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Shan Lu MD, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
364 Plantation Street LRB
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionGeneral Internal Medicine

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Biotechnology

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentPopulation Health Sciences

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Clark University, Worcester, MA, United StatesMHAHealth Administration
    Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, , ChinaMD
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United StatesPHDImmunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Academic Background

    MD, 1982, Nanjing Medical College
    PhD, 1991, UMass Worcester

    Immunogenicity of Protein Antigens

Shan LuOur main interest is to understand the immunogenicity of proteinantigens. The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelopeproteins (Env) is used as a model system in our lab. Env, a two-subunitprotein, is generated during the posttranslational cleavage processfrom a single precursor polyprotein. Env heterodimers are furtherorganized into an oligomeric complex. Env conformation is criticalfor the interaction of HIV-1 with a number of viral receptors. Our work is to understand the immunogenicity of various Env subunitsfrom different HIV-1 strains and to find the Env structures thatHIV-1 uses to escape from host immune surveillance. Such informationwill be used to design noval HIV-1 vaccines. Direct DNA immunizationusing eukaryotic expression vectors to make proteins in vivo isa unique approach we have been using to study the immunogenicityof protein antigens. We are also working to further improve thisevolving technology by studying the roles of cytokines and adjuvantsin inducing the desired immune responses by direct DNA immunization.

    Collapse Rotation Projects

    Additional information about lab rotations within the CPHR program can be found athttp://www.umassmed.edu/cphr/program/rotations.aspx

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Wang S, Chan KW, Wei D, Ma X, Liu S, Hu G, Park S, Pan R, Gu Y, Nazzari AF, Olia AS, Xu K, Lin BC, Louder MK, Doria-Rose NA, Montefiori D, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Kwong PD, Arthos J, Kong XP, Lu S. Human CD4-Binding Site Antibody Elicited by Polyvalent DNA Prime-Protein Boost Vaccine Neutralizes Cross-Clade Tier-2-HIV Strains. Res Sq. 2023 Oct 20. PMID: 37886518.
    2. Wang S, Yates NL, Pollara J, Voronin Y, Stanfield-Oakley S, Han D, Hu G, Li W, Ferrari G, Tomaras GD, Lu S. Broadly binding and functional antibodies and persisting memory B cells elicited by HIV vaccine PDPHV. NPJ Vaccines. 2022 Feb 09; 7(1):18. PMID: 35140230.
    3. Li H, Wang S, Hu G, Zhang L, Liu S, Lu S. DNA priming immunization is more effective than recombinant protein vaccine in eliciting antigen-specific B cell responses. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Dec; 10(1):833-841. PMID: 33853515.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Kim H, Ding YH, Lu S, Zuo MQ, Tan W, Conte D, Dong MQ, Mello CC. PIE-1 SUMOylation promotes germline fates and piRNA-dependent silencing in C. elegans. Elife. 2021 05 18; 10. PMID: 34003111.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    5. Wang S, Voronin Y, Zhao P, Ishihara M, Mehta N, Porterfield M, Chen Y, Bartley C, Hu G, Han D, Wells L, Tiemeyer M, Lu S. Glycan Profiles of gp120 Protein Vaccines from Four Major HIV-1 Subtypes Produced from Different Host Cell Lines under Non-GMP or GMP Conditions. J Virol. 2020 03 17; 94(7). PMID: 31941770.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Lu S. Timely development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020; 9(1):542-544. PMID: 32148172.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    7. Lu S, Han Z, Hung MC, Xu J, Xu Y, Zheng P, Zheng ZM, Zou L, Li Z, Zheng L, Kang Y, Yang Y, He L, Liao XC, Yu H, Yue Z, Liu SL, Zheng H. Racial profiling harms science. Science. 2019 Mar 22; 363(6433):1290-1292. PMID: 30898924.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    8. Flotte TR, Lu S. DNA Vaccination in 2018: An Update. Hum Gene Ther. 2018 09; 29(9):963-965. PMID: 30230936.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    9. Quitadamo B, Peters PJ, Repik A, O'Connell O, Mou Z, Koch M, Somasundaran M, Brody R, Luzuriaga K, Wallace A, Wang S, Lu S, McCauley S, Luban J, Duenas-Decamp M, Gonzalez-Perez MP, Clapham PR. HIV-1 R5 Macrophage-Tropic Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers Bind CD4 with High Affinity, while the CD4 Binding Site on Non-macrophage-tropic, T-Tropic R5 Envelopes Is Occluded. J Virol. 2018 01 15; 92(2). PMID: 29118121.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. Farf?n-Arribas DJ, Liu S, Wang S, Lu S. The dynamics of immunoglobulin V-gene usage and clonotype expansion in mice after prime and boost immunizations as analyzed by NGS. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 12 02; 13(12):2987-2995. PMID: 29049006.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Wang S, Chou TH, Hackett A, Efros V, Wang Y, Han D, Wallace A, Chen Y, Hu G, Liu S, Clapham P, Arthos J, Montefiori D, Lu S. Screening of primary gp120 immunogens to formulate the next generation polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 12 02; 13(12):2996-3009. PMID: 28933684.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Costa MR, Pollara J, Edwards RW, Seaman MS, Gorny MK, Montefiori DC, Liao HX, Ferrari G, Lu S, Wang S. Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV Vaccine DP6-001. J Virol. 2016 Nov 15; 90(22):10362-10378. PMID: 27630232.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    13. Suschak JJ, Wang S, Fitzgerald KA, Lu S. A cGAS-Independent STING/IRF7 Pathway Mediates the Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccines. J Immunol. 2016 Jan 01; 196(1):310-6. PMID: 26590319.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Suschak JJ, Wang S, Fitzgerald KA, Lu S. Identification of Aim2 as a sensor for DNA vaccines. J Immunol. 2015 Jan 15; 194(2):630-6. PMID: 25488991.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    15. Lu S. Using convalescent whole blood or plasma as passive immune therapy for the global war against Ebola. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014 Nov; 3(11):e80. PMID: 26038502.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    16. Palace SG, Proulx MK, Lu S, Baker RE, Goguen JD. Genome-wide mutant fitness profiling identifies nutritional requirements for optimal growth of Yersinia pestis in deep tissue. mBio. 2014 Aug 19; 5(4). PMID: 25139902.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Haran JP, Hayward G, Skinner S, Merritt C, Hoaglin DC, Hibberd PL, Lu S, Boyer EW. Factors influencing the development of antibiotic associated diarrhea in ED patients discharged home: risk of administering IV antibiotics. Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Oct; 32(10):1195-9. PMID: 25149599.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Pouliot K, Buglione-Corbett R, Marty-Roix R, Montminy-Paquette S, West K, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E. Contribution of TLR4 and MyD88 for adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) activity in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Sep 03; 32(39):5049-56. PMID: 25045815.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Haran JP, Hoaglin DC, Chen H, Boyer EW, Lu S. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course. J Clin Virol. 2014 Aug; 60(4):367-73. PMID: 24930707.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. Lu S. Editorial overview: vaccines against challenging viral pathogens and new vaccine technology. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Jun; 6:viii-ix. PMID: 24831092.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Lu S. EV71 vaccines: a milestone in the history of global vaccine development. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014 Apr; 3(4):e27. PMID: 26038519.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    22. Chen Y, Wang S, Lu S. DNA Immunization for HIV Vaccine Development. Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Feb 25; 2(1):138-59. PMID: 26344472.
    23. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, Li W, West K, Wang S, Morelli AB, Lien E, Lu S. Reduced MyD88 dependency of ISCOMATRIX? adjuvant in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(4):1078-90. PMID: 24513632.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    24. Lu S. Novel vaccine technology and the future of vaccine science. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(5):1143-6. PMID: 25290657.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Li W, Wang S, Lu S. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine. Vaccines (Basel). 2013 Dec 27; 2(1):36-48. PMID: 26344467.
    26. E X, Savidis G, Chin CR, Wang S, Lu S, Brass AL, Kowalik TF. A novel DDB2-ATM feedback loop regulates human cytomegalovirus replication. J Virol. 2014 Feb; 88(4):2279-90. PMID: 24335308.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Wang S, Lu S. DNA immunization. Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2013 Nov 05; 31:18.3.1-18.3.24. PMID: 24510291.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    28. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, West K, Wang S, Lien E, Lu S. Serum cytokine profiles associated with specific adjuvants used in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74820. PMID: 24019983.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Wallace A, West K, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Lu S, Wang S. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2095-102. PMID: 23941868.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Gil A, Shen S, Coley S, Gibson L, Diamond DJ, Wang S, Lu S. DNA vaccine prime followed by boost with live attenuated virus significantly improves antigen-specific T cell responses against human cytomegalovirus. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2120-32. PMID: 24051429.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Almansour I, Chen H, Wang S, Lu S. Cross reactivity of serum antibody responses elicited by DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens from H1N1 subtype influenza vaccines in the past 30 years. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2049-59. PMID: 23884239.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Chen Y, Vaine M, Wallace A, Han D, Wan S, Seaman MS, Montefiori D, Wang S, Lu S. A novel rabbit monoclonal antibody platform to dissect the diverse repertoire of antibody epitopes for HIV-1 Env immunogen design. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10232-43. PMID: 23864612.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Haran JP, Buglione-Corbett R, Lu S. Cytokine markers as predictors of type of respiratory infection in patients during the influenza season. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 31(5):816-21. PMID: 23481156.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    34. Wang S, Kishko M, Wan S, Wang Y, Brewster F, Gray GE, Violari A, Sullivan JL, Somasundaran M, Luzuriaga K, Lu S. Pilot study on the immunogenicity of paired Env immunogens from mother-to-child transmitted HIV-1 isolates. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 01; 8(11):1638-47. PMID: 23151449.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    35. O'Connell O, Repik A, Reeves JD, Gonzalez-Perez MP, Quitadamo B, Anton ED, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Lin R, Zolla-Pazner S, Corti D, Wallace A, Wang S, Kong XP, Lu S, Clapham PR. Efficiency of bridging-sheet recruitment explains HIV-1 R5 envelope glycoprotein sensitivity to soluble CD4 and macrophage tropism. J Virol. 2013 Jan; 87(1):187-98. PMID: 23055568.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    36. Haran JP, Beaudoin FL, Suner S, Lu S. C-reactive protein as predictor of bacterial infection among patients with an influenza-like illness. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan; 31(1):137-44. PMID: 22944552.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Xiaofei E, Stadler BM, Debatis M, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(10):5660-73. PMID: 22438545.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Lu S. Two is better than one. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 11(12):889-91. PMID: 21975267.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Clapham PR, Lu S. Vaccinology: precisely tuned antibodies nab HIV. Nature. 2011 Sep 21; 477(7365):416-7. PMID: 21938063.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. E X, Pickering MT, Debatis M, Castillo J, Lagadinos A, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. An E2F1-mediated DNA damage response contributes to the replication of human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001342. PMID: 21589897.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. Vaine M, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Liu Q, Arthos J, Wang S, Clapham P, Lu S. Two closely related Env antigens from the same patient elicited different spectra of neutralizing antibodies against heterologous HIV-1 isolates. J Virol. 2011 May; 85(10):4927-36. PMID: 21411542.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    42. Wang S, Goguen JD, Li F, Lu S. Involvement of CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses in LcrV DNA vaccine induced protection against lethal Yersinia pestis challenge. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 09; 29(39):6802-9. PMID: 21199697.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    43. Lu S, Grimes Serrano JM, Wang S. Polyvalent AIDS vaccines. Curr HIV Res. 2010 Dec; 8(8):622-9. PMID: 21054250.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Vaine M, Wang S, Liu Q, Arthos J, Montefiori D, Goepfert P, McElrath MJ, Lu S. Profiles of human serum antibody responses elicited by three leading HIV vaccines focusing on the induction of Env-specific antibodies. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 09; 5(11):e13916. PMID: 21085486.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    45. Wang Z, Zhang M, Wang Y, Jiao Y, Zhang L, Li L, Huang Z, Wu H, Li J, Lu S, Wang S. A versatile vector for the production of pseudotyped viruses expressing gp120 antigens from different clades of primary HIV-1 isolates. J Virol Methods. 2011 Jan; 171(1):183-9. PMID: 21034776.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. Wang S, Mboudjeka I, Goguen JD, Lu S. Antigen engineering can play a critical role in the protective immunity elicited by Yersinia pestis DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 23; 28(8):2011-9. PMID: 20188257.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Vaine M, Wang S, Hackett A, Arthos J, Lu S. Antibody responses elicited through homologous or heterologous prime-boost DNA and protein vaccinations differ in functional activity and avidity. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 09; 28(17):2999-3007. PMID: 20170767.
      Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    48. Abdel-Motal UM, Wang S, Awad A, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of HIV-1 p24 and gp120 following immunization with gp120/p24 fusion protein vaccine expressing alpha-gal epitopes. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 17; 28(7):1758-65. PMID: 20034607.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Lu S, Wang S. Technical transformation of biodefense vaccines. Vaccine. 2009 Nov 05; 27 Suppl 4:D8-D15. PMID: 19837293.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Lu S. Gene-based adjuvants: a new meaning. Hum Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 20(10):1101-2. PMID: 19848597.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Lu S. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 21(3):346-51. PMID: 19500964.
      Citations: 228     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    52. Vaine M, Lu S, Wang S. Progress on the induction of neutralizing antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). BioDrugs. 2009; 23(3):137-53. PMID: 19627166.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    53. Lu S. Immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans: it takes two to tango. Hum Vaccin. 2008 Nov-Dec; 4(6):449-52. PMID: 18443427.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 23; 26(31):3947-57. PMID: 18724414.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    55. Kennedy JS, Co M, Green S, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill MA, Adams JP, Rothman AL, Yu Q, Johnson-Leva R, Pal R, Wang S, Lu S, Markham P. The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Aug 18; 26(35):4420-4. PMID: 18588934.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    56. Vaine M, Wang S, Crooks ET, Jiang P, Montefiori DC, Binley J, Lu S. Improved induction of antibodies against key neutralizing epitopes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 DNA prime-protein boost vaccination compared to gp120 protein-only vaccination. J Virol. 2008 Aug; 82(15):7369-78. PMID: 18495775.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Wang S, Parker C, Taaffe J, Sol?rzano A, Garc?a-Sastre A, Lu S. Heterologous HA DNA vaccine prime--inactivated influenza vaccine boost is more effective than using DNA or inactivated vaccine alone in eliciting antibody responses against H1 or H3 serotype influenza viruses. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 04; 26(29-30):3626-33. PMID: 18538900.
      Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. Lu S, Wang S, Grimes-Serrano JM. Current progress of DNA vaccine studies in humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Mar; 7(2):175-91. PMID: 18324888.
      Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    59. Wang S, Joshi S, Mboudjeka I, Liu F, Ling T, Goguen JD, Lu S. Relative immunogenicity and protection potential of candidate Yersinia Pestis antigens against lethal mucosal plague challenge in Balb/C mice. Vaccine. 2008 Mar 20; 26(13):1664-74. PMID: 18291562.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Feb 20; 26(8):1098-110. PMID: 18243434.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    61. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Zhang C, Chou TH, Kishko M, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigens. Virology. 2008 Feb 05; 371(1):98-107. PMID: 17950773.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Pouliot K, Pan N, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E, Goguen JD. Evaluation of the role of LcrV-Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immunomodulation in the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 2007 Jul; 75(7):3571-80. PMID: 17438030.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Shen S, Wang S, Britt WJ, Lu S. DNA vaccines expressing glycoprotein complex II antigens gM and gN elicited neutralizing antibodies against multiple human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) isolates. Vaccine. 2007 Apr 30; 25(17):3319-27. PMID: 17287056.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    64. Lu S. Combination DNA plus protein HIV vaccines. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2006 Nov; 28(3):255-65. PMID: 17021720.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    65. Wang S, Taaffe J, Parker C, Sol?rzano A, Cao H, Garc?a-Sastre A, Lu S. Hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from H1 and H3 serotypes of influenza A viruses require different antigen designs for the induction of optimal protective antibody responses as studied by codon-optimized HA DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2006 Dec; 80(23):11628-37. PMID: 16987975.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    66. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Chou TH, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent poxvirus vaccines that include the D8 antigen. Virology. 2006 Nov 25; 355(2):164-74. PMID: 16919703.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Biswas S, Langeveld JP, Tipper D, Lu S. Intracellular accumulation of a 46 kDa species of mouse prion protein as a result of loss of glycosylation in cultured mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 13; 349(1):153-61. PMID: 16935263.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    68. Abdel-Motal U, Wang S, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus gp120 engineered to express Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R epitopes. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):6943-51. PMID: 16809300.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    69. Wang S, Pal R, Mascola JR, Chou TH, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Liu Q, Whitney S, Keen T, Nair BC, Kalyanaraman VS, Markham P, Lu S. Polyvalent HIV-1 Env vaccine formulations delivered by the DNA priming plus protein boosting approach are effective in generating neutralizing antibodies against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from subtypes A, B, C, D and E. Virology. 2006 Jun 20; 350(1):34-47. PMID: 16616287.
      Citations: 68     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Wang S, Farfan-Arribas DJ, Shen S, Chou TH, Hirsch A, He F, Lu S. Relative contributions of codon usage, promoter efficiency and leader sequence to the antigen expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2006 May 22; 24(21):4531-40. PMID: 16140431.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. Wang S, Arthos J, Lawrence JM, Van Ryk D, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Montefiori DC, Lu S. Enhanced immunogenicity of gp120 protein when combined with recombinant DNA priming to generate antibodies that neutralize the JR-FL primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2005 Jun; 79(12):7933-7. PMID: 15919951.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    72. Wang S, Sakhatskyy P, Chou TH, Lu S. Assays for the assessment of neutralizing antibody activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SCV). J Immunol Methods. 2005 Jun; 301(1-2):21-30. PMID: 15894326.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    73. Chou TH, Wang S, Sakhatskyy PV, Mboudjeka I, Mboudoudjeck I, Lawrence JM, Huang S, Coley S, Yang B, Li J, Zhu Q, Lu S. Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Virology. 2005 Mar 30; 334(1):134-43. PMID: 15749129.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    74. Wang S, Chou TH, Sakhatskyy PV, Huang S, Lawrence JM, Cao H, Huang X, Lu S. Identification of two neutralizing regions on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein produced from the mammalian expression system. J Virol. 2005 Feb; 79(3):1906-10. PMID: 15650214.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    75. Wang S, Heilman D, Liu F, Giehl T, Joshi S, Huang X, Chou TH, Goguen J, Lu S. A DNA vaccine producing LcrV antigen in oligomers is effective in protecting mice from lethal mucosal challenge of plague. Vaccine. 2004 Sep 03; 22(25-26):3348-57. PMID: 15308359.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Liu F, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Wang S, Ross TM, Lu S. Independent but not synergistic enhancement to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein by codon optimization and C3d fusion in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2004 Apr 16; 22(13-14):1764-72. PMID: 15068860.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Chou TH, Biswas S, Lu S. Gene delivery using physical methods: an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:147-66. PMID: 14707376.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    78. Wang S, Joshi S, Lu S. Delivery of DNA to skin by particle bombardment. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:185-96. PMID: 14707379.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
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