Sign in to edit your profile (add interests, mentoring, photo, etc.)
    Keywords
    Last Name
    Institution

    George B Witman PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentCell and Developmental Biology
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone508-856-4038
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentCell Biology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentProgram in Cell Dynamics

        Overview 
        Narrative

        CDB Department Website

        Witman Lab Website

        Cilia and Flagella, Molecular Motors, Sensory Transduction, Proteomics, Molecular Basis for Diseases Involving Cilia and Flagella

        Our research is concerned with the biology of cilia and flagella, including the non-motile primary cilia that are present on most cells in our bodies and function as cell antennae, receiving signals from the environment and transmitting these to the cell body. Our findings have important implications for human development and male infertility, and for diseases of the lung, kidney, and eye, all of which contain cilia. Such diseases are known as "ciliopathies."

        In many of these studies we are using the unicellular Chlamydomonas, a model flagellated organism amenable to biochemical, genetic, and molecular genetic approaches. We recently completed a proteomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. This has resulted in a virtual "gold mine" of data that has and will continue to form the basis for many exciting projects. Because the proteins of cilia and flagella have been highly conserved throughout evolution, the human homologues of most of these proteins are readily identified. This opens the door to understanding the functions of many previously uncharacterized ciliary proteins. We currently are investigating the functions of several proteins whose homologues in humans or mice are known to cause disease, including blindness (Leber congenital amaurosis), cystic kidney disease, hydrocephalus, and syndromic ciliopathies such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Typically, we explore the functions of these proteins in Chlamydomonas and then in the mouse to be sure that what we learn from Chlamydomonas is applicable to mammals.

        In addition, many members of this laboratory are participating in a large-scale project to generate and identify insertional Chlamydomonas mutants for all the genes encoding flagellar proteins. Chlamydomonas cells are transformed with a selectable marker that integrates at random into the genome, disrupting any gene at the site of insertion. Using PCR, we can then readily determine the genomic sequence flanking the insert, and thus identify the mutated gene. The mutant can then be characterized structurally and biochemically to understand the function of the mutated gene.

        Finally, we are studying a process called "intraflagellar transport" (IFT), which involves the active movement of multi-subunit protein particles from the base to the tip of the cilium or flagellum, and back to the base again (Fig. 1). These particles carry cargo necessary for assembly and maintenance of the cilium or flagellum, and also transport signals from the cilium or flagellum to the cell body and vice versa (Fig. 2). We are characterizing the motors responsible for this transport, the individual polypeptides that make up the IFT particles, and the proteins and protein complexes that interact with the IFT particle and generally function as cargo adaptors. These studies are providing new insights into a process that is essential for the assembly of almost all cilia and flagella.

        Witman Figure 1 a

        Figure 1. The intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery. During IFT, linear arrays of IFT particles (yellow) are transported towards the 'plus' (distal) ends of the flagellar outer doublet microtubules (blue) by kinesin-II (pink), and towards the 'minus' (proximal) ends of the microtubules by cytoplasmic dynein 1b (green). The IFT particles, which are composed of at least 19 different proteins, are believed to be carrying precursors that are necessary for the assembly of the flagellar axoneme. The IFT particles are linked to the flagellar membrane (grey lines), and there is evidence that their cargo also includes membrane proteins.

        Witman Figure 2

        Figure 2. IFT and targeting of proteins to the flagellar compartment. Flagellar membrane proteins are carried by vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to the base of the flagellum, where they fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell. In this figure, proteins destined for the flagellar membrane are sorted into specific vesicles that are then targeted to the base of the flagellum. This sorting and targeting appears to be aided by one or more IFT-particle proteins that cycle from the base of the flagellum back through the endomembrane system, where they become associated with the proteins that are destined for the flagellar membrane. Once the vesicle is exocytosed, the IFT-particle proteins, with attached flagellar membrane proteins, become incorporated into IFT particles and are moved through the flagellar pore (involving outer doublet-membrane links in the flagellar transition zone) into the flagellar compartment.



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Owa M, Furuta A, Usukura J, Arisaka F, King SM, Witman GB, Kamiya R, Wakabayashi K. Cooperative binding of the outer arm-docking complex underlies the regular arrangement of outer arm dynein in the axoneme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 1; 111(26):9461-6.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Lechtreck KF, Gould TJ, Witman GB. Flagellar central pair assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cilia. 2013; 2(1):15.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Craige B, Brown JM, Witman GB. Isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2013 Jun; Chapter 3:Unit 3.41.1-9.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Lechtreck KF, Brown JM, Sampaio JL, Craft JM, Shevchenko A, Evans JE, Witman GB. Cycling of the signaling protein phospholipase D through cilia requires the BBSome only for the export phase. J Cell Biol. 2013 Apr 15; 201(2):249-61.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Ludington WB, Wemmer KA, Lechtreck KF, Witman GB, Marshall WF. Avalanche-like behavior in ciliary import. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 5; 110(10):3925-30.
          View in: PubMed
        6. Engel BD, Ishikawa H, Wemmer KA, Geimer S, Wakabayashi K, Hirono M, Craige B, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, Kamiya R, Marshall WF. The role of retrograde intraflagellar transport in flagellar assembly, maintenance, and function. J Cell Biol. 2012 Oct 1; 199(1):151-67.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Brown JM, Dipetrillo CG, Smith EF, Witman GB. A FAP46 mutant provides new insights into the function and assembly of the C1d complex of the ciliary central apparatus. J Cell Sci. 2012 Aug 15; 125(Pt 16):3904-13.
          View in: PubMed
        8. Hom EF, Witman GB, Harris EH, Dutcher SK, Kamiya R, Mitchell DR, Pazour GJ, Porter ME, Sale WS, Wirschell M, Yagi T, King SM. A unified taxonomy for ciliary dyneins. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2011 Oct; 68(10):555-65.
          View in: PubMed
        9. Yang Y, Cochran DA, Gargano MD, King I, Samhat NK, Burger BP, Sabourin KR, Hou Y, Awata J, Parry DA, Marshall WF, Witman GB, Lu X. Regulation of flagellar motility by the conserved flagellar protein CG34110/Ccdc135/FAP50. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Apr; 22(7):976-87.
          View in: PubMed
        10. Craige B, Tsao CC, Diener DR, Hou Y, Lechtreck KF, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. CEP290 tethers flagellar transition zone microtubules to the membrane and regulates flagellar protein content. J Cell Biol. 2010 Sep 6; 190(5):927-40.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Lechtreck KF, Johnson EC, Sakai T, Cochran D, Ballif BA, Rush J, Pazour GJ, Ikebe M, Witman GB. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii BBSome is an IFT cargo required for export of specific signaling proteins from flagella. J Cell Biol. 2009 Dec 28; 187(7):1117-32.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Engel BD, Lechtreck KF, Sakai T, Ikebe M, Witman GB, Marshall WF. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of Chlamydomonas flagella. Methods Cell Biol. 2009; 93:157-77.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Lechtreck KF, Sanderson MJ, Witman GB. High-speed digital imaging of ependymal cilia in the murine brain. Methods Cell Biol. 2009; 91:255-64.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Lechtreck KF, Luro S, Awata J, Witman GB. HA-tagging of putative flagellar proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identifies a novel protein of intraflagellar transport complex B. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009 Aug; 66(8):469-82.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Wirschell M, Yang C, Yang P, Fox L, Yanagisawa HA, Kamiya R, Witman GB, Porter ME, Sale WS. IC97 is a novel intermediate chain of I1 dynein that interacts with tubulin and regulates interdoublet sliding. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Jul; 20(13):3044-54.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Lechtreck KF, Delmotte P, Robinson ML, Sanderson MJ, Witman GB. Mutations in Hydin impair ciliary motility in mice. J Cell Biol. 2008 Feb 11; 180(3):633-43.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Huang K, Diener DR, Mitchell A, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, Rosenbaum JL. Function and dynamics of PKD2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella. J Cell Biol. 2007 Nov 5; 179(3):501-14.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Merchant SS, Prochnik SE, Vallon O, Harris EH, Karpowicz SJ, Witman GB, Terry A, Salamov A, Fritz-Laylin LK, Maréchal-Drouard L, Marshall WF, Qu LH, Nelson DR, Sanderfoot AA, Spalding MH, Kapitonov VV, Ren Q, Ferris P, Lindquist E, Shapiro H, Lucas SM, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Cardol P, Cerutti H, Chanfreau G, Chen CL, Cognat V, Croft MT, Dent R, Dutcher S, Fernández E, Fukuzawa H, González-Ballester D, González-Halphen D, Hallmann A, Hanikenne M, Hippler M, Inwood W, Jabbari K, Kalanon M, Kuras R, Lefebvre PA, Lemaire SD, Lobanov AV, Lohr M, Manuell A, Meier I, Mets L, Mittag M, Mittelmeier T, Moroney JV, Moseley J, Napoli C, Nedelcu AM, Niyogi K, Novoselov SV, Paulsen IT, Pazour G, Purton S, Ral JP, Riaño-Pachón DM, Riekhof W, Rymarquis L, Schroda M, Stern D, Umen J, Willows R, Wilson N, Zimmer SL, Allmer J, Balk J, Bisova K, Chen CJ, Elias M, Gendler K, Hauser C, Lamb MR, Ledford H, Long JC, Minagawa J, Page MD, Pan J, Pootakham W, Roje S, Rose A, Stahlberg E, Terauchi AM, Yang P, Ball S, Bowler C, Dieckmann CL, Gladyshev VN, Green P, Jorgensen R, Mayfield S, Mueller-Roeber B, Rajamani S, Sayre RT, Brokstein P, Dubchak I, Goodstein D, Hornick L, Huang YW, Jhaveri J, Luo Y, Martínez D, Ngau WC, Otillar B, Poliakov A, Porter A, Szajkowski L, Werner G, Zhou K, Grigoriev IV, Rokhsar DS, Grossman AR. The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions. Science. 2007 Oct 12; 318(5848):245-50.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Hou Y, Qin H, Follit JA, Pazour GJ, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Functional analysis of an individual IFT protein: IFT46 is required for transport of outer dynein arms into flagella. J Cell Biol. 2007 Feb 26; 176(5):653-65.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Lechtreck KF, Witman GB. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydin is a central pair protein required for flagellar motility. J Cell Biol. 2007 Feb 12; 176(4):473-82.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Yang P, Diener DR, Yang C, Kohno T, Pazour GJ, Dienes JM, Agrin NS, King SM, Sale WS, Kamiya R, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Sci. 2006 Mar 15; 119(Pt 6):1165-74.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Pfister KK, Fisher EM, Gibbons IR, Hays TS, Holzbaur EL, McIntosh JR, Porter ME, Schroer TA, Vaughan KT, Witman GB, King SM, Vallee RB. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature. J Cell Biol. 2005 Nov 7; 171(3):411-3.
          View in: PubMed
        23. DiBella LM, Gorbatyuk O, Sakato M, Wakabayashi K, Patel-King RS, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, King SM. Differential light chain assembly influences outer arm dynein motor function. Mol Biol Cell. 2005 Dec; 16(12):5661-74.
          View in: PubMed
        24. Pazour GJ, Agrin N, Leszyk J, Witman GB. Proteomic analysis of a eukaryotic cilium. J Cell Biol. 2005 Jul 4; 170(1):103-13.
          View in: PubMed
        25. Pazour GJ, Agrin N, Walker BL, Witman GB. Identification of predicted human outer dynein arm genes: candidates for primary ciliary dyskinesia genes. J Med Genet. 2006 Jan; 43(1):62-73.
          View in: PubMed
        26. Wang H, San Agustin JT, Witman GB, Kilpatrick DL. Novel role for a sterol response element binding protein in directing spermatogenic cell-specific gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec; 24(24):10681-8.
          View in: PubMed
        27. Jurczyk A, Gromley A, Redick S, San Agustin J, Witman G, Pazour GJ, Peters DJ, Doxsey S. Pericentrin forms a complex with intraflagellar transport proteins and polycystin-2 and is required for primary cilia assembly. J Cell Biol. 2004 Aug 30; 166(5):637-43.
          View in: PubMed
        28. Hou Y, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. A dynein light intermediate chain, D1bLIC, is required for retrograde intraflagellar transport. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Oct; 15(10):4382-94.
          View in: PubMed
        29. Wirschell M, Pazour G, Yoda A, Hirono M, Kamiya R, Witman GB. Oda5p, a novel axonemal protein required for assembly of the outer dynein arm and an associated adenylate kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Jun; 15(6):2729-41.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Wang S, Luo Y, Wilson PD, Witman GB, Zhou J. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease protein is localized to primary cilia, with concentration in the basal body area. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Mar; 15(3):592-602.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Witman GB. Cell motility: deaf Drosophila keep the beat. Curr Biol. 2003 Oct 14; 13(20):R796-8.
          View in: PubMed
        32. Casey DM, Yagi T, Kamiya R, Witman GB. DC3, the smallest subunit of the Chlamydomonas flagellar outer dynein arm-docking complex, is a redox-sensitive calcium-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 24; 278(43):42652-9.
          View in: PubMed
        33. Casey DM, Inaba K, Pazour GJ, Takada S, Wakabayashi K, Wilkerson CG, Kamiya R, Witman GB. DC3, the 21-kDa subunit of the outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC), is a novel EF-hand protein important for assembly of both the outer arm and the ODA-DC. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Sep; 14(9):3650-63.
          View in: PubMed
        34. Pazour GJ, Witman GB. The vertebrate primary cilium is a sensory organelle. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003 Feb; 15(1):105-10.
          View in: PubMed
        35. Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Intraflagellar transport. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Nov; 3(11):813-25.
          View in: PubMed
        36. Pazour GJ, San Agustin JT, Follit JA, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Polycystin-2 localizes to kidney cilia and the ciliary level is elevated in orpk mice with polycystic kidney disease. Curr Biol. 2002 Jun 4; 12(11):R378-80.
          View in: PubMed
        37. Pazour GJ, Baker SA, Deane JA, Cole DG, Dickert BL, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Besharse JC. The intraflagellar transport protein, IFT88, is essential for vertebrate photoreceptor assembly and maintenance. J Cell Biol. 2002 Apr 1; 157(1):103-13.
          View in: PubMed
        38. Takada S, Wilkerson CG, Wakabayashi K, Kamiya R, Witman GB. The outer dynein arm-docking complex: composition and characterization of a subunit (oda1) necessary for outer arm assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2002 Mar; 13(3):1015-29.
          View in: PubMed
        39. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Differential expression of the C(s) and Calpha1 isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase testicular cells. Biol Reprod. 2001 Jul; 65(1):151-64.
          View in: PubMed
        40. Wakabayashi K, Takada S, Witman GB, Kamiya R. Transport and arrangement of the outer-dynein-arm docking complex in the flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants that lack outer dynein arms. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2001 Apr; 48(4):277-86.
          View in: PubMed
        41. Pazour GJ, Witman GB. Forward and reverse genetic analysis of microtubule motors in Chlamydomonas. Methods. 2000 Dec; 22(4):285-98.
          View in: PubMed
        42. Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Vucica Y, Seeley ES, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Cole DG. Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella. J Cell Biol. 2000 Oct 30; 151(3):709-18.
          View in: PubMed
        43. Agustin JT, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is the product of an alternative Calpha mRNA expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 Sep; 11(9):3031-44.
          View in: PubMed
        44. Pazour GJ, Koutoulis A, Benashski SE, Dickert BL, Sheng H, Patel-King RS, King SM, Witman GB. LC2, the chlamydomonas homologue of the t complex-encoded protein Tctex2, is essential for outer dynein arm assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Oct; 10(10):3507-20.
          View in: PubMed
        45. Horst CJ, Fishkind DJ, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. An insertional mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defective microtubule positioning. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1999 Oct; 44(2):143-54.
          View in: PubMed
        46. Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Witman GB. The DHC1b (DHC2) isoform of cytoplasmic dynein is required for flagellar assembly. J Cell Biol. 1999 Feb 8; 144(3):473-81.
          View in: PubMed
        47. Omoto CK, Gibbons IR, Kamiya R, Shingyoji C, Takahashi K, Witman GB. Rotation of the central pair microtubules in eukaryotic flagella. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Jan; 10(1):1-4.
          View in: PubMed
        48. San Agustin JT, Leszyk JD, Nuwaysir LM, Witman GB. The catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase of ovine sperm flagella has a unique amino-terminal sequence. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 18; 273(38):24874-83.
          View in: PubMed
        49. Pazour GJ, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. A dynein light chain is essential for the retrograde particle movement of intraflagellar transport (IFT). J Cell Biol. 1998 May 18; 141(4):979-92.
          View in: PubMed
        50. Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Wilkerson CG, Inaba K, Sheng H, Takada S, Witman GB. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ODA3 gene encodes a protein of the outer dynein arm docking complex. J Cell Biol. 1997 Jun 2; 137(5):1069-80.
          View in: PubMed
        51. Nakamura K, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. Functional interaction between Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein subunits: the gamma subunit suppresses the ATPase activity of the alpha beta dimer. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1997; 37(4):338-45.
          View in: PubMed
        52. Pazour GJ, Sineshchekov OA, Witman GB. Mutational analysis of the phototransduction pathway of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct; 131(2):427-40.
          View in: PubMed
        53. King SM, Patel-King RS, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The 78,000-M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein is a microtubule-binding protein. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct; 131(2):399-409.
          View in: PubMed
        54. Ogawa K, Kamiya R, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. Interspecies conservation of outer arm dynein intermediate chain sequences defines two intermediate chain subclasses. Mol Biol Cell. 1995 Jun; 6(6):685-96.
          View in: PubMed
        55. Wilkerson CG, King SM, Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. The 78,000 M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein isa WD-repeat protein required for arm assembly. J Cell Biol. 1995 Apr; 129(1):169-78.
          View in: PubMed
        56. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Detection of flagellar protein kinases on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:135-40.
          View in: PubMed
        57. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Preparation and reactivation of demembranated, cytosol-free ram spermatozoa. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:251-5.
          View in: PubMed
        58. Horst CJ, Witman GB. Reactivation of Chlamydomonas cell models. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:207-10.
          View in: PubMed
        59. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Isolation of ram sperm flagella. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:31-6.
          View in: PubMed
        60. Moss AG, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. Assay of Chlamydomonas phototaxis. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:281-7.
          View in: PubMed
        61. Zamecnik P, Aghajanian J, Zamecnik M, Goodchild J, Witman G. Electron micrographic studies of transport of oligodeoxynucleotides across eukaryotic cell membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 12; 91(8):3156-60.
          View in: PubMed
        62. Wilkerson CG, King SM, Witman GB. Molecular analysis of the gamma heavy chain of Chlamydomonas flagellar outer-arm dynein. J Cell Sci. 1994 Mar; 107 ( Pt 3):497-506.
          View in: PubMed
        63. King SM, Witman GB. Multiple sites of phosphorylation within the alpha heavy chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 18; 269(7):5452-7.
          View in: PubMed
        64. Kreimer G, Witman GB. Novel touch-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent phobic response in a flagellate green alga. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1994; 29(2):97-109.
          View in: PubMed
        65. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Role of cAMP in the reactivation of demembranated ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1994; 27(3):206-18.
          View in: PubMed
        66. Witman GB. Chlamydomonas phototaxis. Trends Cell Biol. 1993 Nov; 3(11):403-8.
          View in: PubMed
        67. Sakakibara H, Takada S, King SM, Witman GB, Kamiya R. A Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein mutant with a truncated beta heavy chain. J Cell Biol. 1993 Aug; 122(3):653-61.
          View in: PubMed
        68. Horst CJ, Witman GB. ptx1, a nonphototactic mutant of Chlamydomonas, lacks control of flagellar dominance. J Cell Biol. 1993 Feb; 120(3):733-41.
          View in: PubMed
        69. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Reactivation of demembranated, cytosol-free ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1993; 24(4):264-73.
          View in: PubMed
        70. Moss AG, Gatti JL, Witman GB. The motile beta/IC1 subunit of sea urchin sperm outer arm dynein does not form a rigor bond. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep; 118(5):1177-88.
          View in: PubMed
        71. Moss AG, Sale WS, Fox LA, Witman GB. The alpha subunit of sea urchin sperm outer arm dynein mediates structural and rigor binding to microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep; 118(5):1189-200.
          View in: PubMed
        72. Witman GB. Axonemal dyneins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992 Feb; 4(1):74-9.
          View in: PubMed
        73. King SM, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The Mr 78,000 intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein interacts with alpha-tubulin in situ. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 5; 266(13):8401-7.
          View in: PubMed
        74. Ishijima S, Witman GB. Demembranation and reactivation of mammalian spermatozoa from golden hamster and ram. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 196:417-28.
          View in: PubMed
        75. Moss AG, Gatti JL, King SM, Witman GB. Purification and characterization of Salmo gairdneri outer arm dynein. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 196:201-22.
          View in: PubMed
        76. King SM, Witman GB. Localization of an intermediate chain of outer arm dynein by immunoelectron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 15; 265(32):19807-11.
          View in: PubMed
        77. King SM, Gatti JL, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer-arm dynein from trout spermatozoa: substructural organization. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1990; 16(4):266-78.
          View in: PubMed
        78. Gatti JL, King SM, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer arm dynein from trout spermatozoa. Purification, polypeptide composition, and enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 5; 264(19):11450-7.
          View in: PubMed
        79. King SM, Haley BE, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Nucleotide binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 15; 264(17):10210-8.
          View in: PubMed
        80. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the gamma heavy chain of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Biol. 1988 Nov; 107(5):1799-808.
          View in: PubMed
        81. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Location of epitopes and protease-sensitive sites. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 5; 263(19):9244-55.
          View in: PubMed
        82. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Masses of chains and sites of ultraviolet-induced vanadate-dependent cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1987 Dec 25; 262(36):17596-604.
          View in: PubMed
        83. Paschal BM, King SM, Moss AG, Collins CA, Vallee RB, Witman GB. Isolated flagellar outer arm dynein translocates brain microtubules in vitro. Nature. 1987 Dec 17-23; 330(6149):672-4.
          View in: PubMed
        84. Otter T, King SM, Witman GB. A two-step procedure for efficient electrotransfer of both high-molecular-weight (greater than 400,000) and low-molecular-weight (less than 20,000) proteins. Anal Biochem. 1987 May 1; 162(2):370-7.
          View in: PubMed
        85. Ishijima S, Witman GB. Flagellar movement of intact and demembranated, reactivated ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1987; 8(4):375-91.
          View in: PubMed
        86. Witman GB. Isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella and flagellar axonemes. Methods Enzymol. 1986; 134:280-90.
          View in: PubMed
        87. King SM, Otter T, Witman GB. Purification and characterization of Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins. Methods Enzymol. 1986; 134:291-306.
          View in: PubMed
        88. Pfister KK, Haley BE, Witman GB. Labeling of Chlamydomonas 18 S dynein polypeptides by 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate, a photoaffinity analog of ATP. J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 15; 260(23):12844-50.
          View in: PubMed
        89. King SM, Otter T, Witman GB. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins by high-resolution protein blotting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul; 82(14):4717-21.
          View in: PubMed
        90. Hoops HJ, Witman GB. Basal bodies and associated structures are not required for normal flagellar motion or phototaxis in the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum. J Cell Biol. 1985 Jan; 100(1):297-309.
          View in: PubMed
        91. Pfister KK, Witman GB. Subfractionation of Chlamydomonas 18 S dynein into two unique subunits containing ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1984 Oct 10; 259(19):12072-80.
          View in: PubMed
        92. Pfister KK, Haley BE, Witman GB. The photoaffinity probe 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate selectively labels the heavy chain of Chlamydomonas 12 S dynein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10; 259(13):8499-504.
          View in: PubMed
        93. Hoops HJ, Wright RL, Jarvik JW, Witman GB. Flagellar waveform and rotational orientation in a Chlamydomonas mutant lacking normal striated fibers. J Cell Biol. 1984 Mar; 98(3):818-24.
          View in: PubMed
        94. Kamiya R, Witman GB. Submicromolar levels of calcium control the balance of beating between the two flagella in demembranated models of Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1984 Jan; 98(1):97-107.
          View in: PubMed
        95. Hoops HJ, Witman GB. Outer doublet heterogeneity reveals structural polarity related to beat direction in Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Biol. 1983 Sep; 97(3):902-8.
          View in: PubMed
        96. Remillard SP, Witman GB. Synthesis, transport, and utilization of specific flagellar proteins during flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1982 Jun; 93(3):615-31.
          View in: PubMed
        97. Witman GB, Minervini N. Dynein arm conformation and mechanochemical transduction in the eukaryotic flagellum. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1982; 35:203-23.
          View in: PubMed
        98. Witman GB, Minervini N. Role of calmodulin in the flagellar axoneme: effect of phenothiazines on reactivated axonemes of Chlamydomonas. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 80:199-204.
          View in: PubMed
        99. Pfister KK, Fay RB, Witman GB. Purification and polypeptide composition of dynein ATPases from Chlamydomonas flagella. Cell Motil. 1982; 2(6):525-47.
          View in: PubMed
        100. Omoto CK, Witman GB. Functionally significant central-pair rotation in a primitive eukaryotic flagellum. Nature. 1981 Apr 23; 290(5808):708-10.
          View in: PubMed
        101. Gitelman SE, Witman GB. Purification of calmodulin from Chlamydomonas: calmodulin occurs in cell bodies and flagella. J Cell Biol. 1980 Dec; 87(3 Pt 1):764-70.
          View in: PubMed
        102. Bessen M, Fay RB, Witman GB. Calcium control of waveform in isolated flagellar axonemes of Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1980 Aug; 86(2):446-55.
          View in: PubMed
        103. Penningroth SM, Witman GB. Effects of adenylyl imidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate analog, on reactivated and rigor wave sea urchin sperm. J Cell Biol. 1978 Dec; 79(3):827-32.
          View in: PubMed
        104. Witman GB, Plummer J, Sander G. Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. Structure, composition, and function of specific axonemal components. J Cell Biol. 1978 Mar; 76(3):729-47.
          View in: PubMed
        105. Witman GB, Cleveland DW, Weingarten MD, Kirschner MW. Tubulin requires tau for growth onto microtubule initiating sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Nov; 73(11):4070-4.
          View in: PubMed
        106. Witman GB. The site of in vivo assembly of flagellar microtubules. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jun 30; 253:178-91.
          View in: PubMed
        107. Dentler WL, Granett S, Witman GB, Rosenbaum JL. Directionality of brain microtubule assembly in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 May; 71(5):1710-4.
          View in: PubMed
        108. Witman GB, Carlson K, Rosenbaum JL. Chlamydomonas flagella. II. The distribution of tubulins 1 and 2 in the outer doublet microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1972 Sep; 54(3):540-55.
          View in: PubMed
        109. Witman GB, Carlson K, Berliner J, Rosenbaum JL. Chlamydomonas flagella. I. Isolation and electrophoretic analysis of microtubules, matrix, membranes, and mastigonemes. J Cell Biol. 1972 Sep; 54(3):507-39.
          View in: PubMed
        110. Olmsted JB, Witman GB, Carlson K, Rosenbaum JL. Comparison of the microtubule proteins of neuroblastoma cells, brain, and Chlamydomonas flagella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Sep; 68(9):2273-7.
          View in: PubMed
        For assistance with using Profiles, please refer to the online tutorials or contact UMMS Help Desk or call 508-856-8643.
        George's Networks
        Click the "See All" links for more information and interactive visualizations!
        Concepts
        _
        Co-Authors
        _
        Similar People
        _
        Same Department
        Physical Neighbors
        _

        This is an official Page/Publication of the University of Massachusetts Worcester Campus
        Office of the Vice Provost for Research, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655
        Questions or Comments? Email: publicaffairs@umassmed.edu Phone: 508-856-1572