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Susan L Swain PhD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionBasic Pathology

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentProgram in Microbial Dynamics

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentTranslational Science

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, United StatesBABiology
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United StatesPHDImmunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Research and Professional Experience:

    1976-1977 Lecturer, UCSD, La Jolla, CA
    1976-1981 Assistant Research Biologist, UCSD
    1981-1984 Associate Research Biologist, UCSD
    1984-1989 Associate Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
    1989-1995 Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
    1985-1996 Member, UCSD Cancer Center, San Diego, CA
    1996-2007 Director, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    1996-present Member, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    1996-2007 Edward C. Brewster Chair, Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, NY
    1998-present Adjunct Professor, Dept of Micro, Immunol & Mol. Gen, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY
    2001-present Adjunct Professor, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT
    2003-2007 President,Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    2008-2010 President Emeritus, Trudeau Institute
    2010 Professor of Pathology, UMASS Medical School, Worcester, MA

    Study Sections and Advisory Panels: Past:NIH Immunobiology Study Section (1984-1988); AIDS Basic Research Advisory Committee, NIAID (1990-1992); National Taskforce on Aging, NIA/NIAID (1994); FY1997 AIDS Planning Committee (1995); Ad Hoc Member, Board of Scientific Councilors NIAID (1995, 2000); Scientific Advisory Board, Inst. for Advanced Studies in Immunol. Aging (1996-1999); Reviewer's Reserve, NIH (1988-present); NHLBI SCOR Review in Asthma Panel (2001); Board of Scientific Councilors, National Institute of Aging (2001-2006), Arthritis Review Panel in Cellular Immunology (1996-1998); Board of Trustees, Ordway Institute, Albany, NY (2001-2005), External Advisory Committee, University of Montana COBRE (2005-2007). External Advisory Board Duke University Dept. of Immunology (2008), Current: Board of Directors La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology (2004-present), Selection Committee Albany Medical Prize (2005-present), External Advisory Committee (EAC): Wistar BAA (2006-present) and Dartmouth University COBRE (2007-present). National Advisory Council on Aging 2008-2012, Scientific Advisory Board La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology 2008-present, Advisory Group Aeras 2007-present, Distinguished Editorial Panel NIAID (2009), Council, NIAID (Ad Hoc, 2009)

    Editorial Boards:Past: Lymphokines (1985-1988); Journal of Immunology Associate Editor (1985-1987), Section Editor (1987-1991), Primary Reviewer (1997-present); International Immunology (1988-present); Cellular Immunology (1988-present); Cell (1990-1992); Current Opinion in Immunology, issue editor (1994, 1996, 2003, 2009); Current Biology (1994), Journal of Experimental Medicine (1997-2008), Current: Deputy Editor, Journal of Immunology 2008-2012, Faculty of 1000, Section Leader (2002-present).

    Meeting Organization: Workshop on T and B Cell Memory (1993, 1998); Midwinter Immunology Conference Council (1992), Midwinter Conference of Immunologists (1996); Keystone Symposium on Lymphocyte Activation (1996); International Cytokine Conference (1997); Delegate IUIS (2002-2006), Workshop on Immunity and Aging, Trudeau Institute, NY (2004); Cold Spring Harbor Vaccine Meeting (2005, 2007, 2009), Keystone Symposium on Immunological Memory (2007), FASEB Summer Conference (2008, 2010).

    Community Service:American Association of Immunology: Committee on Women (1988-1994), Program Committee (1988-1994); Chair, T Cell Block for FASEB Meeting (1992-1995); Nominations Committee (Elected, 1991, 1995,1996). Publication Committee (Elected, 1994-1998).

    Elected Positions: Council Member, American Association of Immunologists (1999-2006); Electorate Nominating Committee of the Section on Medical Sciences, AAAS (2004); President, American Association of Immunologists (2004).

    Honors and Awards:Phi Beta Kappa, Magna Cum Laude, B.A. (1968); Sigma Xi (1972); Established Investigator, American Heart Association (1981-1986); NIH Merit Award (1995, 2005); New York State Woman of Distinction (2002); Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science (2007); American Association of Immunologists Lifetime Achievement Award (2010).

    Dr. Susan SwainOur past research has focused on defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CD4 T cells contribute to immunity. In particular we have 1) Defined, generated and determined the function of T cell subsets at the effector stage; 2) Studied the requirements for the generation of long-live memory CD4 T cells and their role in protection against influenza infection and 3) Analyzed the defects that develop in T cell function with aging and the causes of those defects.

    Our top priorities at this time are to discover new basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that are used by memory CD4 T cells to provide effective immunity to infectious diseases and to better define the age-associated defects in CD4 T cells that contribute to poor immunity of the aged and to discover strategies to overcome those defects.

    Collapse Rotation Projects

    Rotations: Projects in the following areas

    CD4 T cell memory. We can generate in vitro CD4 T cells that are for all extents and purposes identical to the memory CD4 T cells observed in vivo. In situ memory CD4 T cells persist at very low frequency and in most instances it is difficult to analyze them thoroughly using tetramer or multimer reagents both because of their low frequency and the relatively low specific affinity of the Class II reagents for the TcR. Being able to generate “recent” memory cells in vitro gives us the opportunity to analyze in detail the mechanisms by which memory CD4 T cells may contribute to secondary immunity and immune protection. Once identified. will determine if particular pathways are relevant in situ. We have discovered that memory CD4 T cells are superior in protection to those from the primary response and that they display pleitropic functions that have not been previously identified.

    Cytotoxic CD4 Effectors. One unexpected function of CD4 T cells we identified is robust, perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity (7, 16). Cytotoxic activity by CD4 T cells has been reported in response to several infections, but its significance has not heretofore been established. We find that “Th1 polarized” CD4 effectors and more relevantly the CD4 effectors found in the lung following influenza infection, are able to kill infected or peptide-pulsed Class II-bearing targets and we find that this perforin dependent activity can work together with antibody to provide protection against lethal influenza challenge in otherwise unprimed mice (17). We also will determine when memory CD4 T cells re-express cytotoxic activity following in vivo challenge and how cytotoxic killing contributes to the memory cell mediated protection. We want to analyze how the program of cytotoxicity is induced in these “ThCTL”.

    Memory CD4 Cells Enhance an Innate Response. Memory cells can act by becoming secondary effectors but they are best characterized by their ability respond rapidly even to low antigen doses, by producing cytokines and chemokines and it is assumed that these initial abilities are key to memory cell activity. However this assumption has not been directly demonstrated and the mechanisms involved and how they might contribute to immunity have not been elucidated. We find that restimulation of memory CD4 T cells leads to a markedly enhanced early innate response to influenza infection both in the lung and systemically (17). This response peaks 2-3 days after infection and is transient. We see enhanced production of IL-6 locally and systemically and enhanced production a broad spectrum of innate inflammatory mediators in the lung. We hope to determine in detail the pathways leading to optimum memory T cell-induced innate responses. We suggest a concurrent activation of CD4 memory cells may be an effective adjuvant for vaccination and will be testing this hypothesis as well as mechanisms that lead to viral control over the next couple of years.

    Aging and Immunity: The study of the impact of aging on CD4 T cell function at the naïve and memory stages has lead us to better understanding of fundamental aspects of T cell behavior in addition to providing important information about what vaccine approaches are most likely to be successful for the aged.

    Nature of CD4 Aging “Defects”. We have identified multiple levels at which aged naïve CD4 T cells are defective including initial early response to TcR triggering, IL-2 production, expansion and effector generation. The defects in helper function and in the 20 response of memory cells generated from aged naïve CD4 T cells are particularly dramatic. In recent studies we have recapitulated memory age-associated defects in recently generated memory cells in vitro (23). In vitro aged memory cells are markedly defective in production of particular cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-2, while others are little affected (IFNg, IL-10, TNF), suggesting the aging “defect” may be restricted to loss of potential to make certain CD4 T cell subsets, such as those responsible for help to B cells .We will pursue this hypothesis both in vitro and in vivo.

    We have found that aged naïve CD4 T cells are in fact longer-lived than their naïve counterparts (23). We find that reduced expression of Bim, a proapoptotic protein, is responsible for this increase in lifespan and that the increase in lifespan is required for the development of aging defects. We are now investigating the factors that regulate Bim expression.

    Enhancement by Inflammatory Cytokines. We have shown that the defective effector generation responses of naïve CD4 T cells from aged animals can be overcome by IL-2 and by proinflammatory cytokines, in particular a mix of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF (20,21). We want to determine the extent to which the inflammatory cytokines can reverse the heritable aging defects and restore functional memory generation. We have developed in vitro models to test the generation of effectors and memory. In these models we are evaluating TLR agonists for their ability to restore aged naïve CD4 responses to peptide-pulsed derived dendritic cells (DC). Pre-incubation of DC with many TLR agonists, enhances expansion of the responding aged naïve CD4 T cells via a mechanism dependent on IL-6 that acts in part by increasing survival of the developing effector population. We plan to use this model to identify the extent of the rescue and what pathways and mechanisms contribute with the ultimate goal of evaluating whether specific TLR stimulation or stimulation of specific pathways might improve the response of the elderly to vaccines. We want to see if we can reproduce this model with human naïve CD4 T cells and DC derived from peripheral blood and if TLR agonists can also enhance those responses.

    Collapse Post Docs

    An entry level postdoctoral position is open immediately in the laboratory of Dr. Susan L. Swain to study the factors that control the development and survival of CD4 and CD8 T cell memory. Graduate student experience with tissue culture, in vitro assay, flow cytometry, experience in mouse models on infectious disease and a knowledge of cellular and molecular immunology are all strongly desired.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Swain SL. CD4 memory has a hierarchical structure created by requirements for infection-derived signals at an effector checkpoint. Front Immunol. 2023; 14:1306433. PMID: 38152398.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    2. Devarajan P, Vong AM, Castonguay CH, Silverstein NJ, Kugler-Umana O, Bautista BL, Kelly KA, Luban J, Swain SL. Cytotoxic CD4 development requires CD4 effectors to concurrently recognize local antigen and encounter type I IFN-induced IL-15. Cell Rep. 2023 Nov 28; 42(11):113429. PMID: 37934667.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    3. Devarajan P, Vong AM, Castonguay CH, Silverstein NJ, Kugler-Umana O, Bautista BL, Kelly KA, Luban J, Swain SL. Cytotoxic CD4 development requires CD4 effectors to concurrently recognize local antigen and encounter type I IFN-induced IL-15. Cell Rep. 2023 10 31; 42(10):113182. PMID: 37776519.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    4. Jones MC, Castonguay C, Nanaware PP, Weaver GC, Stadinski B, Kugler-Umana OA, Huseby ES, Stern LJ, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Devarajan P, Swain SL. CD4 Effector TCR Avidity for Peptide on APC Determines the Level of Memory Generated. J Immunol. 2023 06 15; 210(12):1950-1961. PMID: 37093656.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    5. Kugler-Umana O, Zhang W, Kuang Y, Liang J, Castonguay CH, Tonkonogy SL, Marshak-Rothstein A, Devarajan P, Swain SL. IgD+ age-associated B cells are the progenitors of the main T-independent B cell response to infection that generates protective Ab and can be induced by an inactivated vaccine in the aged. Aging Cell. 2022 10; 21(10):e13705. PMID: 36056604.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Dhume K, Finn CM, Devarajan P, Singh A, Tejero JD, Prokop E, Strutt TM, Sell S, Swain SL, McKinstry KK. Bona Fide Th17 Cells without Th1 Functional Plasticity Protect against Influenza. J Immunol. 2022 04 15; 208(8):1998-2007. PMID: 35338093.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Devarajan P, Vong AM, Castonguay CH, Kugler-Umana O, Bautista BL, Jones MC, Kelly KA, Xia J, Swain SL. Strong influenza-induced TFH generation requires CD4 effectors to recognize antigen locally and receive signals from continuing infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 02 22; 119(8). PMID: 35177472.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Swain SL, Jones MC, Devarajan P, Xia J, Dutton RW, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK. Durable CD4 T-Cell Memory Generation Depends on Persistence of High Levels of Infection at an Effector Checkpoint that Determines Multiple Fates. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2021 11 01; 13(11). PMID: 33903157.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Swain SL, Kugler-Umana O, Tonkonogy S. "An Intrinsic Program Determines Key Age-Associated Changes in Adaptive Immunity that Limit Response to Non-Pathogens." Front Aging. 2021; 2. PMID: 35382063.
    10. Xia J, Kuang Y, Liang J, Jones M, Swain SL. Influenza Vaccine-Induced CD4 Effectors Require Antigen Recognition at an Effector Checkpoint to Generate CD4 Lung Memory and Antibody Production. J Immunol. 2020 10 15; 205(8):2077-2090. PMID: 32929040.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Alam F, Singh A, Flores-Malavet V, Sell S, Cooper AM, Swain SL, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM. CD25-Targeted IL-2 Signals Promote Improved Outcomes of Influenza Infection and Boost Memory CD4 T Cell Formation. J Immunol. 2020 06 15; 204(12):3307-3314. PMID: 32376651.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Kugler-Umana O, Devarajan P, Swain SL. Understanding the Heterogeneous Population of Age-Associated B Cells and Their Contributions to Autoimmunity and Immune Response to Pathogens. Crit Rev Immunol. 2020; 40(4):297-309. PMID: 33426819.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Daniels KA, O'Donnell CL, Castonguay C, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Swain SL, Welsh RM. Virus-induced natural killer cell lysis of T cell subsets. Virology. 2020 01 02; 539:26-37. PMID: 31670188.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. McKinstry KK, Alam F, Flores-Malavet V, Nagy MZ, Sell S, Cooper AM, Swain SL, Strutt TM. Memory CD4 T cell-derived IL-2 synergizes with viral infection to exacerbate lung inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2019 08; 15(8):e1007989. PMID: 31412088.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Devarajan P, Swain SL. Original Antigenic Sin: Friend or Foe in Developing a Broadly Cross-Reactive Vaccine to Influenza? Cell Host Microbe. 2019 03 13; 25(3):354-355. PMID: 30870620.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    16. Devarajan P, Jones MC, Kugler-Umana O, Vong AM, Xia J, Swain SL. Pathogen Recognition by CD4 Effectors Drives Key Effector and Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:596. PMID: 29632538.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Strutt TM, Dhume K, Finn CM, Hwang JH, Castonguay C, Swain SL, McKinstry KK. IL-15 supports the generation of protective lung-resident memory CD4 T cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 05; 11(3):668-680. PMID: 29186108.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Swain SL, Kugler-Umana O, Kuang Y, Zhang W. The properties of the unique age-associated B cell subset reveal a shift in strategy of immune response with age. Cell Immunol. 2017 Nov; 321:52-60. PMID: 28712455.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Brahmakshatriya V, Kuang Y, Devarajan P, Xia J, Zhang W, Vong AM, Swain SL. IL-6 Production by TLR-Activated APC Broadly Enhances Aged Cognate CD4 Helper and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo. J Immunol. 2017 04 01; 198(7):2819-2833. PMID: 28250157.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Marshall NB, Vong AM, Devarajan P, Brauner MD, Kuang Y, Nayar R, Schutten EA, Castonguay CH, Berg LJ, Nutt SL, Swain SL. NKG2C/E Marks the Unique Cytotoxic CD4 T Cell Subset, ThCTL, Generated by Influenza Infection. J Immunol. 2017 02 01; 198(3):1142-1155. PMID: 28031335.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Bautista BL, Devarajan P, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Vong AM, Jones MC, Kuang Y, Mott D, Swain SL. Short-Lived Antigen Recognition but Not Viral Infection at a Defined Checkpoint Programs Effector CD4 T Cells To Become Protective Memory. J Immunol. 2016 11 15; 197(10):3936-3949. PMID: 27798159.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Kuang Y, Finn CM, Hwang JH, Dhume K, Sell S, Swain SL. Direct IL-6 Signals Maximize Protective Secondary CD4 T Cell Responses against Influenza. J Immunol. 2016 10 15; 197(8):3260-3270. PMID: 27647834.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Zhou X, Hopkins JW, Wang C, Brahmakshatriya V, Swain SL, Kuchel GA, Haynes L, McElhaney JE. IL-2 and IL-6 cooperate to enhance the generation of influenza-specific CD8 T cells responding to live influenza virus in aged mice and humans. Oncotarget. 2016 Jun 28; 7(26):39171-39183. PMID: 27322555.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Tinoco R, Carrette F, Barraza ML, Otero DC, Maga?a J, Bosenberg MW, Swain SL, Bradley LM. PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion. Immunity. 2016 Jun 21; 44(6):1470. PMID: 27332735.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    
    25. Tinoco R, Carrette F, Barraza ML, Otero DC, Maga?a J, Bosenberg MW, Swain SL, Bradley LM. PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion. Immunity. 2016 05 17; 44(5):1190-203. PMID: 27192578.
      Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Devarajan P, Bautista B, Vong AM, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Swain SL. New Insights into the Generation of CD4 Memory May Shape Future Vaccine Strategies for Influenza. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:136. PMID: 27148257.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    
    27. McElhaney JE, Kuchel GA, Zhou X, Swain SL, Haynes L. T-Cell Immunity to Influenza in Older Adults: A Pathophysiological Framework for Development of More Effective Vaccines. Front Immunol. 2016; 7:41. PMID: 26941738.
      Citations: 77     Fields:    
    28. Brodeur TY, Robidoux TE, Weinstein JS, Craft J, Swain SL, Marshak-Rothstein A. IL-21 Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis through the Induction of Profibrotic CD8+ T Cells. J Immunol. 2015 Dec 01; 195(11):5251-60. PMID: 26519529.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Torrado E, Fountain JJ, Liao M, Tighe M, Reiley WW, Lai RP, Meintjes G, Pearl JE, Chen X, Zak DE, Thompson EG, Aderem A, Ghilardi N, Solache A, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Wilkinson RJ, Swain SL, Cooper AM. Interleukin 27R regulates CD4+ T cell phenotype and impacts protective immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2015 Aug 24; 212(9):1449-63. PMID: 26282876.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsCTClinical Trials
    30. Tsukamoto H, Senju S, Matsumura K, Swain SL, Nishimura Y. IL-6-mediated environmental conditioning of defective Th1 differentiation dampens antitumour immune responses in old age. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 07; 6:6702. PMID: 25850032.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Sell S, Guest I, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Kohlmeier JE, Brincks E, Tighe M, Blackman MA, Woodland DL, Dutton RW, Swain SL. Intraepithelial T-cell cytotoxicity, induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and proliferation of pneumocytes in experimental mouse models of influenza. Viral Immunol. 2014 Dec; 27(10):484-96. PMID: 25479178.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Bautista B, Zhang W, Kuang Y, Cooper AM, Swain SL. Effector CD4 T-cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2. Nat Commun. 2014 Nov 05; 5:5377. PMID: 25369785.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Nayar R, Schutten E, Bautista B, Daniels K, Prince AL, Enos M, Brehm MA, Swain SL, Welsh RM, Berg LJ. Graded levels of IRF4 regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion, but not attrition, in response to acute virus infection. J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15; 192(12):5881-93. PMID: 24835398.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Zhang W, Brahmakshatriya V, Swain SL. CD4 T cell defects in the aged: causes, consequences and strategies to circumvent. Exp Gerontol. 2014 Jun; 54:67-70. PMID: 24440384.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Jain N, Miu B, Jiang JK, McKinstry KK, Prince A, Swain SL, Greiner DL, Thomas CJ, Sanderson MJ, Berg LJ, Kang J. CD28 and ITK signals regulate autoreactive T cell trafficking. Nat Med. 2013 Dec; 19(12):1632-7. PMID: 24270545.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Baaten BJ, Cooper AM, Swain SL, Bradley LM. Location, location, location: the impact of migratory heterogeneity on T cell function. Front Immunol. 2013 Oct 08; 4:311. PMID: 24115949.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    
    37. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Marshall NB, Vong AM, Dutton RW, Swain SL. Multipronged CD4(+) T-cell effector and memory responses cooperate to provide potent immunity against respiratory virus. Immunol Rev. 2013 Sep; 255(1):149-64. PMID: 23947353.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Swain SL, Blomberg BB. Immune senescence: new insights into defects but continued mystery of root causes. Curr Opin Immunol. 2013 Aug; 25(4):495-7. PMID: 23962425.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. McKinstry KK, Dutton RW, Swain SL, Strutt TM. Memory CD4 T cell-mediated immunity against influenza A virus: more than a little helpful. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2013 Oct; 61(5):341-53. PMID: 23708562.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Hamada H, Bassity E, Flies A, Strutt TM, Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, McKinstry KK, Zou T, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Multiple redundant effector mechanisms of CD8+ T cells protect against influenza infection. J Immunol. 2013 Jan 01; 190(1):296-306. PMID: 23197262.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Pearl JE, Torrado E, Tighe M, Fountain JJ, Solache A, Strutt T, Swain S, Appelberg R, Cooper AM. Nitric oxide inhibits the accumulation of CD4+CD44hiTbet+CD69lo T cells in mycobacterial infection. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Dec; 42(12):3267-79. PMID: 22890814.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Kuang Y, Bradley LM, Swain SL. Memory CD4+ T-cell-mediated protection depends on secondary effectors that are distinct from and superior to primary effectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 18; 109(38):E2551-60. PMID: 22927425.
      Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Kuang Y, Brown DM, Sell S, Dutton RW, Swain SL. Memory CD4+ T cells protect against influenza through multiple synergizing mechanisms. J Clin Invest. 2012 Aug; 122(8):2847-56. PMID: 22820287.
      Citations: 136     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Haynes L, Swain SL. Aged-related shifts in T cell homeostasis lead to intrinsic T cell defects. Semin Immunol. 2012 Oct; 24(5):350-5. PMID: 22564707.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    45. Brown DM, Lee S, Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, Swain SL. Multifunctional CD4 cells expressing gamma interferon and perforin mediate protection against lethal influenza virus infection. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6792-803. PMID: 22491469.
      Citations: 152     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Swain SL, McKinstry KK, Strutt TM. Expanding roles for CD4? T cells in immunity to viruses. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Jan 20; 12(2):136-48. PMID: 22266691.
      Citations: 440     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Marshall NB, Swain SL. Cytotoxic CD4 T cells in antiviral immunity. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011; 2011:954602. PMID: 22174559.
      Citations: 96     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. An J, Golech S, Klaewsongkram J, Zhang Y, Subedi K, Huston GE, Wood WH, Wersto RP, Becker KG, Swain SL, Weng N. Kr?ppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) directly regulates proliferation in thymocyte development and IL-17 expression during Th17 differentiation. FASEB J. 2011 Oct; 25(10):3634-45. PMID: 21685331.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Swain SL. Hallmarks of CD4 T cell immunity against influenza. J Intern Med. 2011 May; 269(5):507-18. PMID: 21362069.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Swain SL. Control of innate immunity by memory CD4 T cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011; 780:57-68. PMID: 21842365.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Swain S. Grand challenges in immunological memory. Front Immunol. 2010; 1:103. PMID: 22566791.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    52. Jones SC, Brahmakshatriya V, Huston G, Dibble J, Swain SL. TLR-activated dendritic cells enhance the response of aged naive CD4 T cells via an IL-6-dependent mechanism. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6783-94. PMID: 20980632.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Tsukamoto H, Huston GE, Dibble J, Duso DK, Swain SL. Bim dictates naive CD4 T cell lifespan and the development of age-associated functional defects. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 15; 185(8):4535-44. PMID: 20844198.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Swain SL. Regulation of CD4+ T-cell contraction during pathogen challenge. Immunol Rev. 2010 Jul; 236:110-24. PMID: 20636812.
      Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Dibble JP, Winchell C, Kuang Y, Curtis JD, Huston G, Dutton RW, Swain SL. Memory CD4+ T cells induce innate responses independently of pathogen. Nat Med. 2010 May; 16(5):558-64, 1p following 564. PMID: 20436484.
      Citations: 112     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Swain SL. The potential of CD4 T-cell memory. Immunology. 2010 May; 130(1):1-9. PMID: 20331470.
      Citations: 68     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Tsukamoto H, Clise-Dwyer K, Huston GE, Duso DK, Buck AL, Johnson LL, Haynes L, Swain SL. Age-associated increase in lifespan of naive CD4 T cells contributes to T-cell homeostasis but facilitates development of functional defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 27; 106(43):18333-8. PMID: 19815516.
      Citations: 81     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Dorshkind K, Swain S. Age-associated declines in immune system development and function: causes, consequences, and reversal. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Aug; 21(4):404-7. PMID: 19632102.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. Maue AC, Yager EJ, Swain SL, Woodland DL, Blackman MA, Haynes L. T-cell immunosenescence: lessons learned from mouse models of aging. Trends Immunol. 2009 Jul; 30(7):301-5. PMID: 19541537.
      Citations: 88     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Buck A, Curtis JD, Dibble JP, Huston G, Tighe M, Hamada H, Sell S, Dutton RW, Swain SL. IL-10 deficiency unleashes an influenza-specific Th17 response and enhances survival against high-dose challenge. J Immunol. 2009 Jun 15; 182(12):7353-63. PMID: 19494257.
      Citations: 184     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Brown DM, Kamperschroer C, Dilzer AM, Roberts DM, Swain SL. IL-2 and antigen dose differentially regulate perforin- and FasL-mediated cytolytic activity in antigen specific CD4+ T cells. Cell Immunol. 2009; 257(1-2):69-79. PMID: 19338979.
      Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Hamada H, Garcia-Hernandez Mde L, Reome JB, Misra SK, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Cooper AM, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Tc17, a unique subset of CD8 T cells that can protect against lethal influenza challenge. J Immunol. 2009 Mar 15; 182(6):3469-81. PMID: 19265125.
      Citations: 195     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    63. Swain SL, Nikolich-Zugich J. Key research opportunities in immune system aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Feb; 64(2):183-6. PMID: 19251915.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    64. Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Swain SL. Functionally diverse subsets in CD4 T cell responses against influenza. J Clin Immunol. 2009 Mar; 29(2):145-50. PMID: 19050998.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    65. Eaton SM, Maue AC, Swain SL, Haynes L. Bone marrow precursor cells from aged mice generate CD4 T cells that function well in primary and memory responses. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 01; 181(7):4825-31. PMID: 18802086.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Kamperschroer C, Roberts DM, Zhang Y, Weng NP, Swain SL. SAP enables T cells to help B cells by a mechanism distinct from Th cell programming or CD40 ligand regulation. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 15; 181(6):3994-4003. PMID: 18768854.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Jones SC, Clise-Dwyer K, Huston G, Dibble J, Eaton S, Haynes L, Swain SL. Impact of post-thymic cellular longevity on the development of age-associated CD4+ T cell defects. J Immunol. 2008 Apr 01; 180(7):4465-75. PMID: 18354168.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Jelley-Gibbs DM, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Swain SL. Influencing the fates of CD4 T cells on the path to memory: lessons from influenza. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008 May-Jun; 86(4):343-52. PMID: 18362946.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    69. McKinstry KK, Strutt TM, Swain SL. The effector to memory transition of CD4 T cells. Immunol Res. 2008; 40(2):114-27. PMID: 18213525.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    70. Hinshaw-Makepeace J, Huston G, Fortner KA, Russell JQ, Holoch D, Swain S, Budd RC. c-FLIP(S) reduces activation of caspase and NF-kappaB pathways and decreases T cell survival. Eur J Immunol. 2008 Jan; 38(1):54-63. PMID: 18081036.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. McKinstry KK, Golech S, Lee WH, Huston G, Weng NP, Swain SL. Rapid default transition of CD4 T cell effectors to functional memory cells. J Exp Med. 2007 Sep 03; 204(9):2199-211. PMID: 17724126.
      Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Li X, McKinstry KK, Swain SL, Dalton DK. IFN-gamma acts directly on activated CD4+ T cells during mycobacterial infection to promote apoptosis by inducing components of the intracellular apoptosis machinery and by inducing extracellular proapoptotic signals. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 15; 179(2):939-49. PMID: 17617585.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    73. Jelley-Gibbs DM, Dibble JP, Brown DM, Strutt TM, McKinstry KK, Swain SL. Persistent depots of influenza antigen fail to induce a cytotoxic CD8 T cell response. J Immunol. 2007 Jun 15; 178(12):7563-70. PMID: 17548591.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Dienz O, Eaton SM, Krahl TJ, Diehl S, Charland C, Dodge J, Swain SL, Budd RC, Haynes L, Rincon M. Accumulation of NFAT mediates IL-2 expression in memory, but not na?ve, CD4+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Apr 24; 104(17):7175-80. PMID: 17438271.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. Khader SA, Bell GK, Pearl JE, Fountain JJ, Rangel-Moreno J, Cilley GE, Shen F, Eaton SM, Gaffen SL, Swain SL, Locksley RM, Haynes L, Randall TD, Cooper AM. IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr; 8(4):369-77. PMID: 17351619.
      Citations: 712     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Clise-Dwyer K, Huston GE, Buck AL, Duso DK, Swain SL. Environmental and intrinsic factors lead to antigen unresponsiveness in CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants from aged mice. J Immunol. 2007 Feb 01; 178(3):1321-31. PMID: 17237378.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Powell TJ, Strutt T, Reome J, Hollenbaugh JA, Roberts AD, Woodland DL, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Priming with cold-adapted influenza A does not prevent infection but elicits long-lived protection against supralethal challenge with heterosubtypic virus. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1030-8. PMID: 17202366.
      Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. Dutton RW, Swain SL, Woodland DL. Vaccines against pandemic influenza. Viral Immunol. 2007; 20(2):326-7. PMID: 17603849.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    79. Agrewala JN, Brown DM, Lepak NM, Duso D, Huston G, Swain SL. Unique ability of activated CD4+ T cells but not rested effectors to migrate to non-lymphoid sites in the absence of inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 02; 282(9):6106-15. PMID: 17197446.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. Kamperschroer C, Dibble JP, Meents DL, Schwartzberg PL, Swain SL. SAP is required for Th cell function and for immunity to influenza. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 15; 177(8):5317-27. PMID: 17015717.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    81. Brown DM, Dilzer AM, Meents DL, Swain SL. CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza: perforin and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch. J Immunol. 2006 Sep 01; 177(5):2888-98. PMID: 16920924.
      Citations: 182     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. Khader SA, Partida-Sanchez S, Bell G, Jelley-Gibbs DM, Swain S, Pearl JE, Ghilardi N, Desauvage FJ, Lund FE, Cooper AM. Interleukin 12p40 is required for dendritic cell migration and T cell priming after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2006 Jul 10; 203(7):1805-15. PMID: 16818672.
      Citations: 149     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Jelley-Gibbs D, Haynes L, Swain S. Antigen presentation and the regulation of CD4 memory generation to influenza. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2006 Jul; 2(4):601-11. PMID: 20477616.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    84. Kamperschroer C, Swain SL, Grussenmeyer T, Lefkovits I. SAP deficiency results in a striking alteration of the protein profile in activated CD4 T cells. J Proteome Res. 2006 Jul; 5(7):1785-91. PMID: 16823987.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. Haynes L, Swain SL. Why aging T cells fail: implications for vaccination. Immunity. 2006 Jun; 24(6):663-666. PMID: 16782020.
      Citations: 92     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    86. Swain SL, Agrewala JN, Brown DM, Jelley-Gibbs DM, Golech S, Huston G, Jones SC, Kamperschroer C, Lee WH, McKinstry KK, Rom?n E, Strutt T, Weng NP. CD4+ T-cell memory: generation and multi-faceted roles for CD4+ T cells in protective immunity to influenza. Immunol Rev. 2006 Jun; 211:8-22. PMID: 16824113.
      Citations: 104     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    87. Swain SL. Thanks for the memory! J Immunol. 2005 Oct 15; 175(8):4823-6. PMID: 16210582.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Swain S, Clise-Dwyer K, Haynes L. Homeostasis and the age-associated defect of CD4 T cells. Semin Immunol. 2005 Oct; 17(5):370-7. PMID: 15964201.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Jelley-Gibbs DM, Brown DM, Dibble JP, Haynes L, Eaton SM, Swain SL. Unexpected prolonged presentation of influenza antigens promotes CD4 T cell memory generation. J Exp Med. 2005 Sep 05; 202(5):697-706. PMID: 16147980.
      Citations: 145     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Crowe SR, Miller SC, Brown DM, Adams PS, Dutton RW, Harmsen AG, Lund FE, Randall TD, Swain SL, Woodland DL. Uneven distribution of MHC class II epitopes within the influenza virus. Vaccine. 2006 Jan 23; 24(4):457-67. PMID: 16140434.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Haynes L, Swain SL, Cambier J, Fulder R. Aging and immune function. Summary of a workshop held at Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Jun-Jul; 126(6-7):822-5. PMID: 15981319.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    92. Misra RS, Jelley-Gibbs DM, Russell JQ, Huston G, Swain SL, Budd RC. Effector CD4+ T cells generate intermediate caspase activity and cleavage of caspase-8 substrates. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 01; 174(7):3999-4009. PMID: 15778357.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Jelley-Gibbs DM, Dibble JP, Filipson S, Haynes L, Kemp RA, Swain SL. Repeated stimulation of CD4 effector T cells can limit their protective function. J Exp Med. 2005 Apr 04; 201(7):1101-12. PMID: 15795235.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    94. Haynes L, Eaton SM, Burns EM, Randall TD, Swain SL. Newly generated CD4 T cells in aged animals do not exhibit age-related defects in response to antigen. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 21; 201(6):845-51. PMID: 15781577.
      Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    95. Bradley LM, Haynes L, Swain SL. IL-7: maintaining T-cell memory and achieving homeostasis. Trends Immunol. 2005 Mar; 26(3):172-6. PMID: 15745860.
      Citations: 104     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    96. Lyadova IV, Oberdorf S, Kapina MA, Apt AS, Swain SL, Sayles PC. CD4 T cells producing IFN-gamma in the lungs of mice challenged with mycobacteria express a CD27-negative phenotype. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004 Oct; 138(1):21-9. PMID: 15373901.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. Powell TJ, Brown DM, Hollenbaugh JA, Charbonneau T, Kemp RA, Swain SL, Dutton RW. CD8+ T cells responding to influenza infection reach and persist at higher numbers than CD4+ T cells independently of precursor frequency. Clin Immunol. 2004 Oct; 113(1):89-100. PMID: 15380534.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Mouse T-lymphocyte subpopulations: relationships between function and Lyt antigen phenotype. Immunol Today. 1980 Sep; 1(3):61-5. PMID: 25289764.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    99. Brown DM, Rom?n E, Swain SL. CD4 T cell responses to influenza infection. Semin Immunol. 2004 Jun; 16(3):171-7. PMID: 15130501.
      Citations: 70     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    100. Haynes L, Eaton SM, Burns EM, Rincon M, Swain SL. Inflammatory cytokines overcome age-related defects in CD4 T cell responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2004 May 01; 172(9):5194-9. PMID: 15100256.
      Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Swain SL, Dutton RW, Woodland DL. T cell responses to influenza virus infection: effector and memory cells. Viral Immunol. 2004; 17(2):197-209. PMID: 15279699.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    102. Li J, Huston G, Swain SL. IL-7 promotes the transition of CD4 effectors to persistent memory cells. J Exp Med. 2003 Dec 15; 198(12):1807-15. PMID: 14676295.
      Citations: 129     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Haynes L, Eaton SM, Burns EM, Randall TD, Swain SL. CD4 T cell memory derived from young naive cells functions well into old age, but memory generated from aged naive cells functions poorly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Dec 09; 100(25):15053-8. PMID: 14657384.
      Citations: 121     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Swain SL. Regulation of the generation and maintenance of T-cell memory: a direct, default pathway from effectors to memory cells. Microbes Infect. 2003 Mar; 5(3):213-9. PMID: 12681410.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    105. Rogerson BJ, Harris DP, Swain SL, Burgess DO. Germinal center B cells in Peyer's patches of aged mice exhibit a normal activation phenotype and highly mutated IgM genes. Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 Feb; 124(2):155-65. PMID: 12633935.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    106. Yen MH, Lepak N, Swain SL. Induction of CD4 T cell changes in murine AIDS is dependent on costimulation and involves a dysregulation of homeostasis. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 15; 169(2):722-31. PMID: 12097374.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    107. Harris DP, Koch S, Mullen LM, Swain SL. B cell immunodeficiency fails to develop in CD4-deficient mice infected with BM5: murine AIDS as a multistep disease. J Immunol. 2001 May 15; 166(10):6041-9. PMID: 11342621.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Harris DP, Haynes L, Sayles PC, Duso DK, Eaton SM, Lepak NM, Johnson LL, Swain SL, Lund FE. Reciprocal regulation of polarized cytokine production by effector B and T cells. Nat Immunol. 2000 Dec; 1(6):475-82. PMID: 11101868.
      Citations: 307     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    109. Cauley LS, Miller EE, Yen M, Swain SL. Superantigen-induced CD4 T cell tolerance mediated by myeloid cells and IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 01; 165(11):6056-66. PMID: 11086037.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    110. Jelley-Gibbs DM, Lepak NM, Yen M, Swain SL. Two distinct stages in the transition from naive CD4 T cells to effectors, early antigen-dependent and late cytokine-driven expansion and differentiation. J Immunol. 2000 Nov 01; 165(9):5017-26. PMID: 11046030.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Mahnke K, Guo M, Lee S, Sepulveda H, Swain SL, Nussenzweig M, Steinman RM. The dendritic cell receptor for endocytosis, DEC-205, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II-positive lysosomal compartments. J Cell Biol. 2000 Oct 30; 151(3):673-84. PMID: 11062267.
      Citations: 178     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    112. Dalton DK, Haynes L, Chu CQ, Swain SL, Wittmer S. Interferon gamma eliminates responding CD4 T cells during mycobacterial infection by inducing apoptosis of activated CD4 T cells. J Exp Med. 2000 Jul 03; 192(1):117-22. PMID: 10880532.
      Citations: 96     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    113. Swain SL. CD4 T-cell memory can persist in the absence of class II. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Mar 29; 355(1395):407-11. PMID: 10794062.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    114. Rogers PR, Dubey C, Swain SL. Qualitative changes accompany memory T cell generation: faster, more effective responses at lower doses of antigen. J Immunol. 2000 Mar 01; 164(5):2338-46. PMID: 10679068.
      Citations: 100     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Haynes L, Eaton SM, Swain SL. The defects in effector generation associated with aging can be reversed by addition of IL-2 but not other related gamma(c)-receptor binding cytokines. Vaccine. 2000 Feb 25; 18(16):1649-53. PMID: 10689143.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    116. Cerwenka A, Swain SL. TGF-beta1: immunosuppressant and viability factor for T lymphocytes. Microbes Infect. 1999 Dec; 1(15):1291-6. PMID: 10611757.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    117. Quong MW, Harris DP, Swain SL, Murre C. E2A activity is induced during B-cell activation to promote immunoglobulin class switch recombination. EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15; 18(22):6307-18. PMID: 10562543.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    118. Swain SL, Hu H, Huston G. Class II-independent generation of CD4 memory T cells from effectors. Science. 1999 Nov 12; 286(5443):1381-3. PMID: 10558997.
      Citations: 124     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    119. Haynes L, Linton PJ, Eaton SM, Tonkonogy SL, Swain SL. Interleukin 2, but not other common gamma chain-binding cytokines, can reverse the defect in generation of CD4 effector T cells from naive T cells of aged mice. J Exp Med. 1999 Oct 04; 190(7):1013-24. PMID: 10510091.
      Citations: 119     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    120. Dutton RW, Swain SL, Bradley LM. The generation and maintenance of memory T and B cells. Immunol Today. 1999 Jul; 20(7):291-3. PMID: 10475676.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    121. Swain SL. Helper T cell differentiation. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Apr; 11(2):180-5. PMID: 10322154.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    122. Rogers PR, Huston G, Swain SL. High antigen density and IL-2 are required for generation of CD4 effectors secreting Th1 rather than Th0 cytokines. J Immunol. 1998 Oct 15; 161(8):3844-52. PMID: 9780149.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    123. Carter LL, Swain SL. From naive to memory. Development and regulation of CD4+ T cell responses. Immunol Res. 1998 Aug; 18(1):1-13. PMID: 9724845.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    124. Cerwenka A, Carter LL, Reome JB, Swain SL, Dutton RW. In vivo persistence of CD8 polarized T cell subsets producing type 1 or type 2 cytokines. J Immunol. 1998 Jul 01; 161(1):97-105. PMID: 9647212.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    125. Carter LL, Zhang X, Dubey C, Rogers P, Tsui L, Swain SL. Regulation of T cell subsets from naive to memory. J Immunother. 1998 May; 21(3):181-7. PMID: 9610909.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    126. Yasui DH, Genetta T, Kadesch T, Williams TM, Swain SL, Tsui LV, Huber BT. Transcriptional repression of the IL-2 gene in Th cells by ZEB. J Immunol. 1998 May 01; 160(9):4433-40. PMID: 9574548.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    127. Dutton RW, Bradley LM, Swain SL. T cell memory. Annu Rev Immunol. 1998; 16:201-23. PMID: 9597129.
      Citations: 216     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    128. Andrews C, Swain SL, Muralidhar G. CD4 T cell anergy in murine AIDS: costimulation via CD28 and the addition of IL-12 are not sufficient to rescue anergic CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 1997 Sep 01; 159(5):2132-8. PMID: 9278299.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    129. Cauley LS, Cauley KA, Shub F, Huston G, Swain SL. Transferable anergy: superantigen treatment induces CD4+ T cell tolerance that is reversible and requires CD4-CD8- cells and interferon gamma. J Exp Med. 1997 Jul 07; 186(1):71-81. PMID: 9206999.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    130. Zhang X, Brunner T, Carter L, Dutton RW, Rogers P, Bradley L, Sato T, Reed JC, Green D, Swain SL. Unequal death in T helper cell (Th)1 and Th2 effectors: Th1, but not Th2, effectors undergo rapid Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis. J Exp Med. 1997 May 19; 185(10):1837-49. PMID: 9151709.
      Citations: 106     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    131. Carter LL, Swain SL. Single cell analyses of cytokine production. Curr Opin Immunol. 1997 Apr; 9(2):177-82. PMID: 9099799.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    132. Haynes L, Linton PJ, Swain SL. Age-related changes in CD4 T cells of T cell receptor transgenic mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 1997 Feb; 93(1-3):95-105. PMID: 9089574.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    133. Linton PJ, Haynes L, Klinman NR, Swain SL. Antigen-independent changes in naive CD4 T cells with aging. J Exp Med. 1996 Nov 01; 184(5):1891-900. PMID: 8920876.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    134. Dubey C, Croft M, Swain SL. Naive and effector CD4 T cells differ in their requirements for T cell receptor versus costimulatory signals. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 15; 157(8):3280-9. PMID: 8871622.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    135. Muralidhar G, Koch S, Broome HE, Swain SL. TCR triggering of anergic CD4 T cells in murine AIDS induces apoptosis rather than cytokine synthesis and proliferation. J Immunol. 1996 Jul 15; 157(2):625-35. PMID: 8752910.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    136. Raz E, Tighe H, Sato Y, Corr M, Dudler JA, Roman M, Swain SL, Spiegelberg HL, Carson DA. Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):5141-5. PMID: 8643542.
      Citations: 72     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    137. Yoshimoto K, Swain SL, Bradley LM. Enhanced development of Th2-like primary CD4 effectors in response to sustained exposure to limited rIL-4 in vivo. J Immunol. 1996 May 01; 156(9):3267-74. PMID: 8617949.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    138. Swain SL, Croft M, Dubey C, Haynes L, Rogers P, Zhang X, Bradley LM. From naive to memory T cells. Immunol Rev. 1996 Apr; 150:143-67. PMID: 8782706.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    139. Jaiswal AI, Dubey C, Swain SL, Croft M. Regulation of CD40 ligand expression on naive CD4 T cells: a role for TCR but not co-stimulatory signals. Int Immunol. 1996 Feb; 8(2):275-85. PMID: 8671613.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    140. Zhang X, Giangreco L, Broome HE, Dargan CM, Swain SL. Control of CD4 effector fate: transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukin 2 synergize to prevent apoptosis and promote effector expansion. J Exp Med. 1995 Sep 01; 182(3):699-709. PMID: 7650478.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    141. Bradley LM, Yoshimoto K, Swain SL. The cytokines IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 regulate the development of subsets of memory effector helper T cells in vitro. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 15; 155(4):1713-24. PMID: 7636230.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    142. Swain SL. T-cell subsets. Who does the polarizing? Curr Biol. 1995 Aug 01; 5(8):849-51. PMID: 7583138.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    143. Dubey C, Croft M, Swain SL. Costimulatory requirements of naive CD4+ T cells. ICAM-1 or B7-1 can costimulate naive CD4 T cell activation but both are required for optimum response. J Immunol. 1995 Jul 01; 155(1):45-57. PMID: 7541426.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    144. Croft M, Swain SL. Recently activated naive CD4 T cells can help resting B cells, and can produce sufficient autocrine IL-4 to drive differentiation to secretion of T helper 2-type cytokines. J Immunol. 1995 May 01; 154(9):4269-82. PMID: 7536767.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    145. Swain SL. CD4 T cell development and cytokine polarization: an overview. J Leukoc Biol. 1995 May; 57(5):795-8. PMID: 7759960.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    146. Bradley LM, Watson SR, Swain SL. Entry of naive CD4 T cells into peripheral lymph nodes requires L-selectin. J Exp Med. 1994 Dec 01; 180(6):2401-6. PMID: 7525854.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    147. Croft M, Carter L, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Generation of polarized antigen-specific CD8 effector populations: reciprocal action of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in promoting type 2 versus type 1 cytokine profiles. J Exp Med. 1994 Nov 01; 180(5):1715-28. PMID: 7525836.
      Citations: 122     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    148. Swain SL. Generation and in vivo persistence of polarized Th1 and Th2 memory cells. Immunity. 1994 Oct; 1(7):543-52. PMID: 7600283.
      Citations: 72     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    149. Duncan DD, Swain SL. Role of antigen-presenting cells in the polarized development of helper T cell subsets: evidence for differential cytokine production by Th0 cells in response to antigen presentation by B cells and macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 1994 Oct; 24(10):2506-14. PMID: 7925578.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    150. Koch S, Muralidhar G, Swain SL. Both naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets become anergic during MAIDS and each subset can sustain disease. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 01; 152(11):5548-56. PMID: 7910621.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    151. Croft M, Bradley LM, Swain SL. Naive versus memory CD4 T cell response to antigen. Memory cells are less dependent on accessory cell costimulation and can respond to many antigen-presenting cell types including resting B cells. J Immunol. 1994 Mar 15; 152(6):2675-85. PMID: 7908301.
      Citations: 147     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    152. Tonkonogy SL, Swain SL. Distinct lymphokine production by CD4+ T cells isolated from mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Immunology. 1993 Dec; 80(4):574-80. PMID: 7905860.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    153. Swain SL. IL4 dictates T-cell differentiation. Res Immunol. 1993 Oct; 144(8):616-20. PMID: 7905654.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    154. Swain SL. Effector functions of helper T cells. J Immunother Emphasis Tumor Immunol. 1993 Aug; 14(2):150-4. PMID: 7904179.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    155. Bradley LM, Croft M, Swain SL. T-cell memory: new perspectives. Immunol Today. 1993 May; 14(5):197-9. PMID: 8100135.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    156. Bradley LM, Duncan DD, Yoshimoto K, Swain SL. Memory effectors: a potent, IL-4-secreting helper T cell population that develops in vivo after restimulation with antigen. J Immunol. 1993 Apr 15; 150(8 Pt 1):3119-30. PMID: 8096850.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    157. Swain SL. Helper T cells: polarized patterns of cytokine secretion. Curr Biol. 1993 Feb; 3(2):115-7. PMID: 15335808.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    158. Croft M, Swain SL. Analysis of CD4+ T cells that provide contact-dependent bystander help to B cells. J Immunol. 1992 Nov 15; 149(10):3157-65. PMID: 1358966.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    159. Croft M, Duncan DD, Swain SL. Response of naive antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro: characteristics and antigen-presenting cell requirements. J Exp Med. 1992 Nov 01; 176(5):1431-7. PMID: 1357074.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    160. Muralidhar G, Koch S, Haas M, Swain SL. CD4 T cells in murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: polyclonal progression to anergy. J Exp Med. 1992 Jun 01; 175(6):1589-99. PMID: 1588283.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    161. Weinberg AD, Whitham R, Swain SL, Morrison WJ, Wyrick G, Hoy C, Vandenbark AA, Offner H. Transforming growth factor-beta enhances the in vivo effector function and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T helper cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 1992 Apr 01; 148(7):2109-17. PMID: 1347550.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    162. Swain SL, Bradley LM. Helper T cell memory: more questions than answers. Semin Immunol. 1992 Feb; 4(1):59-68. PMID: 1350469.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    163. Bradley LM, Atkins GG, Swain SL. Long-term CD4+ memory T cells from the spleen lack MEL-14, the lymph node homing receptor. J Immunol. 1992 Jan 15; 148(2):324-31. PMID: 1345918.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    164. Croft M, Swain SL. B cell response to T helper cell subsets. II. Both the stage of T cell differentiation and the cytokines secreted determine the extent and nature of helper activity. J Immunol. 1991 Dec 01; 147(11):3679-89. PMID: 1682380.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    165. Swain SL, Huston G, Tonkonogy S, Weinberg A. Transforming growth factor-beta and IL-4 cause helper T cell precursors to develop into distinct effector helper cells that differ in lymphokine secretion pattern and cell surface phenotype. J Immunol. 1991 Nov 01; 147(9):2991-3000. PMID: 1680924.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    166. Swain SL, Bradley LM, Croft M, Tonkonogy S, Atkins G, Weinberg AD, Duncan DD, Hedrick SM, Dutton RW, Huston G. Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development. Immunol Rev. 1991 Oct; 123:115-44. PMID: 1684776.
      Citations: 92     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    167. Bradley LM, Duncan DD, Tonkonogy S, Swain SL. Characterization of antigen-specific CD4+ effector T cells in vivo: immunization results in a transient population of MEL-14-, CD45RB- helper cells that secretes interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma. J Exp Med. 1991 Sep 01; 174(3):547-59. PMID: 1678774.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    168. Croft M, Swain SL. B cell response to fresh and effector T helper cells. Role of cognate T-B interaction and the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. J Immunol. 1991 Jun 15; 146(12):4055-64. PMID: 1828258.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    169. Swain SL. Lymphokines and the immune response: the central role of interleukin-2. Curr Opin Immunol. 1991 Jun; 3(3):304-10. PMID: 1910607.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    170. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Is autoimmunity good for you? The Molecular Basis of Recognition in the Immune System sponsored by the European Federation of Immunological Societies, Edinburgh, UK, September 10-12, 1990. New Biol. 1991 Feb; 3(2):117-20. PMID: 2065006.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    171. Swain SL. Regulation of the development of helper T cell subsets. Immunol Res. 1991; 10(3-4):177-82. PMID: 1835475.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    172. Kubota E, McKenzie DT, Dutton RW, Swain SL. Role of T cells in the B-cell response: glutaraldehyde-fixed T-helper hybridoma cells synergize with the lymphokine IL-4 to induce B-cell activation and proliferation. Immunology. 1991 Jan; 72(1):40-7. PMID: 1825482.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    173. Swain SL. Regulation of the development of distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells. Res Immunol. 1991 Jan; 142(1):14-8. PMID: 1829254.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    174. Swain SL, Weinberg AD, English M, Huston G. IL-4 directs the development of Th2-like helper effectors. J Immunol. 1990 Dec 01; 145(11):3796-806. PMID: 2147202.
      Citations: 320     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    175. Weinberg AD, Swain SL. IL-2 receptor (Tac antigen) protein expression is down-regulated by the 5'-untranslated region of the mRNA. J Immunol. 1990 Jun 15; 144(12):4712-20. PMID: 2351826.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    176. Swain SL, Croft M. Critical role of cognate interactions in the response of small, high-density B cells. Res Immunol. 1990 May-Jun; 141(4-5):431-40. PMID: 2148429.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    177. Weinberg AD, English M, Swain SL. Distinct regulation of lymphokine production is found in fresh versus in vitro primed murine helper T cells. J Immunol. 1990 Mar 01; 144(5):1800-7. PMID: 1968491.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    178. Swain SL, Weinberg AD, English M. CD4+ T cell subsets. Lymphokine secretion of memory cells and of effector cells that develop from precursors in vitro. J Immunol. 1990 Mar 01; 144(5):1788-99. PMID: 1968490.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    179. Tonkonogy SL, McKenzie DT, Swain SL. Regulation of isotype production by IL-4 and IL-5. Effects of lymphokines on Ig production depend on the state of activation of the responding B cells. J Immunol. 1989 Jun 15; 142(12):4351-60. PMID: 2786030.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    180. Swain SL. Role of helper T cells in the B cell response. Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1989; 11:43-72. PMID: 2531063.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    181. Southern SO, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Induction of the H-2 D antigen during B cell activation. J Immunol. 1989 Jan 01; 142(1):336-42. PMID: 2642506.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    182. Swain SL, McKenzie DT, Weinberg AD, Hancock W. Characterization of T helper 1 and 2 cell subsets in normal mice. Helper T cells responsible for IL-4 and IL-5 production are present as precursors that require priming before they develop into lymphokine-secreting cells. J Immunol. 1988 Nov 15; 141(10):3445-55. PMID: 2972774.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    183. Swain SL, Dutton RW, McKenzie D, Helstrom H, English M. Role of antigen in the B cell response. Specific antigen and the lymphokine IL-5 synergize to drive B cell lymphoma proliferation and differentiation to Ig secretion. J Immunol. 1988 Jun 15; 140(12):4224-30. PMID: 2453572.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    184. Tonkonogy SL, Swain SL. Stimulation of gut-associated lymphoid cells by IL-4 and B-cell growth factor II. Immunology. 1988 May; 64(1):155-61. PMID: 2454884.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    185. Swain SL, McKenzie DT, Dutton RW, Tonkonogy SL, English M. The role of IL4 and IL5: characterization of a distinct helper T cell subset that makes IL4 and IL5 (Th2) and requires priming before induction of lymphokine secretion. Immunol Rev. 1988 Feb; 102:77-105. PMID: 2966763.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    186. Pfeifer JD, McKenzie DT, Swain SL, Dutton RW. B cell stimulatory factor 1 (interleukin 4) is sufficient for the proliferation and differentiation of lectin-stimulated cytolytic T lymphocyte precursors. J Exp Med. 1987 Nov 01; 166(5):1464-70. PMID: 3500262.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    187. Murray PD, McKenzie DT, Swain SL, Kagnoff MF. Interleukin 5 and interleukin 4 produced by Peyer's patch T cells selectively enhance immunoglobulin A expression. J Immunol. 1987 Oct 15; 139(8):2669-74. PMID: 3498768.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    188. McKenzie DT, Filutowicz HI, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Purification and partial sequence analysis of murine B cell growth factor II (interleukin 5). J Immunol. 1987 Oct 15; 139(8):2661-8. PMID: 3498767.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    189. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Consequences of the direct interaction of helper T cells with B cells presenting antigen. Immunol Rev. 1987 Oct; 99:263-80. PMID: 2960607.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    190. Kupfer A, Singer SJ, Janeway CA, Swain SL. Coclustering of CD4 (L3T4) molecule with the T-cell receptor is induced by specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug; 84(16):5888-92. PMID: 2956608.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    191. Kupfer A, Swain SL, Singer SJ. The specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells. II. Reorientation of the microtubule organizing center and reorganization of the membrane-associated cytoskeleton inside the bound helper T cells. J Exp Med. 1987 Jun 01; 165(6):1565-80. PMID: 2953845.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    192. Southern SO, Swain SL, Dutton RW. B cell surface glycoprotein induced during growth response: molecular structure and expression pattern. J Immunol. 1987 Apr 15; 138(8):2568-75. PMID: 3494078.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    193. Swain SL, Dutton RW. B cell growth factor interactions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987; 213:215-25. PMID: 3498300.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    194. Kupfer A, Swain SL, Janeway CA, Singer SJ. The specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug; 83(16):6080-3. PMID: 3526350.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    195. Murray PD, Swain SL, Kagnoff MP. Regulation of the IgM and IgA anti-dextran B1355S response: synergy between IFN-gamma, BCGF II, and IL 2. J Immunol. 1985 Dec; 135(6):4015-20. PMID: 2415594.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    196. Swain SL. Role of BCGFII in the differentiation to antibody secretion normal and tumor B cells. J Immunol. 1985 Jun; 134(6):3934-43. PMID: 2580899.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    197. Swain SL, Dutton RW. T-cell factors that promote B-cell proliferation and differentiation. Contemp Top Mol Immunol. 1985; 10:219-29. PMID: 2579768.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    198. Wetzel GD, Swain SL, Dutton RW, Kettman JR. Evidence for two distinct activation states available to B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1984 Nov; 133(5):2327-32. PMID: 6207225.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    199. Dutton RW, Wetzel GD, Swain SL. Partial purification and characterization of a BCGFII from EL4 culture supernatants. J Immunol. 1984 May; 132(5):2451-6. PMID: 6609198.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    200. Swain SL, Dialynas DP, Fitch FW, English M. Monoclonal antibody to L3T4 blocks the function of T cells specific for class 2 major histocompatibility complex antigens. J Immunol. 1984 Mar; 132(3):1118-23. PMID: 6198377.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    201. Kagnoff MF, Arner LS, Swain SL. Lymphokine-mediated activation of a T cell-dependent IgA antipolysaccharide response. J Immunol. 1983 Nov; 131(5):2210-4. PMID: 6195258.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    202. Swain SL, Howard M, Kappler J, Marrack P, Watson J, Booth R, Wetzel GD, Dutton RW. Evidence for two distinct classes of murine B cell growth factors with activities in different functional assays. J Exp Med. 1983 Sep 01; 158(3):822-35. PMID: 6604127.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    203. Swain SL, Dutton RW, Schwab R, Yamamoto J. Xenogeneic human anti-mouse T cell responses are due to the activity of the same functional T cell subsets responsible for allospecific and major histocompatibility complex-restricted responses. J Exp Med. 1983 Feb 01; 157(2):720-9. PMID: 6185618.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    204. Swain SL. T cell subsets and the recognition of MHC class. Immunol Rev. 1983; 74:129-42. PMID: 6226585.
      Citations: 169     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    205. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Production of a B cell growth-promoting activity, (DL)BCGF, from a cloned T cell line and its assay on the BCL1 B cell tumor. J Exp Med. 1982 Dec 01; 156(6):1821-34. PMID: 6983561.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    206. Zimmerman B, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Immunosuppressive ATS. V. Analysis of the effect of anti-thymocyte serum on T lymphocyte subsets. J Immunol. 1982 Aug; 129(2):515-20. PMID: 6211488.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    207. Wetzel GD, Swain SL, Dutton RW. A monoclonal T cell-replacing activity can act directly on B cells to enhance clonal expansion. J Exp Med. 1982 Jul 01; 156(1):306-11. PMID: 6979606.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    208. Dutton RW, Swain SL. Regulation of the immune response T-cell interactions. CRC Crit Rev Immunol. 1982 Feb; 3(3):209-61. PMID: 6176399.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    209. Swain SL, Wetzel GD, Soubiran P, Dutton RW. T cell replacing factors in the B cell response to antigen. Immunol Rev. 1982; 63:111-28. PMID: 7042542.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    210. Swain SL, Dutton RW. The role of IA in G-cell activation. Transplant Proc. 1981 Dec; 13(4):1843-5. PMID: 6977219.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    211. Pur? E, Isakson PC, Takatsu K, Hamaoka T, Swain SL, Dutton RW, Dennert G, Uhr JW, Vitetta ES. Induction of B cell differentiation by T cell factors. I. Stimulation of IgM secretion by products of a T cell hybridoma and a T cell line. J Immunol. 1981 Nov; 127(5):1953-8. PMID: 6975305.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    212. Swain SL. Significance of Lyt phenotypes: Lyt2 antibodies block activities of T cells that recognize class 1 major histocompatibility complex antigens regardless of their function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Nov; 78(11):7101-5. PMID: 6975943.
      Citations: 69     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    213. Swain SL. Significance of class 1 and class 2 major histocompatibility complex antigens: help to allogeneic K and D antigens does not involve I recognition. J Immunol. 1981 Jun; 126(6):2307-9. PMID: 6164727.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    214. Swain SL, Dennert G, Warner JF, Dutton RW. Culture supernatants of a stimulated T-cell line have helper activity that acts synergistically with interleukin 2 in the response of B cells to antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr; 78(4):2517-21. PMID: 6787609.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    215. Swain SL, Dennert G, Wormsley S, Dutton RW. The Lyt phenotype of a long-term allospecific T cell line. Both helper and killer activities to IA are mediated by Ly-1 cells. Eur J Immunol. 1981 Mar; 11(3):175-80. PMID: 6972304.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    216. Dennert G, Swain SL, Waterfield JD, Warner JF, Dutton RW. Fine specificity mapping of two allospecific T cell lines: recognition of private specificities in the H-2 IA subregion. Eur J Immunol. 1981 Jan; 11(1):62-4. PMID: 6163637.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    217. Shih WW, Matzinger PC, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Analysis of histocompatibility requirements for proliferative and helper T cell activity. T cell populations depleted of alloreactive cells by negative selection. J Exp Med. 1980 Nov 01; 152(5):1311-28. PMID: 6159449.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    218. Swain SL. Association of Ly phenotypes, T cell function and MHC recognition. Fed Proc. 1980 Nov; 39(13):3110-3. PMID: 6968693.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    219. Swain SL. Role of Ia-positive cells in the production of T cell-replacing factors: blocking of factor production with anti-Ia serum. J Immunol. 1980 Sep; 125(3):1224-9. PMID: 6967893.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    220. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Production of Con A-induced helper T cell replacing factor requires a T cell and an Ia-positive non-T cells. J Immunol. 1980 Jan; 124(1):437-44. PMID: 6965298.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    221. Swain SL, Bakke A, English M, Dutton RW. Ly phenotypes and MHC recognition: the allohelper that recognizes K or D is a mature Ly123 cell. J Immunol. 1979 Dec; 123(6):2716-24. PMID: 387874.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    222. Swain SL, Panfili PR, Dutton RW, Lefkovits I. Frequency of allogeneic helper T cells responding to whole H-2 differences and to an H-2K difference alone. J Immunol. 1979 Sep; 123(3):1062-7. PMID: 313942.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    223. Waterfield JD, Dennert G, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Continuously proliferating allospecific T cells. I. Specificity of cooperation with allogeneic B cells in the humoral antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. J Exp Med. 1979 Apr 01; 149(4):808-14. PMID: 311816.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    224. Swain SL, Panfili PR. Helper cells activated by allogeneic H-2K or H-2D differences have a Ly phenotype distinct from those responsive to I differences. J Immunol. 1979 Feb; 122(2):383-91. PMID: 310839.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    225. Swain SL. Mechanism of allosuppression: evidence for direct suppression of responding B cells. J Immunol. 1978 Aug; 121(2):671-7. PMID: 308076.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    226. Dutton RW, Panfili PR, Swain SL. Alloreactivity, the development of the T cell repertoire and the understanding of T cell function. Immunol Rev. 1978; 42:20-59. PMID: 83699.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    227. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Negative allogeneic effects in vitro. II. Mapping of histocompatibility differences leading to allosuppression. J Immunol. 1977 Sep; 119(3):1179-86. PMID: 330751.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    228. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Negative allogeneic effects in vitro. I. Allogeneic T cells markedly suppress the secondary antibody-forming cell response. J Immunol. 1977 Jun; 118(6):2262-8. PMID: 325144.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    229. Swain SL, Trefts PE, Tse HY, Dutton RW. The significance of T-B collaboration across haplotype barriers. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1977; 41 Pt 2:597-609. PMID: 302180.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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