heard SO. The use of neuromuscular blocking agents in the emergency department to facilitate tracheal intubation in the trauma patient: help or hindrance? J Crit Care. 1998 Mar; 13(1):1-6.
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        61. Heard SO, Wagle M, Vijayakumar E, McLean S, Brueggemann A, Napolitano LM, Edwards LP, O'Connell FM, Puyana JC, Doern GV. Influence of triple-lumen central venous catheters coated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jan 12; 158(1):81-7.
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        62. Dickson EW, Heard SO, Chu B, Fraire A, Brueggemann AB, Doern GV. Partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbon in the treatment of rats with lethal pneumococcal pneumonia. Anesthesiology. 1998 Jan; 88(1):218-23.
          View in: PubMed
        63. Becker PS, Wagle M, Matous S, Swanson RS, Pihan G, Lowry PA, Stewart FM, Heard SO. Spontaneous splenic rupture following administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): occurrence in an allogeneic donor of peripheral blood stem cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 1997 Apr; 3(1):45-9.
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        64. Toth I, Heard SO. Nitric oxide does not mediate lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial depression in guinea pigs. Crit Care Med. 1997 Apr; 25(4):684-8.
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        65. Sherertz RJ, Heard SO, Raad II. Diagnosis of triple-lumen catheter infection: comparison of roll plate, sonication, and flushing methodologies. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Mar; 35(3):641-6.
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        66. Campbell C, Andreen M, Battito MF, Camporesi EM, Goldberg ME, Grounds RM, Hobbhahn J, Lumb P, Murray JM, Solanki DR, Heard SO, Coriat P. A phase III, multicenter, open-label, randomized, comparative study evaluating the effect of sevoflurane versus isoflurane on the maintenance of anesthesia in adult ASA class I, II, and III inpatients. J Clin Anesth. 1996 Nov; 8(7):557-63.
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        67. Sherertz RJ, Heard SO, Raad II, Gentry L, Bowton D, Scuderi P, Hu J, Carruth W, Satishchandra B, Pepe J, Mosenthal A, Burke T, Dupuis J. Gamma radiation-sterilized, triple-lumen catheters coated with a low concentration of chlorhexidine were not efficacious at preventing catheter infections in intensive care unit patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996 Sep; 40(9):1995-7.
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        68. Counihan T, Napolitano LM, Heard SO. Transnasal insertion of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in a patient with intermaxillary fixation: case report. J Trauma. 1996 Sep; 41(3):530-2.
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        69. Napolitano LM, Garlapati VS, Heard SO, Silva WE, Cutler BS, O'Neill AM, Anderson FA, Wheeler HB. Asymptomatic deep venous thrombosis in the trauma patient: is an aggressive screening protocol justified? J Trauma. 1995 Oct; 39(4):651-7; discussion 657-9.
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        70. Kaur S, Heard SO, Lancey R. The Univent tube for airway management in combined ascending and descending thoracic aortic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 1995 Apr; 9(2):181-3.
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        71. Heard SO, Toth I, Perkins M. The role of platelet-activating factor in lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial depression in guinea pigs. J Crit Care. 1995 Mar; 10(1):7-14.
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        72. Babineau TJ, Hackford A, Kenler A, Bistrian B, Forse RA, Fairchild PG, Heard S, Keroack M, Caushaj P, Benotti P. A phase II multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of three dosages of an immunomodulator (PGG-glucan) in high-risk surgical patients. Arch Surg. 1994 Nov; 129(11):1204-10.
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        73. Leung JM, Landow L, Franks M, Soja-Strzepa D, Heard SO, Arieff AI, Mangano DT. Safety and efficacy of intravenous Carbicarb in patients undergoing surgery: comparison with sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of mild metabolic acidosis. SPI Research Group. Study of Perioperative Ischemia. Crit Care Med. 1994 Oct; 22(10):1540-9.
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        74. Kett DH, Quartin AA, Sprung CL, Fisher CJ, Peña MA, Heard SO, Zimmerman JL, Albertson TE, Panacek EA, Eidelman LA, et al. An evaluation of the hemodynamic effects of HA-1A human monoclonal antibody. Crit Care Med. 1994 Aug; 22(8):1227-34.
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        75. Heard SO, Toth IE, Perkins MW, Leonard JL. The role of protein kinase C in lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial depression in guinea pigs. Shock. 1994 Jun; 1(6):419-24.
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        76. Fink MP, Snydman DR, Niederman MS, Leeper KV, Johnson RH, Heard SO, Wunderink RG, Caldwell JW, Schentag JJ, Siami GA, et al. Treatment of severe pneumonia in hospitalized patients: results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial comparing intravenous ciprofloxacin with imipenem-cilastatin. The Severe Pneumonia Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994 Mar; 38(3):547-57.
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        77. Gluck E, Heard S, Patel C, Mohr J, Calkins J, Fink MP, Landow L. Use of ultrahigh frequency ventilation in patients with ARDS. A preliminary report. Chest. 1993 May; 103(5):1413-20.
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        78. Heard SO, Edwards WT, Ferrari D, Hanna D, Wong PD, Liland A, Willock MM. Analgesic effect of intraarticular bupivacaine or morphine after arthroscopic knee surgery: a randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Anesth Analg. 1992 Jun; 74(6):822-6.
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        79. Heard SO, Perkins MW, Fink MP. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha causes myocardial depression in guinea pigs. Crit Care Med. 1992 Apr; 20(4):523-7.
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        80. Heard SO, McGuire K, Haw MP, Forse RA, Blackburn GL, Fink MP. Dietary enrichment with omega-3 fatty acids partially protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced atrial depression in rats. Circ Shock. 1992 Feb; 36(2):140-6.
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        81. Landow L, Phillips DA, Heard SO, Prevost D, Vandersalm TJ, Fink MP. Gastric tonometry and venous oximetry in cardiac surgery patients. Crit Care Med. 1991 Oct; 19(10):1226-33.
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        82. Heard SO, Baum TD, Wang HL, Rothschild HR, Fink MP. Systemic and mesenteric O2 metabolism in endotoxic pigs: effect of graded hemorrhage. Circ Shock. 1991 Sep; 35(1):44-52.
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        83. Circeo LE, Heard SO, Griffiths E, Nash G. Overwhelming necrotizing tracheobronchitis due to inadequate humidification during high-frequency jet ventilation. Chest. 1991 Jul; 100(1):268-9.
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        84. Heard SO, Baum TD, Feldman HS, Latka C, Fink MP. Lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial depression is not mediated by cyclooxygenase products. Crit Care Med. 1991 May; 19(5):723-7.
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        85. Cohn SM, Kruithoff KL, Rothschild HR, Wang HL, Antonsson JB, Heard SO, Fink MP. Leukotriene C4 induces mesenteric hypoperfusion and intestinal intramural acidosis in pigs. J Surg Res. 1991 Apr; 50(4):303-7.
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        86. Heard SO, Helsmoortel CM, Kent JC, Shahnarian A, Fink MP. Gastric tonometry in healthy volunteers: effect of ranitidine on calculated intramural pH. Crit Care Med. 1991 Feb; 19(2):271-4.
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        87. Fink MP, Heard SO. Laboratory models of sepsis and septic shock. J Surg Res. 1990 Aug; 49(2):186-96.
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        88. Baum TD, Heard SO, Feldman HS, Latka CA, Fink MP. Endotoxin-induced myocardial depression in rats: effect of ibuprofen and SDZ 64-688, a platelet activating factor receptor antagonist. J Surg Res. 1990 Jun; 48(6):629-34.
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        89. Landow L, Wilson J, Heard SO, Townsend P, VanderSalm TJ, Okike ON, Pezzella TA, Pasque M. Free and total lidocaine levels in cardiac surgical patients. J Cardiothorac Anesth. 1990 Jun; 4(3):340-7.
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        90. Kapadia CB, Heard SO, Yeston NS. Delayed recognition of vascular complications caused by central venous catheters. J Clin Monit. 1988 Oct; 4(4):267-71.
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        91. Niehoff J, DelGuercio C, LaMorte W, Hughes-Grasberger SL, Heard S, Dennis R, Yeston N. Efficacy of pulse oximetry and capnometry in postoperative ventilatory weaning. Crit Care Med. 1988 Jul; 16(7):701-5.
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        92. Heard SO, Davis RF, Sherertz RJ, Mikhail MS, Gallagher RC, Layon AJ, Gallagher TJ. Influence of sterile protective sleeves on the sterility of pulmonary artery catheters. Crit Care Med. 1987 May; 15(5):499-502.
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        93. Heard SO, Kaplan RF. Neuromuscular blockade in a patient with nemaline myopathy. Anesthesiology. 1983 Dec; 59(6):588-90.
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        94. Heard SO, Munson ES. Ventilator alarm nonfunction associated with a scavenging system for waste gases. Anesth Analg. 1983 Feb; 62(2):230-2.
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