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Sanjay Ram MD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
364 Plantation Street LRB-322
Worcester MA 01605
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    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

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    Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai, MH, IndiaMBBSMedicine and Surgery

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    The focus of our group is to elucidate how the complement system (an arm of innate immune defenses) interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the bacteria that cause gonorrhea) and N. meningitidis (the agent of bacterial meningitis).  This knowledge is now being used to develop novel immunotherapeutics and vaccines against multidrug-resistant gonorrhea.  Gonococci scavenge host complement inhibitors to escape killing by complement.  The first approach being investigated includes fusing the microbial binding region of complement inhibitors with the Fc region of antibody, which enhances complement-dependent lysis of bacteria.  A key aspect of gonococcal pathogenesis is its ability to use a sugar called sialic acid from the host to escape immune defenses.  In the second approach, we are investigating the use of analogs of sialic acid that are taken up by the bacteria, but unlike the ‘physiological’ form of sialic acid, fail to protect the bacteria against host defenses and results in faster clearance of bacteria in the murine model of gonorrhea. In collaboration with Dr. Peter Rice's group at UMass, our group is developing a monoclonal antibody and a vaccine that target a gonococcal glycan epitope. 


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Bendapudi PK, Nazeen S, Ryu J, S?ylemez O, Robbins A, Rouaisnel B, O'Neil JK, Pokhriyal R, Yang M, Colling M, Pasko B, Bouzinier M, Tomczak L, Collier L, Barrios D, Ram S, Toth-Petroczy A, Krier J, Fieg E, Dzik WH, Hudspeth JC, Pozdnyakova O, Nardi V, Knight J, Maas R, Sunyaev S, Losman JA. Low-frequency inherited complement receptor variants are associated with purpura fulminans. Blood. 2024 Mar 14; 143(11):1032-1044. PMID: 38096369.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    2. Foss S, Sakya SA, Aguinagalde L, Lustig M, Shaughnessy J, Cruz AR, Scheepmaker L, Mathiesen L, Ruso-Julve F, Anthi AK, Gj?lberg TT, Mester S, Bern M, Evers M, Bratlie DB, Michaelsen TE, Schlothauer T, Sok D, Bhattacharya J, Leusen J, Valerius T, Ram S, Rooijakkers SHM, Sandlie I, Andersen JT. Human IgG Fc-engineering for enhanced plasma half-life, mucosal distribution and killing of cancer cells and bacteria. Nat Commun. 2024 Mar 07; 15(1):2007. PMID: 38453922.
    3. Menon SS, Ramirez-Toloza G, Wycoff KL, Ehinger S, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Ferreira VP. Mechanisms by which Factor H protects Trypanosoma cruzi from the alternative pathway of complement. Front Immunol. 2024; 15:1152000. PMID: 38361922.
    4. Roe SK, Felter B, Zheng B, Ram S, Wetzler LM, Garges E, Zhu T, Genco CA, Massari P. In Vitro Pre-Clinical Evaluation of a Gonococcal Trivalent Candidate Vaccine Identified by Transcriptomics. Vaccines (Basel). 2023 Dec 13; 11(12). PMID: 38140249.
    5. Morrill SR, Saha S, Varki AP, Lewis WG, Ram S, Lewis AL. Gardnerella Vaginolysin Potentiates Glycan Molecular Mimicry by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Infect Dis. 2023 11 28; 228(11):1610-1620. PMID: 37722688.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Gulati S, Mattsson AH, Schussek S, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Rice PA, Comstedt P, Ram S. Preclinical efficacy of a cell division protein candidate gonococcal vaccine identified by artificial intelligence. mBio. 2023 Oct 31; e0250023. PMID: 37905891.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    7. Su X, Le W, Zhu X, Li S, Wang B, Madico G, Yang Z, Chaisson CE, McLaughlin RE, Gandra S, Yoon J, Zheng B, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Reed GW, Ram S, Rice PA. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in Women Increases With Rising Gonococcal Burdens in Partners: Chlamydia Coinfection in Women Increases Gonococcal Burden. J Infect Dis. 2022 12 13; 226(12):2192-2203. PMID: 36201640.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. Shaughnessy J, Chabeda A, Lewis LA, Ram S. Alternative pathway amplification and infections. Immunol Rev. 2023 01; 313(1):162-180. PMID: 36336911.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Shaughnessy J, Chabeda A, Tran Y, Zheng B, Nowak N, Steffens C, DeOliveira RB, Gulati S, Lewis LA, Maclean J, Moss JA, Wycoff KL, Ram S. An optimized Factor H-Fc fusion protein against multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Front Immunol. 2022; 13:975676. PMID: 36110842.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    10. Lewis LA, Gulati S, Zelek WM, Morgan BP, Song WC, Zheng B, Nowak N, DeOliveira RB, Sanchez B, DeSouza Silva L, Schuurman J, Beurskens F, Ram S, Rice PA. Efficacy of an Experimental Gonococcal Lipooligosaccharide Mimitope Vaccine Requires Terminal Complement. J Infect Dis. 2022 05 16; 225(10):1861-1864. PMID: 34971376.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Bettoni S, Maziarz K, Stone MRL, Blaskovich MAT, Potempa J, Bazzo ML, Unemo M, Ram S, Blom AM. Serum Complement Activation by C4BP-IgM Fusion Protein Can Restore Susceptibility to Antibiotics in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:726801. PMID: 34539665.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    12. Hart TM, Dupuis AP, Tufts DM, Blom AM, Starkey SR, Rego ROM, Ram S, Kraiczy P, Kramer LD, Diuk-Wasser MA, Kolokotronis SO, Lin YP. Host tropism determination by convergent evolution of immunological evasion in the Lyme disease system. PLoS Pathog. 2021 07; 17(7):e1009801. PMID: 34324600.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Gandra S, Ram S, Levitz SM. The "Black Fungus" in India: The Emerging Syndemic of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis. Ann Intern Med. 2021 09; 174(9):1301-1302. PMID: 34097436.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    14. Emmons TR, Giridharan T, Singel KL, Khan ANH, Ricciuti J, Howard K, Silva-Del Toro SL, Debreceni IL, Aarts CEM, Brouwer MC, Suzuki S, Kuijpers TW, Jongerius I, Allen LH, Ferreira VP, Schubart A, Sellner H, Eder J, Holland SM, Ram S, Lederer JA, Eng KH, Moysich KB, Odunsi K, Yaffe MB, Zsiros E, Segal BH. Mechanisms Driving Neutrophil-Induced T-cell Immunoparalysis in Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 07; 9(7):790-810. PMID: 33990375.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    15. Parzych EM, Gulati S, Zheng B, Bah MA, Elliott STC, Chu JD, Nowak N, Reed GW, Beurskens FJ, Schuurman J, Rice PA, Weiner DB, Ram S. Synthetic DNA Delivery of an Optimized and Engineered Monoclonal Antibody Provides Rapid and Prolonged Protection against Experimental Gonococcal Infection. mBio. 2021 03 16; 12(2). PMID: 33727348.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Saha S, Coady A, Sasmal A, Kawanishi K, Choudhury B, Yu H, Sorensen RU, Inostroza J, Schoenhofen IC, Chen X, M?nster-K?hnel A, Sato C, Kitajima K, Ram S, Nizet V, Varki A. Exploring the Impact of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid in Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake and Surface Display by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. mBio. 2021 01 19; 12(1). PMID: 33468699.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Shaughnessy J, Tran Y, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Gulati S, Song WC, Maclean JM, Wycoff KL, Ram S. Development of Complement Factor H-Based Immunotherapeutic Molecules in Tobacco Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:583305. PMID: 33193396.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    18. Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Lindhout-Djukic T, Lewis LA, Moustafa IY, Saha S, Zheng B, Nowak N, Rice PA, Varki A, Ram S. Efficacy of Antigonococcal CMP-Nonulosonate Therapeutics Require Cathelicidins. J Infect Dis. 2020 10 13; 222(10):1641-1650. PMID: 32692363.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Laabei M, Colineau L, Bettoni S, Maziarz K, Ermert D, Riesbeck K, Ram S, Blom AM. Antibacterial Fusion Proteins Enhance Moraxella catarrhalis Killing. Front Immunol. 2020; 11:2122. PMID: 32983170.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Ghanem KG, Ram S, Rice PA. The Modern Epidemic of Syphilis. Reply. N Engl J Med. 2020 06 11; 382(24):2380. PMID: 32521148.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    21. Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Lindhout-Djukic T, Schur MJ, Landig CS, Saha S, Deng L, Lewis LA, Zheng B, Varki A, Ram S. Therapeutic CMP-Nonulosonates against Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2020 06 15; 204(12):3283-3295. PMID: 32434942.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Lewis LA, Ram S. Complement interactions with the pathogenic Neisseriae: clinical features, deficiency states, and evasion mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 2020 08; 594(16):2670-2694. PMID: 32058583.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Ghanem KG, Ram S, Rice PA. The Modern Epidemic of Syphilis. N Engl J Med. 2020 02 27; 382(9):845-854. PMID: 32101666.
      Citations: 87     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    24. Chakraborti S, Gulati S, Zheng B, Beurskens FJ, Schuurman J, Rice PA, Ram S. Bypassing Phase Variation of Lipooligosaccharide (LOS): Using Heptose 1 Glycan Mutants To Establish Widespread Efficacy of Gonococcal Anti-LOS Monoclonal Antibody 2C7. Infect Immun. 2020 01 22; 88(2). PMID: 31818965.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Frye AM, Hart TM, Tufts DM, Ram S, Diuk-Wasser MA, Kraiczy P, Blom AM, Lin YP. A soft tick Ornithodoros moubata salivary protein OmCI is a potent inhibitor to prevent avian complement activation. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2020 03; 11(2):101354. PMID: 31866440.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Bettoni S, Shaughnessy J, Maziarz K, Ermert D, Gulati S, Zheng B, M?rgelin M, Jacobsson S, Riesbeck K, Unemo M, Ram S, Blom AM. C4BP-IgM protein as a therapeutic approach to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. JCI Insight. 2019 12 05; 4(23). PMID: 31661468.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Lewis LA, Panicker S, DeOliveira RB, Parry GC, Ram S. Effect of a C1s Inhibitor on the Efficacy of Anti-Capsular Antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunohorizons. 2019 11 05; 3(11):519-530. PMID: 31690560.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. Gulati S, Pennington MW, Czerwinski A, Carter D, Zheng B, Nowak NA, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Reed GW, Ram S, Rice PA. Preclinical Efficacy of a Lipooligosaccharide Peptide Mimic Candidate Gonococcal Vaccine. mBio. 2019 11 05; 10(6). PMID: 31690678.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. McQuillen DP, Ram S. No Good Deed Goes Unpunished: Eculizumab and Invasive Neisserial Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 08 01; 69(4):601-603. PMID: 30418552.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Ermert D, Ram S, Laabei M. The hijackers guide to escaping complement: Lessons learned from pathogens. Mol Immunol. 2019 10; 114:49-61. PMID: 31336249.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    31. Gulati S, Beurskens FJ, de Kreuk BJ, Roza M, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Nowak NA, Taylor RP, Botto M, He X, Ingalls RR, Woodruff TM, Song WC, Schuurman J, Rice PA, Ram S. Complement alone drives efficacy of a chimeric antigonococcal monoclonal antibody. PLoS Biol. 2019 06; 17(6):e3000323. PMID: 31216278.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. Ermert D, Laabei M, Weckel A, M?rgelin M, Lundqvist M, Bj?rck L, Ram S, Linse S, Blom AM. The Molecular Basis of Human IgG-Mediated Enhancement of C4b-Binding Protein Recruitment to Group A Streptococcus. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:1230. PMID: 31214187.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Beernink PT, Ispasanie E, Lewis LA, Ram S, Moe GR, Granoff DM. A Meningococcal Native Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine With Attenuated Endotoxin and Overexpressed Factor H Binding Protein Elicits Gonococcal Bactericidal Antibodies. J Infect Dis. 2019 03 15; 219(7):1130-1137. PMID: 30346576.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Singel KL, Emmons TR, Khan ANH, Mayor PC, Shen S, Wong JT, Morrell K, Eng KH, Mark J, Bankert RB, Matsuzaki J, Koya RC, Blom AM, McLeish KR, Qu J, Ram S, Moysich KB, Abrams SI, Odunsi K, Zsiros E, Segal BH. Mature neutrophils suppress T cell immunity in ovarian cancer microenvironment. JCI Insight. 2019 03 07; 4(5). PMID: 30730851.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. Gulati S, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Rice PA. Targeting Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) for a Gonococcal Vaccine. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:321. PMID: 30873172.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Lewis LA, Rice PA, Ram S. Role of Gonococcal Neisserial Surface Protein A (NspA) in Serum Resistance and Comparison of Its Factor H Binding Properties with Those of Its Meningococcal Counterpart. Infect Immun. 2019 02; 87(2). PMID: 30510105.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    37. Kenno S, Speth C, Rambach G, Binder U, Chatterjee S, Caramalho R, Haas H, Lass-Fl?rl C, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Gow NAR, Orth-H?ller D, W?rzner R. Candida albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked to the Cell Wall and Impairs Phagocytosis and Killing by Human Neutrophils. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9:3319. PMID: 30697200.
    38. Marcinkiewicz AL, Dupuis AP, Zamba-Campero M, Nowak N, Kraiczy P, Ram S, Kramer LD, Lin YP. Blood treatment of Lyme borreliae demonstrates the mechanism of CspZ-mediated complement evasion to promote systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Cell Microbiol. 2019 02; 21(2):e12998. PMID: 30571845.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Landig CS, Hazel A, Kellman BP, Fong JJ, Schwarz F, Agarwal S, Varki N, Massari P, Lewis NE, Ram S, Varki A. Evolution of the exclusively human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Human-specific engagement of immunoregulatory Siglecs. Evol Appl. 2019 Feb; 12(2):337-349. PMID: 30697344.
    40. Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Rice PA. Biology of the Gonococcus: Disease and Pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1997:1-27. PMID: 31119614.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    41. Gulati S, Rice PA, Ram S. Complement-Dependent Serum Bactericidal Assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1997:267-280. PMID: 31119629.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Zheng B, Carr C, Bass I, Gulati S, DeOliveira RB, Gose S, Reed GW, Botto M, Rice PA, Ram S. Human Factor H Domains 6 and 7 Fused to IgG1 Fc Are Immunotherapeutic against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2018 11 01; 201(9):2700-2709. PMID: 30266769.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Ram S, Gulati S, Lewis LA, Chakraborti S, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Reed GW, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Stupak J, Su XH, Saha S, Landig CS, Varki A, Rice PA. A Novel Sialylation Site on Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Links Heptose II Lactose Expression with Pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 2018 08; 86(8). PMID: 29844237.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Hart T, Nguyen NTT, Nowak NA, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ, Diuk-Wasser M, Ram S, Kraiczy P, Lin YP. Polymorphic factor H-binding activity of CspA protects Lyme borreliae from the host complement in feeding ticks to facilitate tick-to-host transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2018 05; 14(5):e1007106. PMID: 29813137.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    45. Ermert D, Weckel A, Magda M, M?rgelin M, Shaughnessy J, Rice PA, Bj?rck L, Ram S, Blom AM. Human IgG Increases Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes through Complement Evasion. J Immunol. 2018 05 15; 200(10):3495-3505. PMID: 29626087.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Ray TD, Mekasha S, Liang Y, Lu B, Ram S, Ingalls RR. Species-specific differences in regulation of macrophage inflammation by the C3a-C3a receptor axis. Innate Immun. 2018 01; 24(1):66-78. PMID: 29297237.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Blom AM, Magda M, Kohl L, Shaughnessy J, Lambris JD, Ram S, Ermert D. Factor H-IgG Chimeric Proteins as a Therapeutic Approach against the Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2017 12 01; 199(11):3828-3839. PMID: 29084837.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Rice PA, Shafer WM, Ram S, Jerse AE. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Drug Resistance, Mouse Models, and Vaccine Development. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2017 09 08; 71:665-686. PMID: 28886683.
      Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Lujan E, Partridge E, Giuntini S, Ram S, Granoff DM. Breadth and Duration of Meningococcal Serum Bactericidal Activity in Health Care Workers and Microbiologists Immunized with the MenB-FHbp Vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Aug; 24(8). PMID: 28566335.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    50. Ram S, Shaughnessy J, de Oliveira RB, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide sialylation: virulence factor and target for novel immunotherapeutics. Pathog Dis. 2017 06 01; 75(4). PMID: 28460033.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Tsyrkunou A, Agarwal S, Koirala B, Finberg RW, Nath R, Barton B, Levitz SM, Wang JP, Ram S. Properdin Levels in Individuals with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1):ofw250. PMID: 28480246.
    52. Ram S, Shaughnessy J, DeOliveira RB, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA. Utilizing complement evasion strategies to design complement-based antibacterial immunotherapeutics: Lessons from the pathogenic Neisseriae. Immunobiology. 2016 10; 221(10):1110-23. PMID: 27297292.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Chakraborti S, Lewis LA, Cox AD, St Michael F, Li J, Rice PA, Ram S. Phase-Variable Heptose I Glycan Extensions Modulate Efficacy of 2C7 Vaccine Antibody Directed against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide. J Immunol. 2016 06 01; 196(11):4576-86. PMID: 27183633.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    54. Wong SM, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Akerley BJ. Defining the Binding Region in Factor H to Develop a Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein against Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016; 6:40. PMID: 27148489.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. Shaughnessy J, Gulati S, Agarwal S, Unemo M, Ohnishi M, Su XH, Monks BG, Visintin A, Madico G, Lewis LA, Golenbock DT, Reed GW, Rice PA, Ram S. A Novel Factor H-Fc Chimeric Immunotherapeutic Molecule against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2016 Feb 15; 196(4):1732-40. PMID: 26773149.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Whitfield DM, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Vinogradov EV, Stupak J, Zheng B, Ohnishi M, Unemo M, Lewis LA, Taylor RE, Landig CS, Diaz S, Reed GW, Varki A, Rice PA, Ram S. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005290. PMID: 26630657.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Hirako IC, Gallego-Marin C, Ataide MA, Andrade WA, Gravina H, Rocha BC, de Oliveira RB, Pereira DB, Vinetz J, Diamond B, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. DNA-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly and Release of Pyrogenic Cytokines by CD14+ CD16+ CD64high CD32low Inflammatory Monocytes from Malaria Patients. mBio. 2015 Nov 17; 6(6):e01605-15. PMID: 26578679.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    58. Bartra SS, Ding Y, Miya Fujimoto L, Ring JG, Jain V, Ram S, Marassi FM, Plano GV. Yersinia pestis uses the Ail outer membrane protein to recruit vitronectin. Microbiology (Reading). 2015 Nov; 161(11):2174-2183. PMID: 26377177.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    59. Ermert D, Shaughnessy J, Joeris T, Kaplan J, Pang CJ, Kurt-Jones EA, Rice PA, Ram S, Blom AM. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul; 11(7):e1005043. PMID: 26200783.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Lewis LA, Gulati S, Burrowes E, Zheng B, Ram S, Rice PA. a-2,3-sialyltransferase expression level impacts the kinetics of lipooligosaccharide sialylation, complement resistance, and the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to colonize the murine genital tract. mBio. 2015 Feb 03; 6(1). PMID: 25650401.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. Giuntini S, Pajon R, Ram S, Granoff DM. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity. Infect Immun. 2015 Apr; 83(4):1536-45. PMID: 25644002.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Gulati S, Mu X, Zheng B, Reed GW, Ram S, Rice PA. Antibody to reduction modifiable protein increases the bacterial burden and the duration of gonococcal infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 15; 212(2):311-5. PMID: 25596304.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Stefek H, Ram S, Granoff DM. Heterogeneity in rhesus macaque complement factor H binding to meningococcal factor H binding protein (FHbp) informs selection of primates to assess immunogenicity of FHbp-based vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Nov; 21(11):1505-11. PMID: 25185576.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Shaughnessy J, Vu DM, Punjabi R, Serra-Pladevall J, DeOliveira RB, Granoff DM, Ram S. Fusion protein comprising factor H domains 6 and 7 and human IgG1 Fc as an antibacterial immunotherapeutic. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Oct; 21(10):1452-9. PMID: 25143339.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Agarwal S, Vasudhev S, DeOliveira RB, Ram S. Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by meningococcal capsular polysaccharides. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1855-63. PMID: 25015832.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    66. Lewis LA, Vu DM, Granoff DM, Ram S. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model. Infect Immun. 2014 Jun; 82(6):2574-84. PMID: 24686052.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. de Oliveira RB, Wang JP, Ram S, Gazzinelli RT, Finberg RW, Golenbock DT. Increased survival in B-cell-deficient mice during experimental cerebral malaria suggests a role for circulating immune complexes. mBio. 2014 Mar 18; 5(2):e00949-14. PMID: 24643866.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    68. Del Tordello E, Vacca I, Ram S, Rappuoli R, Serruto D. Neisseria meningitidis NalP cleaves human complement C3, facilitating degradation of C3b and survival in human serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 07; 111(1):427-32. PMID: 24367091.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    69. Rosadini CV, Ram S, Akerley BJ. Outer membrane protein P5 is required for resistance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to both the classical and alternative complement pathways. Infect Immun. 2014 Feb; 82(2):640-9. PMID: 24478079.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    70. Lewis LA, Vu DM, Vasudhev S, Shaughnessy J, Granoff DM, Ram S. Factor H-dependent alternative pathway inhibition mediated by porin B contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis. mBio. 2013 Oct 15; 4(5):e00339-13. PMID: 24129254.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    71. Lewis LA, Ram S. Meningococcal disease and the complement system. Virulence. 2014 Jan 01; 5(1):98-126. PMID: 24104403.
      Citations: 80     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    72. Gulati S, Zheng B, Reed GW, Su X, Cox AD, St Michael F, Stupak J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA. Immunization against a saccharide epitope accelerates clearance of experimental gonococcal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(8):e1003559. PMID: 24009500.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsCTClinical Trials
    73. Granoff DM, Ram S, Beernink PT. Does binding of complement factor H to the meningococcal vaccine antigen, factor H binding protein, decrease protective serum antibody responses? Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Aug; 20(8):1099-107. PMID: 23740919.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Brookes C, Kuisma E, Alexander F, Allen L, Tipton T, Ram S, Gorringe A, Taylor S. Development of a large scale human complement source for use in bacterial immunoassays. J Immunol Methods. 2013 May 31; 391(1-2):39-49. PMID: 23485926.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    75. Lewis LA, Shafer WM, Dutta Ray T, Ram S, Rice PA. Phosphoethanolamine residues on the lipid A moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide modulate binding of complement inhibitors and resistance to complement killing. Infect Immun. 2013 Jan; 81(1):33-42. PMID: 23071134.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    76. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate ?-glucans. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 01; 189(1):312-7. PMID: 22649195.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Serruto D, Bottomley MJ, Ram S, Giuliani MM, Rappuoli R. The new multicomponent vaccine against meningococcal serogroup B, 4CMenB: immunological, functional and structural characterization of the antigens. Vaccine. 2012 May 30; 30 Suppl 2:B87-97. PMID: 22607904.
      Citations: 169     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    78. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Pajon R, Braga EM, Ram S, Granoff DM. The effect of human factor H on immunogenicity of meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccines with over-expressed factor H binding protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(5):e1002688. PMID: 22589720.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    79. Lewis LA, Carter M, Ram S. The relative roles of factor H binding protein, neisserial surface protein A, and lipooligosaccharide sialylation in regulation of the alternative pathway of complement on meningococci. J Immunol. 2012 May 15; 188(10):5063-72. PMID: 22504643.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    80. Gulati S, Agarwal S, Vasudhev S, Rice PA, Ram S. Properdin is critical for antibody-dependent bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae that recruit C4b-binding protein. J Immunol. 2012 Apr 01; 188(7):3416-25. PMID: 22368277.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    81. Vu DM, Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA, Granoff DM. Enhanced bacteremia in human factor H transgenic rats infected by Neisseria meningitidis. Infect Immun. 2012 Feb; 80(2):643-50. PMID: 22104107.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    82. Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. mBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21878570.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    83. Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Bhattacharjee A, Pedrosa J, Tran C, Horvath G, Monks B, Visintin A, Jokiranta TS, Rice PA. Molecular characterization of the interaction between sialylated Neisseria gonorrhoeae and factor H. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24; 286(25):22235-42. PMID: 21531728.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    84. Ray TD, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA, Ram S. Novel blocking human IgG directed against the pentapeptide repeat motifs of Neisseria meningitidis Lip/H.8 and Laz lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4881-94. PMID: 21402895.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    85. Wong SM, St Michael F, Cox A, Ram S, Akerley BJ. ArcA-regulated glycosyltransferase lic2B promotes complement evasion and pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun. 2011 May; 79(5):1971-83. PMID: 21357723.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Braga EM, Liu Q, Rice PA, Ram S, Granoff DM. A meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant that eliminates factor H binding enhances protective antibody responses to vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 15; 186(6):3606-14. PMID: 21325619.
      Citations: 91     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    87. Ram S, Lewis LA, Agarwal S. Meningococcal group W-135 and Y capsular polysaccharides paradoxically enhance activation of the alternative pathway of complement. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 11; 286(10):8297-8307. PMID: 21245150.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    88. Ram S, Lewis LA, Rice PA. Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Oct; 23(4):740-80. PMID: 20930072.
      Citations: 140     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    89. Agarwal S, Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Zipfel PF, Rice PA. Factor H facilitates adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to complement receptor 3 on eukaryotic cells. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 01; 185(7):4344-53. PMID: 20826755.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    90. Lewis LA, Ngampasutadol J, Wallace R, Reid JE, Vogel U, Ram S. The meningococcal vaccine candidate neisserial surface protein A (NspA) binds to factor H and enhances meningococcal resistance to complement. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jul 29; 6(7):e1001027. PMID: 20686663.
      Citations: 94     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    91. Agarwal S, Ferreira VP, Cortes C, Pangburn MK, Rice PA, Ram S. An evaluation of the role of properdin in alternative pathway activation on Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2010 Jul 01; 185(1):507-16. PMID: 20530262.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    92. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Granoff DM. Impaired immunogenicity of a meningococcal factor H-binding protein vaccine engineered to eliminate factor h binding. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jul; 17(7):1074-8. PMID: 20519444.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    93. Serruto D, Spadafina T, Ciucchi L, Lewis LA, Ram S, Tontini M, Santini L, Biolchi A, Seib KL, Giuliani MM, Donnelly JJ, Berti F, Savino S, Scarselli M, Costantino P, Kroll JS, O'Dwyer C, Qiu J, Plaut AG, Moxon R, Rappuoli R, Pizza M, Aric? B. Neisseria meningitidis GNA2132, a heparin-binding protein that induces protective immunity in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 23; 107(8):3770-5. PMID: 20133713.
      Citations: 85     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    94. Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Jarva H, Ram S. Functional comparison of the binding of factor H short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6) to factor H binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis and the binding of factor H SCR 18 to 20 to Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):2094-103. PMID: 19273554.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    95. Sabharwal V, Ram S, Figueira M, Park IH, Pelton SI. Role of complement in host defense against pneumococcal otitis media. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar; 77(3):1121-7. PMID: 19139190.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    96. Jongerius I, Ram S, Rooijakkers S. Bacterial complement escape. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009; 666:32-48. PMID: 20054973.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    97. Blom AM, Ram S. Contribution of interactions between complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein and pathogens to their ability to establish infection with particular emphasis on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I49-55. PMID: 19388165.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    98. Ngampasutadol J, Tran C, Gulati S, Blom AM, Jerse EA, Ram S, Rice PA. Species-specificity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection: do human complement regulators contribute? Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I62-6. PMID: 19388167.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    99. Welsch JA, Ram S. Factor H and neisserial pathogenesis. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I40-5. PMID: 19388163.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    100. Lewis LA, Choudhury B, Balthazar JT, Martin LE, Ram S, Rice PA, Stephens DS, Carlson R, Shafer WM. Phosphoethanolamine substitution of lipid A and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cationic antimicrobial peptides and complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar; 77(3):1112-20. PMID: 19114544.
      Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    101. Granoff DM, Welsch JA, Ram S. Binding of complement factor H (fH) to Neisseria meningitidis is specific for human fH and inhibits complement activation by rat and rabbit sera. Infect Immun. 2009 Feb; 77(2):764-9. PMID: 19047406.
      Citations: 105     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    102. Garvin LE, Bash MC, Keys C, Warner DM, Ram S, Shafer WM, Jerse AE. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that express frequently recovered PorB PIA variable region types suggest that certain P1a porin sequences confer a selective advantage for urogenital tract infection. Infect Immun. 2008 Aug; 76(8):3700-9. PMID: 18541655.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    103. Welsch JA, Ram S, Koeberling O, Granoff DM. Complement-dependent synergistic bactericidal activity of antibodies against factor H-binding protein, a sparsely distributed meningococcal vaccine antigen. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 01; 197(7):1053-61. PMID: 18419542.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    104. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Gulati S, Agarwal S, Li C, Visintin A, Monks B, Madico G, Rice PA. Human factor H interacts selectively with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific complement evasion. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 01; 180(5):3426-35. PMID: 18292569.
      Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    105. Jain V, Halle A, Halmen KA, Lien E, Charrel-Dennis M, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Visintin A. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of MD-2 opsonized gram-negative bacteria depend on TLR4 signaling. Blood. 2008 May 01; 111(9):4637-45. PMID: 18203953.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    106. Lewis LA, Ram S, Prasad A, Gulati S, Getzlaff S, Blom AM, Vogel U, Rice PA. Defining targets for complement components C4b and C3b on the pathogenic neisseriae. Infect Immun. 2008 Jan; 76(1):339-50. PMID: 17984207.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    107. Jarva H, Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Rice PA, Villoutreix BO, Blom AM. Molecular characterization of the interaction between porins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C4b-binding protein. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 01; 179(1):540-7. PMID: 17579075.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    108. Wong SM, Alugupalli KR, Ram S, Akerley BJ. The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jun; 64(5):1375-90. PMID: 17542927.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    109. Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Cox AD, Blom AM, Lewis LA, St Michael F, Stupak J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Heptose I glycan substitutions on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide influence C4b-binding protein binding and serum resistance. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4071-81. PMID: 17526744.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    110. Leroy M, Cabral H, Figueira M, Bouchet V, Huot H, Ram S, Pelton SI, Goldstein R. Multiple consecutive lavage samplings reveal greater burden of disease and provide direct access to the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm in experimental otitis media. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4158-72. PMID: 17517860.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Madico G, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Vogel U, Rice PA, Ram S. Factor H binding and function in sialylated pathogenic neisseriae is influenced by gonococcal, but not meningococcal, porin. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 01; 178(7):4489-97. PMID: 17372007.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    112. Schneider MC, Exley RM, Ram S, Sim RB, Tang CM. Interactions between Neisseria meningitidis and the complement system. Trends Microbiol. 2007 May; 15(5):233-40. PMID: 17398100.
      Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    113. Ho DK, Ram S, Nelson KL, Bonthuis PJ, Smith AL. lgtC expression modulates resistance to C4b deposition on an invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1002-12. PMID: 17202363.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    114. Figueira MA, Ram S, Goldstein R, Hood DW, Moxon ER, Pelton SI. Role of complement in defense of the middle ear revealed by restoring the virulence of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae siaB mutants. Infect Immun. 2007 Jan; 75(1):325-33. PMID: 17088344.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Madico G, Welsch JA, Lewis LA, McNaughton A, Perlman DH, Costello CE, Ngampasutadol J, Vogel U, Granoff DM, Ram S. The meningococcal vaccine candidate GNA1870 binds the complement regulatory protein factor H and enhances serum resistance. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 01; 177(1):501-10. PMID: 16785547.
      Citations: 207     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    116. Attia AS, Ram S, Rice PA, Hansen EJ. Binding of vitronectin by the Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 protein interferes with late stages of the complement cascade. Infect Immun. 2006 Mar; 74(3):1597-611. PMID: 16495531.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    117. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Blom AM, Jarva H, Jerse AE, Lien E, Goguen J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Human C4b-binding protein selectively interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 102(47):17142-7. PMID: 16275906.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    118. Gulati S, Cox A, Lewis LA, Michael FS, Li J, Boden R, Ram S, Rice PA. Enhanced factor H binding to sialylated Gonococci is restricted to the sialylated lacto-N-neotetraose lipooligosaccharide species: implications for serum resistance and evidence for a bifunctional lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase in Gonococci. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov; 73(11):7390-7. PMID: 16239538.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    119. Abdullah M, Nepluev I, Afonina G, Ram S, Rice P, Cade W, Elkins C. Killing of dsrA mutants of Haemophilus ducreyi by normal human serum occurs via the classical complement pathway and is initiated by immunoglobulin M binding. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun; 73(6):3431-9. PMID: 15908371.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    120. Jarva H, Ram S, Vogel U, Blom AM, Meri S. Binding of the complement inhibitor C4bp to serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. J Immunol. 2005 May 15; 174(10):6299-307. PMID: 15879129.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    121. Ram S, Cox AD, Wright JC, Vogel U, Getzlaff S, Boden R, Li J, Plested JS, Meri S, Gulati S, Stein DC, Richards JC, Moxon ER, Rice PA. Neisserial lipooligosaccharide is a target for complement component C4b. Inner core phosphoethanolamine residues define C4b linkage specificity. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 19; 278(51):50853-62. PMID: 14525973.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    122. Fisette PL, Ram S, Andersen JM, Guo W, Ingalls RR. The Lip lipoprotein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae stimulates cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation in epithelial cells in a Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 21; 278(47):46252-60. PMID: 12966099.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    123. Massari P, Ram S, Macleod H, Wetzler LM. The role of porins in neisserial pathogenesis and immunity. Trends Microbiol. 2003 Feb; 11(2):87-93. PMID: 12598131.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    124. Gulati S, Sastry K, Jensenius JC, Rice PA, Ram S. Regulation of the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement on Neisseria gonorrhoeae by C1-inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):4078-86. PMID: 11937567.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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