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Stuart M Levitz MD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
364 Plantation Street LRB 317
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentPostbaccalaureate Research Education Program

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    New York University, New York, NY, United StatesBAMedicine
    New York University, New York, NY, United StatesMD

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Hester MM, Carlson D, Lodge JK, Levitz SM, Specht CA. Immune evasion by Cryptococcus gattii in vaccinated mice coinfected with C. neoformans. Front Immunol. 2024; 15:1356651. PMID: 38469300.
    2. Lee CK, Oliveira LVN, Akalin A, Specht CA, Lourenco D, Gomez CL, Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Wang JP, Levitz SM. Dysregulated pulmonary inflammatory responses exacerbate the outcome of secondary aspergillosis following influenza. mBio. 2023 Oct 31; 14(5):e0163323. PMID: 37681974.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    3. Lee CK, Oliveira LVN, Akalin A, Specht CA, Lourenco D, Gomez CL, Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Wang JP, Levitz SM. Dysregulated Pulmonary Inflammatory Responses Exacerbate the Outcome of Secondary Aspergillosis Following Influenza. bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 30. PMID: 37425745.
    4. Soto ER, Specht CA, Lee CK, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR. One Step Purification-Vaccine Delivery System. Pharmaceutics. 2023 May 01; 15(5). PMID: 37242632.
    5. Soto ER, Specht CA, Rus F, Lee CK, Abraham A, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR. An efficient (nano) silica - In glucan particles protein encapsulation approach for improved thermal stability. J Control Release. 2023 05; 357:175-184. PMID: 36933700.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Wang R, Oliveira LVN, Lourenco D, Gomez CL, Lee CK, Hester MM, Mou Z, Ostroff GR, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Immunological correlates of protection following vaccination with glucan particles containing Cryptococcus neoformans chitin deacetylases. NPJ Vaccines. 2023 Feb 02; 8(1):6. PMID: 36732332.
    7. Sephton-Clark P, McConnell SA, Grossman N, Baker RP, Dragotakes Q, Fan Y, Fu MS, Gerbig G, Greengo S, Hardwick JM, Kulkarni M, Levitz SM, Nosanchuk JD, Shoham S, Smith DFQ, Stempinski P, Timp W, Wear MP, Cuomo CA, Casadevall A. Similar evolutionary trajectories in an environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolate after human and murine infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 01 10; 120(2):e2217111120. PMID: 36603033.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    8. Woodring T, Deepe GS, Levitz SM, Wuethrich M, Klein BS. They shall not grow mold: Soldiers of innate and adaptive immunity to fungi. Semin Immunol. 2023 01; 65:101673. PMID: 36459927.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. Hester MM, Oliveira LVN, Wang R, Mou Z, Lourenco D, Ostroff GR, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Cross-reactivity between vaccine antigens from the chitin deacetylase protein family improves survival in a mouse model of cryptococcosis. Front Immunol. 2022; 13:1015586. PMID: 36248898.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. Upadhya R, Lam WC, Hole CR, Parchment D, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. Cryptococcus neoformans Cda1 and Cda2 coordinate deacetylation of chitin during infection to control fungal virulence. Cell Surf. 2021 Dec; 7:100066. PMID: 34712865.
    11. Yadav B, Specht CA, Lee CK, Pokrovskii M, Huh JR, Littman DR, Levitz SM. Lung eosinophils elicited during allergic and acute aspergillosis express ROR?t and IL-23R but do not require IL-23 for IL-17 production. PLoS Pathog. 2021 08; 17(8):e1009891. PMID: 34464425.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Adeel A, Qu MD, Siddiqui E, Levitz SM, Ellison RT. Expanded Access Use of Rezafungin for Salvage Therapy of Invasive Candida glabrata Infection: A Case Report. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Nov; 8(11):ofab431. PMID: 35559122.
    13. Gandra S, Ram S, Levitz SM. The "Black Fungus" in India: The Emerging Syndemic of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis. Ann Intern Med. 2021 09; 174(9):1301-1302. PMID: 34097436.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Tomkins-Tinch CH, Daly JS, Gladden-Young A, Theodoropoulos NM, Madaio MP, Yu N, Vanguri VK, Siddle KJ, Adams G, Krasilnikova LA, Movahedi B, Bozorgzadeh A, Simin K, Lemieux JE, Luban J, Park DJ, MacInnis BL, Sabeti PC, Levitz SM. SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection in a Liver Transplant Recipient. Ann Intern Med. 2021 08; 174(8):1178-1180. PMID: 33872044.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    15. Dos Santos Dias L, Dobson HE, Bakke BK, Kujoth GC, Huang J, Kohn EM, Taira CL, Wang H, Supekar NT, Fites JS, Gates D, Gomez CL, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Azadi P, Li L, Suresh M, Klein BS, W?thrich M. Structural basis of Blastomyces Endoglucanase-2 adjuvancy in anti-fungal and -viral immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2021 03; 17(3):e1009324. PMID: 33735218.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Oliveira LVN, Wang R, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Vaccines for human fungal diseases: close but still a long way to go. NPJ Vaccines. 2021 Mar 03; 6(1):33. PMID: 33658522.
    17. Hoenigl M, Levitz SM, Schuetz AN, Zhang SX, Cornely OA. All You Need to Know and More about the Diagnosis and Management of Rare Mold Infections. mBio. 2021 02 23; 12(1). PMID: 33622731.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    18. Specht CA, Homan EJ, Lee CK, Mou Z, Gomez CL, Hester MM, Abraham A, Rus F, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Protection of Mice against Experimental Cryptococcosis by Synthesized Peptides Delivered in Glucan Particles. mBio. 2021 02 22; 13(1):e0336721. PMID: 35089095.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    19. Theodoropoulos NM, Bolstorff B, Bozorgzadeh A, Brandeburg C, Cumming M, Daly JS, Ellison RT, Forsberg K, Gade L, Gibson L, Greenough T, Litvintseva AP, Mack DA, Madoff L, Martins PN, McHale E, Melvin Z, Movahedi B, Stiles T, Vallabhaneni S, Levitz SM. Candida auris outbreak involving liver transplant recipients in a surgical intensive care unit. Am J Transplant. 2020 12; 20(12):3673-3679. PMID: 32530145.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    20. Hester MM, Lee CK, Abraham A, Khoshkenar P, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Specht CA. Protection of mice against experimental cryptococcosis using glucan particle-based vaccines containing novel recombinant antigens. Vaccine. 2020 01 16; 38(3):620-626. PMID: 31699504.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Lam WC, Upadhya R, Specht CA, Ragsdale AE, Hole CR, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. Chitosan Biosynthesis and Virulence in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus gattii. mSphere. 2019 10 09; 4(5). PMID: 31597720.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Abraham A, Ostroff G, Levitz SM, Oyston PCF. A novel vaccine platform using glucan particles for induction of protective responses against Francisella tularensis and other pathogens. Clin Exp Immunol. 2019 11; 198(2):143-152. PMID: 31400225.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    23. Khan NS, Lukason DP, Feliu M, Ward RA, Lord AK, Reedy JL, Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Tam JM, Kasperkovitz PV, Negoro PE, Vyas TD, Xu S, Brinkmann MM, Acharaya M, Artavanis-Tsakonas K, Frickel EM, Becker CE, Dagher Z, Kim YM, Latz E, Ploegh HL, Mansour MK, Miranti CK, Levitz SM, Vyas JM. CD82 controls CpG-dependent TLR9 signaling. FASEB J. 2019 11; 33(11):12500-12514. PMID: 31408613.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Chang CC, Levitz SM. Fungal immunology in clinical practice: Magical realism or practical reality? Med Mycol. 2019 Jun 01; 57(Supplement_3):S294-S306. PMID: 31292656.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Akilimali NA, Muema DM, Specht C, Chang CC, Moosa MS, Levitz SM, Lewin SR, French MA, Ndung'u T. Cryptococcosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Is Associated With Dysregulation of IL-7/IL-7 Receptor Signaling Pathway in T Cells and Monocyte Activation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 04 15; 80(5):596-604. PMID: 30649031.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. Whelan AO, Flick-Smith HC, Homan J, Shen ZT, Carpenter Z, Khoshkenar P, Abraham A, Walker NJ, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR, Oyston PCF. Protection induced by a Francisella tularensis subunit vaccine delivered by glucan particles. PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0200213. PMID: 30296254.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Teitz-Tennenbaum S, Viglianti SP, Roussey JA, Levitz SM, Olszewski MA, Osterholzer JJ. Autocrine IL-10 Signaling Promotes Dendritic Cell Type-2 Activation and Persistence of Murine Cryptococcal Lung Infection. J Immunol. 2018 10 01; 201(7):2004-2015. PMID: 30097531.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Deepe GS, Buesing WR, Ostroff GR, Abraham A, Specht CA, Huang H, Levitz SM. Vaccination with an alkaline extract of Histoplasma capsulatum packaged in glucan particles confers protective immunity in mice. Vaccine. 2018 05 31; 36(23):3359-3367. PMID: 29729993.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Poowanawittayakom N, Dutta A, Stock S, Touray S, Ellison RT, Levitz SM. Reemergence of Intravenous Drug Use as Risk Factor for Candidemia, Massachusetts, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 04; 24(4). PMID: 29553923.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Ketelut-Carneiro N, Ghosh S, Levitz SM, Fitzgerald KA, da Silva JS. A Dectin-1-Caspase-8 Pathway Licenses Canonical Caspase-1 Inflammasome Activation and Interleukin-1? Release in Response to a Pathogenic Fungus. J Infect Dis. 2018 01 04; 217(2):329-339. PMID: 29099934.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Lionakis MS, Levitz SM. Host Control of Fungal Infections: Lessons from Basic Studies and Human Cohorts. Annu Rev Immunol. 2018 04 26; 36:157-191. PMID: 29237128.
      Citations: 97     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. Specht CA, Lee CK, Huang H, Hester MM, Liu J, Luckie BA, Torres Santana MA, Mirza Z, Khoshkenar P, Abraham A, Shen ZT, Lodge JK, Akalin A, Homan J, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Vaccination with Recombinant Cryptococcus Proteins in Glucan Particles Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis in a Manner Dependent upon Mouse Strain and Cryptococcal Species. mBio. 2017 11 28; 8(6). PMID: 29184017.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Scriven JE, Tenforde MW, Levitz SM, Jarvis JN. Modulating host immune responses to fight invasive fungal infections. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2017 Dec; 40:95-103. PMID: 29154044.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    34. Armstrong-James D, Brown GD, Netea MG, Zelante T, Gresnigt MS, van de Veerdonk FL, Levitz SM. Immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment of fungal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 12; 17(12):e393-e402. PMID: 28774700.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Dambuza IM, Levitz SM, Netea MG, Brown GD. Fungal Recognition and Host Defense Mechanisms. Microbiol Spectr. 2017 07; 5(4). PMID: 28752813.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    36. Guerra ES, Lee CK, Specht CA, Yadav B, Huang H, Akalin A, Huh JR, Mueller C, Levitz SM. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma. PLoS Pathog. 2017 01; 13(1):e1006175. PMID: 28095479.
      Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Wickes BL, Meyer W, Cuomo CA, Wollenburg KR, Bicanic TA, Casta?eda E, Chang YC, Chen J, Cogliati M, Dromer F, Ellis D, Filler SG, Fisher MC, Harrison TS, Holland SM, Kohno S, Kronstad JW, Lazera M, Levitz SM, Lionakis MS, May RC, Ngamskulrongroj P, Pappas PG, Perfect JR, Rickerts V, Sorrell TC, Walsh TJ, Williamson PR, Xu J, Zelazny AM, Casadevall A. The Case for Adopting the "Species Complex" Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis. mSphere. 2017 Jan-Feb; 2(1). PMID: 28101535.
      Citations: 132     Fields:    
    38. Mirza Z, Soto ER, Dikengil F, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR. Beta-Glucan Particles as Vaccine Adjuvant Carriers. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1625:143-157. PMID: 28584989.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    39. Tsyrkunou A, Agarwal S, Koirala B, Finberg RW, Nath R, Barton B, Levitz SM, Wang JP, Ram S. Properdin Levels in Individuals with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1):ofw250. PMID: 28480246.
    40. Levitz SM. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study? Med Mycol. 2017 Jan 01; 55(1):103-108. PMID: 27639242.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    41. Upadhya R, Lam WC, Maybruck B, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. mBio. 2016 05 10; 7(3). PMID: 27165801.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Specht CA, Lee CK, Huang H, Tipper DJ, Shen ZT, Lodge JK, Leszyk J, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts. mBio. 2015 Dec 22; 6(6):e01905-15. PMID: 26695631.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    43. Loures FV, Levitz SM. XTT Assay of Antifungal Activity. Bio Protoc. 2015 Aug 05; 5(15). PMID: 27453914.
    44. Panackal AA, Wuest SC, Lin YC, Wu T, Zhang N, Kosa P, Komori M, Blake A, Browne SK, Rosen LB, Hagen F, Meis J, Levitz SM, Quezado M, Hammoud D, Bennett JE, Bielekova B, Williamson PR. Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004884. PMID: 26020932.
      Citations: 85     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Wiesner DL, Specht CA, Lee CK, Smith KD, Mukaremera L, Lee ST, Lee CG, Elias JA, Nielsen JN, Boulware DR, Bohjanen PR, Jenkins MK, Levitz SM, Nielsen K. Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar; 11(3):e1004701. PMID: 25764512.
      Citations: 98     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Loures FV, R?hm M, Lee CK, Santos E, Wang JP, Specht CA, Calich VL, Urban CF, Levitz SM. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Feb; 11(2):e1004643. PMID: 25659141.
      Citations: 81     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Levitz SM, Huang H, Ostroff GR, Specht CA. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines. Semin Immunopathol. 2015 Mar; 37(2):199-207. PMID: 25404118.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Santos E, Levitz SM. Fungal vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Nov 03; 4(11):a019711. PMID: 25368016.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Tsyrkunou AV, Ellison RT, Akalin A, Wiederhold N, Sutton DA, Lindner J, Fan H, Levitz SM, Zivna I. Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2014 Oct; 6:14-7. PMID: 25379391.
    50. Ganesan S, Rathinam VAK, Bossaller L, Army K, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Dillon CP, Green DR, Mayadas TN, Levitz SM, Hise AG, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA. Caspase-8 modulates dectin-1 and complement receptor 3-driven IL-1? production in response to ?-glucans and the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2014 Sep 01; 193(5):2519-2530. PMID: 25063877.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Bueter CL, Lee CK, Wang JP, Ostroff GR, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Spectrum and mechanisms of inflammasome activation by chitosan. J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15; 192(12):5943-51. PMID: 24829412.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    52. De Jesus M, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Bartling TR, Mantis NJ. A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer's patches involved in sampling ?-glucan microparticles. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91002. PMID: 24632738.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Brown GD, Meintjes G, Kolls JK, Gray C, Horsnell W, Achan B, Alber G, Aloisi M, Armstrong-James D, Beale M, Bicanic T, Black J, Bohjanen P, Botes A, Boulware DR, Brown G, Bunjun R, Carr W, Casadevall A, Chang C, Chivero E, Corcoran C, Cross A, Dawood H, Day J, De Bernardis F, De Jager V, De Repentigny L, Denning D, Eschke M, Finkelman M, Govender N, Gow N, Graham L, Gryschek R, Hammond-Aryee K, Harrison T, Heard N, Hill M, Hoving JC, Janoff E, Jarvis J, Kayuni S, King K, Kolls J, Kullberg BJ, Lalloo DG, Letang E, Levitz S, Limper A, Longley N, Machiridza TR, Mahabeer Y, Martinsons N, Meiring S, Meya D, Miller R, Molloy S, Morris L, Mukaremera L, Musubire AK, Muzoora C, Nair A, Nakiwala Kimbowa J, Netea M, Nielsen K, O'hern J, Okurut S, Parker A, Patterson T, Pennap G, Perfect J, Prinsloo C, Rhein J, Rolfes MA, Samuel C, Schutz C, Scriven J, Sebolai OM, Sojane K, Sriruttan C, Stead D, Steyn A, Thawer NK, Thienemann F, Von Hohenberg M, Vreulink JM, Wessels J, Wood K, Yang YL. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward. Trends Microbiol. 2014 Mar; 22(3):107-9. PMID: 24581941.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Cole GT, Hung CY, Sanderson SD, Hurtgen BJ, W?thrich M, Klein BS, Deepe GS, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Novel strategies to enhance vaccine immunity against coccidioidomycosis. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(12):e1003768. PMID: 24367252.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    55. Quintin J, Levitz SM. NKp30 enables NK cells to act naturally with fungi. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Oct 16; 14(4):369-71. PMID: 24139394.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Characterization and optimization of the glucan particle-based vaccine platform. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Oct; 20(10):1585-91. PMID: 23945157.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    57. Chang CC, Lim A, Omarjee S, Levitz SM, Gosnell BI, Spelman T, Elliott JH, Carr WH, Moosa MY, Ndung'u T, Lewin SR, French MA. Cryptococcosis-IRIS is associated with lower cryptococcus-specific IFN-? responses before antiretroviral therapy but not higher T-cell responses during therapy. J Infect Dis. 2013 Sep; 208(6):898-906. PMID: 23766525.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. Jarvis JN, Casazza JP, Stone HH, Meintjes G, Lawn SD, Levitz SM, Harrison TS, Koup RA. The phenotype of the Cryptococcus-specific CD4+ memory T-cell response is associated with disease severity and outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun 15; 207(12):1817-28. PMID: 23493728.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. Bueter CL, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Innate sensing of chitin and chitosan. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan; 9(1):e1003080. PMID: 23326227.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Brown GD, Denning DW, Gow NA, Levitz SM, Netea MG, White TC. Hidden killers: human fungal infections. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Dec 19; 4(165):165rv13. PMID: 23253612.
      Citations: 1800     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Cariello PF, Wickes BL, Sutton DA, Castlebury LA, Levitz SM, Finberg RW, Thompson EH, Daly JS. Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Feb; 51(2):692-5. PMID: 23196359.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    62. Levitz SM. Compounding drugs contaminated with fungi: a recipe for disaster. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2012 Nov; 1(11):e41. PMID: 26038409.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    63. Hurtgen BJ, Hung CY, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Cole GT. Construction and evaluation of a novel recombinant T cell epitope-based vaccine against Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun. 2012 Nov; 80(11):3960-74. PMID: 22949556.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    64. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate ?-glucans. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 01; 189(1):312-7. PMID: 22649195.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Brown GD, Denning DW, Levitz SM. Tackling human fungal infections. Science. 2012 May 11; 336(6082):647. PMID: 22582229.
      Citations: 245     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Levitz SM, Golenbock DT. Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research. Cell. 2012 Mar 16; 148(6):1284-92. PMID: 22424235.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    67. Cohen NR, Tatituri RV, Rivera A, Watts GF, Kim EY, Chiba A, Fuchs BB, Mylonakis E, Besra GS, Levitz SM, Brigl M, Brenner MB. Innate recognition of cell wall ?-glucans drives invariant natural killer T cell responses against fungi. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 Nov 17; 10(5):437-50. PMID: 22100160.
      Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Kwon-Chung KJ, Perfect JR, Levitz SM. A chronological history of the International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC), an invaluable forum for growth of the cryptococcal research field and clinical practice. Mycopathologia. 2012 Jun; 173(5-6):287-93. PMID: 22038679.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    69. Wang JP, Lee CK, Akalin A, Finberg RW, Levitz SM. Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26232. PMID: 22039448.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Mansour MK, Vyas JM, Levitz SM. Dynamic virulence: real-time assessment of intracellular pathogenesis links Cryptococcus neoformans phenotype with clinical outcome. mBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21954307.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    71. Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. mBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21878570.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    72. Bueter CL, Lee CK, Rathinam VAK, Healy GJ, Taron CH, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 14; 286(41):35447-35455. PMID: 21862582.
      Citations: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    73. Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Lee CK, Wang JP, Boon L, Specht CA, Levitz SM. A nonredundant role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 May 19; 9(5):415-24. PMID: 21575912.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Jesus MD, Nicola AM, Chow SK, Lee IR, Nong S, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Casadevall A. Glucuronoxylomannan, galactoxylomannan, and mannoprotein occupy spatially separate and discrete regions in the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Virulence. 2010 Nov-Dec; 1(6):500-8. PMID: 21178496.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles. mBio. 2010 Jul 20; 1(3). PMID: 20802824.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    76. Levitz SM. Innate recognition of fungal cell walls. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Apr 22; 6(4):e1000758. PMID: 20421940.
      Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    77. Levitz SM. Th17 cells bounce off the fungal wall. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Apr 23; 5(4):311-3. PMID: 19380108.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    78. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Wang JP, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Distinct patterns of dendritic cell cytokine release stimulated by fungal beta-glucans and toll-like receptor agonists. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):1774-81. PMID: 19273561.
      Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    79. Levitz SM, Shoham S, Cleary JD. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 05; 360(6):634; author reply 635-6. PMID: 19196681.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    80. Wozniak KL, Levitz SM. Isolation and purification of antigenic components of Cryptococcus. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 470:71-83. PMID: 19089377.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    81. Wozniak KL, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans enters the endolysosomal pathway of dendritic cells and is killed by lysosomal components. Infect Immun. 2008 Oct; 76(10):4764-71. PMID: 18678670.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    82. Dan JM, Wang JP, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Cooperative stimulation of dendritic cells by Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. PLoS One. 2008 Apr 30; 3(4):e2046. PMID: 18446192.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Dan JM, Kelly RM, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Role of the mannose receptor in a murine model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect Immun. 2008 Jun; 76(6):2362-7. PMID: 18391001.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    84. Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Specht CA, Wang JP, Lee CK, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent immune activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2123-9. PMID: 18332208.
      Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    85. Lam JS, Huang H, Levitz SM. Effect of differential N-linked and O-linked mannosylation on recognition of fungal antigens by dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2007 Oct 10; 2(10):e1009. PMID: 17925857.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Specht CA, Nong S, Dan JM, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Contribution of glycosylation to T cell responses stimulated by recombinant Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein. J Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 01; 196(5):796-800. PMID: 17674324.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Luong M, Lam JS, Chen J, Levitz SM. Effects of fungal N- and O-linked mannosylation on the immunogenicity of model vaccines. Vaccine. 2007 May 30; 25(22):4340-4. PMID: 17412460.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Yauch LE, Lam JS, Levitz SM. Direct inhibition of T-cell responses by the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Nov; 2(11):e120. PMID: 17096589.
      Citations: 68     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Dan JM, Levitz SM. Prospects for development of vaccines against fungal diseases. Drug Resist Updat. 2006 Jun; 9(3):105-10. PMID: 16820318.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    90. Wozniak KL, Vyas JM, Levitz SM. In vivo role of dendritic cells in a murine model of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jul; 74(7):3817-24. PMID: 16790753.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Levitz SM, Boekhout T. Cryptococcus: the once-sleeping giant is fully awake. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Jun; 6(4):461-2. PMID: 16696641.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    92. Levitz SM, Specht CA. The molecular basis for the immunogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Jun; 6(4):513-24. PMID: 16696647.
      Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    93. Mansour MK, Latz E, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans glycoantigens are captured by multiple lectin receptors and presented by dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 01; 176(5):3053-61. PMID: 16493064.
      Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    94. Lam JS, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. A model vaccine exploiting fungal mannosylation to increase antigen immunogenicity. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 01; 175(11):7496-503. PMID: 16301657.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    95. Yauch LE, Mansour MK, Levitz SM. Receptor-mediated clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide in vivo. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec; 73(12):8429-32. PMID: 16299344.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    96. Banks IR, Specht CA, Donlin MJ, Gerik KJ, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. A chitin synthase and its regulator protein are critical for chitosan production and growth of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Nov; 4(11):1902-12. PMID: 16278457.
      Citations: 120     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    97. Shoham S, Levitz SM. The immune response to fungal infections. Br J Haematol. 2005 Jun; 129(5):569-82. PMID: 15916679.
      Citations: 122     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    98. Kelly RM, Chen J, Yauch LE, Levitz SM. Opsonic requirements for dendritic cell-mediated responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 2005 Jan; 73(1):592-8. PMID: 15618199.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    99. Herrero AB, Magnelli P, Mansour MK, Levitz SM, Bussey H, Abeijon C. KRE5 gene null mutant strains of Candida albicans are avirulent and have altered cell wall composition and hypha formation properties. Eukaryot Cell. 2004 Dec; 3(6):1423-32. PMID: 15590817.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    100. Levitz SM. Interactions of Toll-like receptors with fungi. Microbes Infect. 2004 Dec; 6(15):1351-5. PMID: 15596119.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    101. Yauch LE, Mansour MK, Shoham S, Rottman JB, Levitz SM. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Infect Immun. 2004 Sep; 72(9):5373-82. PMID: 15322035.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    102. Mansour MK, Yauch LE, Rottman JB, Levitz SM. Protective efficacy of antigenic fractions in mouse models of cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1746-54. PMID: 14977983.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    103. Bellocchio S, Montagnoli C, Bozza S, Gaziano R, Rossi G, Mambula SS, Vecchi A, Mantovani A, Levitz SM, Romani L. The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 01; 172(5):3059-69. PMID: 14978111.
      Citations: 192     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Sau K, Mambula SS, Latz E, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. The antifungal drug amphotericin B promotes inflammatory cytokine release by a Toll-like receptor- and CD14-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 26; 278(39):37561-8. PMID: 12860979.
      Citations: 65     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    105. Kozel TR, Levitz SM, Dromer F, Gates MA, Thorkildson P, Janbon G. Antigenic and biological characteristics of mutant strains of Cryptococcus neoformans lacking capsular O acetylation or xylosyl side chains. Infect Immun. 2003 May; 71(5):2868-75. PMID: 12704160.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    106. Huang C, Nong SH, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Purification and characterization of a second immunoreactive mannoprotein from Cryptococcus neoformans that stimulates T-Cell responses. Infect Immun. 2002 Oct; 70(10):5485-93. PMID: 12228274.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    107. Mambula SS, Sau K, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in response to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18; 277(42):39320-6. PMID: 12171914.
      Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    108. Mansour MK, Levitz SM. Interactions of fungi with phagocytes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002 Aug; 5(4):359-65. PMID: 12160853.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    109. Harrison TS, Chen J, Simons E, Levitz SM. Determination of the pH of the Cryptococcus neoformans vacuole. Med Mycol. 2002 Jun; 40(3):329-32. PMID: 12146766.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    110. Weber SM, Chen JM, Levitz SM. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling by chloroquine. J Immunol. 2002 May 15; 168(10):5303-9. PMID: 11994488.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    111. Mansour MK, Schlesinger LS, Levitz SM. Optimal T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein are dependent on recognition of conjugated carbohydrates by mannose receptors. J Immunol. 2002 Mar 15; 168(6):2872-9. PMID: 11884457.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    112. Levitz SM. Receptor-mediated recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2002; 43(3):133-6. PMID: 12145626.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    113. Levitz SM. Does amoeboid reasoning explain the evolution and maintenance of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18; 98(26):14760-2. PMID: 11752420.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    114. Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans: intracellular or extracellular? Trends Microbiol. 2001 Sep; 9(9):417-8. PMID: 11565559.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    115. Shoham S, Huang C, Chen JM, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule. J Immunol. 2001 Apr 01; 166(7):4620-6. PMID: 11254720.
      Citations: 109     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    116. Weber SM, Levitz SM. Chloroquine antagonizes the proinflammatory cytokine response to opportunistic fungi by alkalizing the fungal phagolysosome. J Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 15; 183(6):935-42. PMID: 11237811.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    117. Mambula SS, Simons ER, Hastey R, Selsted ME, Levitz SM. Human neutrophil-mediated nonoxidative antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 2000 Nov; 68(11):6257-64. PMID: 11035733.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    118. Ieong MH, Reardon CC, Levitz SM, Kornfeld H. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of alveolar macrophages impairs their innate fungicidal activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Sep; 162(3 Pt 1):966-70. PMID: 10988114.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    119. Weber SM, Levitz SM. Chloroquine interferes with lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha gene expression by a nonlysosomotropic mechanism. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 01; 165(3):1534-40. PMID: 10903761.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    120. Weber SM, Levitz SM, Harrison TS. Chloroquine and the fungal phagosome. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000 Aug; 3(4):349-53. PMID: 10972492.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    121. Harrison TS, Griffin GE, Levitz SM. Conditional lethality of the diprotic weak bases chloroquine and quinacrine against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jul; 182(1):283-9. PMID: 10882608.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    122. Shafman TD, Levitz S, Nixon AJ, Gibans LA, Nichols KE, Bell DW, Ishioka C, Isselbacher KJ, Gelman R, Garber J, Harris JR, Haber DA. Prevalence of germline truncating mutations in ATM in women with a second breast cancer after radiation therapy for a contralateral tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Feb; 27(2):124-9. PMID: 10612799.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    123. Parayath KE, Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Effect of interleukin (IL)-15 priming on IL-12 and interferon-gamma production by pathogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative donors. J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb; 181(2):733-6. PMID: 10669365.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    124. Nosanchuk JD, Shoham S, Fries BC, Shapiro DS, Levitz SM, Casadevall A. Evidence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Feb 01; 132(3):205-8. PMID: 10651601.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    125. Huang C, Levitz SM. Stimulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and RANTES by Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from persons with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb; 181(2):791-4. PMID: 10669379.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    126. Rongrungruang Y, Levitz SM. Interactions of Penicillium marneffei with human leukocytes in vitro. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep; 67(9):4732-6. PMID: 10456924.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    127. Nichols KE, Levitz S, Shannon KE, Wahrer DC, Bell DW, Chang G, Hegde S, Neuberg D, Shafman T, Tarbell NJ, Mauch P, Ishioka C, Haber DA, Diller L. Heterozygous germline ATM mutations do not contribute to radiation-associated malignancies after Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Apr; 17(4):1259. PMID: 10561187.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    128. Levitz SM, Nong SH, Seetoo KF, Harrison TS, Speizer RA, Simons ER. Cryptococcus neoformans resides in an acidic phagolysosome of human macrophages. Infect Immun. 1999 Feb; 67(2):885-90. PMID: 9916104.
      Citations: 124     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    129. Nichols KE, Harkin DP, Levitz S, Krainer M, Kolquist KA, Genovese C, Bernard A, Ferguson M, Zuo L, Snyder E, Buckler AJ, Wise C, Ashley J, Lovett M, Valentine MB, Look AT, Gerald W, Housman DE, Haber DA. Inactivating mutations in an SH2 domain-encoding gene in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 10; 95(23):13765-70. PMID: 9811875.
      Citations: 125     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    130. Levitz SM. Host-fungal interactions in HIV infection. Res Immunol. 1998 May-Jun; 149(4-5):489-93; discussion 516-7. PMID: 9720966.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    131. Levitz SM. Improvement in CD4+ cell counts despite persistently detectable HIV load. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 09; 338(15):1074-5. PMID: 9537882.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    132. Kappe R, Levitz S, Harrison TS, Ruhnke M, Ampel NM, Just-N?bling G. Recent advances in cryptococcosis, candidiasis and coccidioidomycosis complicating HIV infection. Med Mycol. 1998; 36 Suppl 1:207-15. PMID: 9988509.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    133. Levitz SM, Harrison TS, Tabuni A, Liu X. Chloroquine induces human mononuclear phagocytes to inhibit and kill Cryptococcus neoformans by a mechanism independent of iron deprivation. J Clin Invest. 1997 Sep 15; 100(6):1640-6. PMID: 9294133.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    134. Harrison TS, Nong S, Levitz SM. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in monocytic cells by Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):485-91. PMID: 9237716.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    135. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Mechanisms of impaired anticryptococcal activity of monocytes from donors infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):537-40. PMID: 9237727.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    136. Levitz SM, North EA. Lymphoproliferation and cytokine profiles in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. J Med Vet Mycol. 1997 Jul-Aug; 35(4):229-36. PMID: 9292418.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    137. Levitz SM, North EA, Jiang Y, Nong SH, Kornfeld H, Harrison TS. Variables affecting production of monocyte chemotactic factor 1 from human leukocytes stimulated with Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1997 Mar; 65(3):903-8. PMID: 9038295.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    138. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kozel TR, MacGill RS, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans to heterologously expressed human complement receptors. Infect Immun. 1997 Mar; 65(3):931-5. PMID: 9038299.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    139. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Priming with IFN-gamma restores deficient IL-12 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive donors. J Immunol. 1997 Jan 01; 158(1):459-63. PMID: 8977223.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    140. Jiang Y, Russell TR, Graves DT, Cheng H, Nong SH, Levitz SM. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin-8 production in mononuclear cells stimulated by oral microorganisms. Infect Immun. 1996 Nov; 64(11):4450-5. PMID: 8890191.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    141. Hogan LH, Klein BS, Levitz SM. Virulence factors of medically important fungi. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996 Oct; 9(4):469-88. PMID: 8894347.
      Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    142. Kozel TR, Tabuni A, Young BJ, Levitz SM. Influence of opsonization conditions on C3 deposition and phagocyte binding of large- and small-capsule Cryptococcus neoformans cells. Infect Immun. 1996 Jun; 64(6):2336-8. PMID: 8675346.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    143. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Role of IL-12 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to fungi in persons with and without HIV infection. J Immunol. 1996 Jun 01; 156(11):4492-7. PMID: 8666825.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    144. Levitz SM, North EA. gamma Interferon gene expression and release in human lymphocytes directly activated by Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 1996 May; 64(5):1595-9. PMID: 8613366.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    145. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Nong SH, Golenbock DT. Effects of interleukin-10 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1996 Mar; 64(3):945-51. PMID: 8641805.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    146. Meshulam T, Levitz SM, Christin L, Diamond RD. A simplified new assay for assessment of fungal cell damage with the tetrazolium dye, (2,3)-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanil ide (XTT). J Infect Dis. 1995 Oct; 172(4):1153-6. PMID: 7561202.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    147. Harrison TS, Kornfeld H, Levitz SM. The effect of infection with human immunodeficiency virus on the anticryptococcal activity of lymphocytes and monocytes. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep; 172(3):665-71. PMID: 7658057.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    148. Levitz SM, North EA, Dupont MP, Harrison TS. Mechanisms of inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by human lymphocytes. Infect Immun. 1995 Sep; 63(9):3550-4. PMID: 7642290.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    149. Levitz SM, Mathews HL, Murphy JW. Direct antimicrobial activity of T cells. Immunol Today. 1995 Aug; 16(8):387-91. PMID: 7546195.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    150. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H, Reardon CC, Golenbock DT. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1994 May; 62(5):1975-81. PMID: 8168965.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    151. Levitz SM, Dupont MP, Smail EH. Direct activity of human T lymphocytes and natural killer cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1994 Jan; 62(1):194-202. PMID: 8262627.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    152. Levitz SM. Macrophage-Cryptococcus interactions. Immunol Ser. 1994; 60:533-43. PMID: 8251592.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    153. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Treseler C. Effect of mannose-binding protein on binding of Cryptococcus neoformans to human phagocytes. Infect Immun. 1993 Nov; 61(11):4891-3. PMID: 8406891.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    154. Roseff SA, Levitz SM. Effect of endothelial cells on phagocyte-mediated anticryptococcal activity. Infect Immun. 1993 Sep; 61(9):3818-24. PMID: 8359903.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    155. Levitz SM, Dupont MP. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human lymphocytes activated by interleukin-2 to directly inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1993 Apr; 91(4):1490-8. PMID: 7682573.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    156. Duncan RA, von Reyn CF, Alliegro GM, Toossi Z, Sugar AM, Levitz SM. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 11; 328(6):393-8. PMID: 8093636.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    157. Wagner RP, Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H. HIV-1 envelope protein (gp120) inhibits the activity of human bronchoalveolar macrophages against Cryptococcus neoformans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Dec; 146(6):1434-8. PMID: 1456558.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    158. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Wagner R, Kornfeld H, Smail EH. Binding of unopsonized Cryptococcus neoformans by human bronchoalveolar macrophages: inhibition by a large-molecular-size serum component. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct; 166(4):866-73. PMID: 1527424.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    159. Levitz SM. Overview of host defenses in fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Mar; 14 Suppl 1:S37-42. PMID: 1562693.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    160. McQuillen DP, Zingman BS, Meunier F, Levitz SM. Invasive infections due to Candida krusei: report of ten cases of fungemia that include three cases of endophthalmitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Feb; 14(2):472-8. PMID: 1554833.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    161. Kappe R, Levitz SM, Cassone A, Washburn RG. Mechanisms of host defence against fungal infection. J Med Vet Mycol. 1992; 30 Suppl 1:167-77. PMID: 1474441.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    162. Treseler CB, Maziarz RT, Levitz SM. Biological activity of interleukin-2 bound to Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 1992 Jan; 60(1):183-8. PMID: 1729181.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    163. Levitz SM. The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Nov-Dec; 13(6):1163-9. PMID: 1775849.
      Citations: 119     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    164. Levitz SM. Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1991 Oct; 59(10):3393-7. PMID: 1894353.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    165. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Aspergillosis and marijuana. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Oct 01; 115(7):578-9. PMID: 1652910.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    166. Xu T, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Oppenheim FG. Anticandidal activity of major human salivary histatins. Infect Immun. 1991 Aug; 59(8):2549-54. PMID: 1855975.
      Citations: 85     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    167. Levitz SM, Farrell TP, Maziarz RT. Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in culture. J Infect Dis. 1991 May; 163(5):1108-13. PMID: 2019758.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    168. Levitz SM, Tabuni A. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans by human cultured macrophages. Requirements for multiple complement receptors and actin. J Clin Invest. 1991 Feb; 87(2):528-35. PMID: 1991837.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    169. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ, Diamond RD. Inhibition and killing of fungi by the polyamine oxidase-polyamine system. Antifungal activity of the PAO-polyamine system. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1990 Aug; 58(2):107-14. PMID: 2264722.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    170. Levitz SM, Farrell TP. Growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by cultured human monocytes: role of the capsule, opsonins, the culture surface, and cytokines. Infect Immun. 1990 May; 58(5):1201-9. PMID: 2182538.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    171. Levitz SM, Farrell TP. Human neutrophil degranulation stimulated by Aspergillus fumigatus. J Leukoc Biol. 1990 Feb; 47(2):170-5. PMID: 2406356.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    172. Kozel TR, Wilson MA, Farrell TP, Levitz SM. Activation of C3 and binding to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov; 57(11):3412-7. PMID: 2680973.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    173. Meshulam T, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Sugar AM. Effect of cilofungin (LY121019), a fungal cell wall synthesis inhibitor, on interactions of Candida albicans with human neutrophils. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989 Nov; 24(5):741-5. PMID: 2689424.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    174. Levitz SM. Aspergillosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Mar; 3(1):1-18. PMID: 2647828.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    175. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ. Paradoxical role of capsule in murine bronchoalveolar macrophage-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 1989 Jan 15; 142(2):659-65. PMID: 2521352.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    176. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ. Differential stimulation of murine resident peritoneal cells by selectively opsonized encapsulated and acapsular Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1988 Oct; 56(10):2544-51. PMID: 3138176.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    177. Seibel J, Levitz SM. Minorities in the Journal's advertisements. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jul 07; 319(1):57-8. PMID: 3380120.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    178. Oppenheim FG, Xu T, McMillian FM, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Offner GD, Troxler RF. Histatins, a novel family of histidine-rich proteins in human parotid secretion. Isolation, characterization, primary structure, and fungistatic effects on Candida albicans. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 05; 263(16):7472-7. PMID: 3286634.
      Citations: 169     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    179. Levitz SM, Tan OT. Factitious dermatosis masquerading as recurrent herpes zoster. Am J Med. 1988 Apr; 84(4):781-3. PMID: 3041813.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    180. Levitz SM, Lyman CA, Murata T, Sullivan JA, Mandell GL, Diamond RD. Cytosolic calcium changes in individual neutrophils stimulated by opsonized and unopsonized Candida albicans hyphae. Infect Immun. 1987 Nov; 55(11):2783-8. PMID: 3312012.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    181. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ, Diamond RD. A rapid fluorescent assay to distinguish attached from phagocytized yeast particles. J Immunol Methods. 1987 Jul 16; 101(1):37-42. PMID: 3112238.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    182. Levitz SM, Selsted ME, Ganz T, Lehrer RI, Diamond RD. In vitro killing of spores and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae by rabbit neutrophil cationic peptides and bronchoalveolar macrophages. J Infect Dis. 1986 Sep; 154(3):483-9. PMID: 3525696.
      Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    183. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. A rapid colorimetric assay of fungal viability with the tetrazolium salt MTT. J Infect Dis. 1985 Nov; 152(5):938-45. PMID: 2413145.
      Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    184. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Mechanisms of resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia to killing by neutrophils in vitro. J Infect Dis. 1985 Jul; 152(1):33-42. PMID: 2989387.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    185. Waldorf AR, Levitz SM, Diamond RD. In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus. J Infect Dis. 1984 Nov; 150(5):752-60. PMID: 6387001.
      Citations: 88     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    186. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus spores and Candida albicans yeast phase by the iron-hydrogen peroxide-iodide cytotoxic system: comparison with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. Infect Immun. 1984 Mar; 43(3):1100-2. PMID: 6321349.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    187. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Changing patterns of aspergillosis infections. Adv Intern Med. 1984; 30:153-74. PMID: 6397035.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    188. Brovall C, Levitz SM, Ellner JJ, Schacter B. Radioresistance of culture-induced augmented natural killer-like activity. Hum Immunol. 1983 Jul; 7(3):151-62. PMID: 6192119.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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