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Research and Professional Experience:

1976-1977 Lecturer, UCSD, La Jolla, CA
1976-1981 Assistant Research Biologist, UCSD
1981-1984 Associate Research Biologist, UCSD
1984-1989 Associate Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
1989-1995 Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
1985-1996 Member, UCSD Cancer Center, San Diego, CA
1996-2007 Director, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
1996-present Member, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
1996-2007 Edward C. Brewster Chair, Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, NY
1998-present Adjunct Professor, Dept of Micro, Immunol & Mol. Gen, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY
2001-present Adjunct Professor, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT
2003-2007 President,Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
2008-2010 President Emeritus, Trudeau Institute
2010 Professor of Pathology, UMASS Medical School, Worcester, MA

Study Sections and Advisory Panels: Past:NIH Immunobiology Study Section (1984-1988); AIDS Basic Research Advisory Committee, NIAID (1990-1992); National Taskforce on Aging, NIA/NIAID (1994); FY1997 AIDS Planning Committee (1995); Ad Hoc Member, Board of Scientific Councilors NIAID (1995, 2000); Scientific Advisory Board, Inst. for Advanced Studies in Immunol. Aging (1996-1999); Reviewer's Reserve, NIH (1988-present); NHLBI SCOR Review in Asthma Panel (2001); Board of Scientific Councilors, National Institute of Aging (2001-2006), Arthritis Review Panel in Cellular Immunology (1996-1998); Board of Trustees, Ordway Institute, Albany, NY (2001-2005), External Advisory Committee, University of Montana COBRE (2005-2007). External Advisory Board Duke University Dept. of Immunology (2008), Current: Board of Directors La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology (2004-present), Selection Committee Albany Medical Prize (2005-present), External Advisory Committee (EAC): Wistar BAA (2006-present) and Dartmouth University COBRE (2007-present). National Advisory Council on Aging 2008-2012, Scientific Advisory Board La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology 2008-present, Advisory Group Aeras 2007-present, Distinguished Editorial Panel NIAID (2009), Council, NIAID (Ad Hoc, 2009)

Editorial Boards:Past: Lymphokines (1985-1988); Journal of Immunology Associate Editor (1985-1987), Section Editor (1987-1991), Primary Reviewer (1997-present); International Immunology (1988-present); Cellular Immunology (1988-present); Cell (1990-1992); Current Opinion in Immunology, issue editor (1994, 1996, 2003, 2009); Current Biology (1994), Journal of Experimental Medicine (1997-2008), Current: Deputy Editor, Journal of Immunology 2008-2012, Faculty of 1000, Section Leader (2002-present).

Meeting Organization: Workshop on T and B Cell Memory (1993, 1998); Midwinter Immunology Conference Council (1992), Midwinter Conference of Immunologists (1996); Keystone Symposium on Lymphocyte Activation (1996); International Cytokine Conference (1997); Delegate IUIS (2002-2006), Workshop on Immunity and Aging, Trudeau Institute, NY (2004); Cold Spring Harbor Vaccine Meeting (2005, 2007, 2009), Keystone Symposium on Immunological Memory (2007), FASEB Summer Conference (2008, 2010).

Community Service:American Association of Immunology: Committee on Women (1988-1994), Program Committee (1988-1994); Chair, T Cell Block for FASEB Meeting (1992-1995); Nominations Committee (Elected, 1991, 1995,1996). Publication Committee (Elected, 1994-1998).

Elected Positions: Council Member, American Association of Immunologists (1999-2006); Electorate Nominating Committee of the Section on Medical Sciences, AAAS (2004); President, American Association of Immunologists (2004).

Honors and Awards:Phi Beta Kappa, Magna Cum Laude, B.A. (1968); Sigma Xi (1972); Established Investigator, American Heart Association (1981-1986); NIH Merit Award (1995, 2005); New York State Woman of Distinction (2002); Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science (2007); American Association of Immunologists Lifetime Achievement Award (2010).

Dr. Susan SwainOur past research has focused on defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CD4 T cells contribute to immunity. In particular we have 1) Defined, generated and determined the function of T cell subsets at the effector stage; 2) Studied the requirements for the generation of long-live memory CD4 T cells and their role in protection against influenza infection and 3) Analyzed the defects that develop in T cell function with aging and the causes of those defects.

Our top priorities at this time are to discover new basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that are used by memory CD4 T cells to provide effective immunity to infectious diseases and to better define the age-associated defects in CD4 T cells that contribute to poor immunity of the aged and to discover strategies to overcome those defects.

Post Docs

An entry level postdoctoral position is open immediately in the laboratory of Dr. Susan L. Swain to study the factors that control the development and survival of CD4 and CD8 T cell memory. Graduate student experience with tissue culture, in vitro assay, flow cytometry, experience in mouse models on infectious disease and a knowledge of cellular and molecular immunology are all strongly desired.

Rotation Projects

Rotations: Projects in the following areas

CD4 T cell memory. We can generate in vitro CD4 T cells that are for all extents and purposes identical to the memory CD4 T cells observed in vivo. In situ memory CD4 T cells persist at very low frequency and in most instances it is difficult to analyze them thoroughly using tetramer or multimer reagents both because of their low frequency and the relatively low specific affinity of the Class II reagents for the TcR. Being able to generate “recent” memory cells in vitro gives us the opportunity to analyze in detail the mechanisms by which memory CD4 T cells may contribute to secondary immunity and immune protection. Once identified. will determine if particular pathways are relevant in situ. We have discovered that memory CD4 T cells are superior in protection to those from the primary response and that they display pleitropic functions that have not been previously identified.

Cytotoxic CD4 Effectors. One unexpected function of CD4 T cells we identified is robust, perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity (7, 16). Cytotoxic activity by CD4 T cells has been reported in response to several infections, but its significance has not heretofore been established. We find that “Th1 polarized” CD4 effectors and more relevantly the CD4 effectors found in the lung following influenza infection, are able to kill infected or peptide-pulsed Class II-bearing targets and we find that this perforin dependent activity can work together with antibody to provide protection against lethal influenza challenge in otherwise unprimed mice (17). We also will determine when memory CD4 T cells re-express cytotoxic activity following in vivo challenge and how cytotoxic killing contributes to the memory cell mediated protection. We want to analyze how the program of cytotoxicity is induced in these “ThCTL”.

Memory CD4 Cells Enhance an Innate Response. Memory cells can act by becoming secondary effectors but they are best characterized by their ability respond rapidly even to low antigen doses, by producing cytokines and chemokines and it is assumed that these initial abilities are key to memory cell activity. However this assumption has not been directly demonstrated and the mechanisms involved and how they might contribute to immunity have not been elucidated. We find that restimulation of memory CD4 T cells leads to a markedly enhanced early innate response to influenza infection both in the lung and systemically (17). This response peaks 2-3 days after infection and is transient. We see enhanced production of IL-6 locally and systemically and enhanced production a broad spectrum of innate inflammatory mediators in the lung. We hope to determine in detail the pathways leading to optimum memory T cell-induced innate responses. We suggest a concurrent activation of CD4 memory cells may be an effective adjuvant for vaccination and will be testing this hypothesis as well as mechanisms that lead to viral control over the next couple of years.

Aging and Immunity: The study of the impact of aging on CD4 T cell function at the naïve and memory stages has lead us to better understanding of fundamental aspects of T cell behavior in addition to providing important information about what vaccine approaches are most likely to be successful for the aged.

Nature of CD4 Aging “Defects”. We have identified multiple levels at which aged naïve CD4 T cells are defective including initial early response to TcR triggering, IL-2 production, expansion and effector generation. The defects in helper function and in the 20 response of memory cells generated from aged naïve CD4 T cells are particularly dramatic. In recent studies we have recapitulated memory age-associated defects in recently generated memory cells in vitro (23). In vitro aged memory cells are markedly defective in production of particular cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-2, while others are little affected (IFNg, IL-10, TNF), suggesting the aging “defect” may be restricted to loss of potential to make certain CD4 T cell subsets, such as those responsible for help to B cells .We will pursue this hypothesis both in vitro and in vivo.

We have found that aged naïve CD4 T cells are in fact longer-lived than their naïve counterparts (23). We find that reduced expression of Bim, a proapoptotic protein, is responsible for this increase in lifespan and that the increase in lifespan is required for the development of aging defects. We are now investigating the factors that regulate Bim expression.

Enhancement by Inflammatory Cytokines. We have shown that the defective effector generation responses of naïve CD4 T cells from aged animals can be overcome by IL-2 and by proinflammatory cytokines, in particular a mix of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF (20,21). We want to determine the extent to which the inflammatory cytokines can reverse the heritable aging defects and restore functional memory generation. We have developed in vitro models to test the generation of effectors and memory. In these models we are evaluating TLR agonists for their ability to restore aged naïve CD4 responses to peptide-pulsed derived dendritic cells (DC). Pre-incubation of DC with many TLR agonists, enhances expansion of the responding aged naïve CD4 T cells via a mechanism dependent on IL-6 that acts in part by increasing survival of the developing effector population. We plan to use this model to identify the extent of the rescue and what pathways and mechanisms contribute with the ultimate goal of evaluating whether specific TLR stimulation or stimulation of specific pathways might improve the response of the elderly to vaccines. We want to see if we can reproduce this model with human naïve CD4 T cells and DC derived from peripheral blood and if TLR agonists can also enhance those responses.


One or more keywords matched the following items that are connected to Swain, Susan

Item TypeName
Academic Article Enhanced development of Th2-like primary CD4 effectors in response to sustained exposure to limited rIL-4 in vivo.
Academic Article Regulation of CD40 ligand expression on naive CD4 T cells: a role for TCR but not co-stimulatory signals.
Academic Article TCR triggering of anergic CD4 T cells in murine AIDS induces apoptosis rather than cytokine synthesis and proliferation.
Academic Article From naive to memory T cells.
Academic Article Response of naive antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in vitro: characteristics and antigen-presenting cell requirements.
Academic Article Analysis of CD4+ T cells that provide contact-dependent bystander help to B cells.
Academic Article Antigen-independent changes in naive CD4 T cells with aging.
Academic Article Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization.
Academic Article Age-related changes in CD4 T cells of T cell receptor transgenic mice.
Academic Article Transferable anergy: superantigen treatment induces CD4+ T cell tolerance that is reversible and requires CD4-CD8- cells and interferon gamma.
Academic Article CD4 T cell anergy in murine AIDS: costimulation via CD28 and the addition of IL-12 are not sufficient to rescue anergic CD4 T cells.
Academic Article From naive to effector--alterations with aging.
Academic Article T cell memory.
Academic Article From naive to memory. Development and regulation of CD4+ T cell responses.
Academic Article Long-term CD4+ memory T cells from the spleen lack MEL-14, the lymph node homing receptor.
Academic Article Transforming growth factor-beta enhances the in vivo effector function and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T helper cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Academic Article Helper T cell memory: more questions than answers.
Academic Article The generation and maintenance of memory T and B cells.
Academic Article Interleukin 2, but not other common gamma chain-binding cytokines, can reverse the defect in generation of CD4 effector T cells from naive T cells of aged mice.
Academic Article E2A activity is induced during B-cell activation to promote immunoglobulin class switch recombination.
Academic Article Qualitative changes accompany memory T cell generation: faster, more effective responses at lower doses of antigen.
Academic Article The defects in effector generation associated with aging can be reversed by addition of IL-2 but not other related gamma(c)-receptor binding cytokines.
Academic Article CD4 T-cell memory can persist in the absence of class II.
Academic Article Naive and effector CD4 T cells differ in their requirements for T cell receptor versus costimulatory signals.
Academic Article Interferon gamma eliminates responding CD4 T cells during mycobacterial infection by inducing apoptosis of activated CD4 T cells.
Academic Article Two distinct stages in the transition from naive CD4 T cells to effectors, early antigen-dependent and late cytokine-driven expansion and differentiation.
Academic Article The dendritic cell receptor for endocytosis, DEC-205, can recycle and enhance antigen presentation via major histocompatibility complex class II-positive lysosomal compartments.
Academic Article Superantigen-induced CD4 T cell tolerance mediated by myeloid cells and IFN-gamma.
Academic Article CD4 T cells in murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: polyclonal progression to anergy.
Academic Article Reciprocal regulation of polarized cytokine production by effector B and T cells.
Academic Article B cell immunodeficiency fails to develop in CD4-deficient mice infected with BM5: murine AIDS as a multistep disease.
Academic Article Single cell analyses of cytokine production.
Academic Article CD4(+) T cell effectors can become memory cells with high efficiency and without further division.
Academic Article Unequal death in T helper cell (Th)1 and Th2 effectors: Th1, but not Th2, effectors undergo rapid Fas/FasL-mediated apoptosis.
Academic Article Transcriptional repression of the IL-2 gene in Th cells by ZEB.
Academic Article B cell response to T helper cell subsets. II. Both the stage of T cell differentiation and the cytokines secreted determine the extent and nature of helper activity.
Academic Article Regulation of T cell subsets from naive to memory.
Academic Article Induction of CD4 T cell changes in murine AIDS is dependent on costimulation and involves a dysregulation of homeostasis.
Academic Article In vivo persistence of CD8 polarized T cell subsets producing type 1 or type 2 cytokines.
Academic Article High antigen density and IL-2 are required for generation of CD4 effectors secreting Th1 rather than Th0 cytokines.
Academic Article CD4 effector T cell subsets in the response to influenza: heterogeneity, migration, and function.
Academic Article Regulation of memory CD4 T cells: generation, localization and persistence.
Academic Article Reliable generation and use of MHC class II:gamma2aFc multimers for the identification of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells.
Academic Article Regulation of the generation and maintenance of T-cell memory: a direct, default pathway from effectors to memory cells.
Academic Article Role of T cells in the B-cell response: glutaraldehyde-fixed T-helper hybridoma cells synergize with the lymphokine IL-4 to induce B-cell activation and proliferation.
Academic Article Regulation of the development of distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells.
Academic Article CD4 T cell memory derived from young naive cells functions well into old age, but memory generated from aged naive cells functions poorly.
Academic Article Helper T cell differentiation.
Academic Article T cell responses to influenza virus infection: effector and memory cells.
Academic Article CD8+ T cells responding to influenza infection reach and persist at higher numbers than CD4+ T cells independently of precursor frequency.
Academic Article Class II-independent generation of CD4 memory T cells from effectors.
Academic Article IL-7: maintaining T-cell memory and achieving homeostasis.
Academic Article Distinct regulation of lymphokine production is found in fresh versus in vitro primed murine helper T cells.
Academic Article Repeated stimulation of CD4 effector T cells can limit their protective function.
Academic Article Why aging T cells fail: implications for vaccination.
Academic Article SAP deficiency results in a striking alteration of the protein profile in activated CD4 T cells.
Academic Article CD4+ T-cell memory: generation and multi-faceted roles for CD4+ T cells in protective immunity to influenza.
Academic Article CD4 T cell-mediated protection from lethal influenza: perforin and antibody-mediated mechanisms give a one-two punch.
Academic Article IL-4 directs the development of Th2-like helper effectors.
Academic Article Critical role of cognate interactions in the response of small, high-density B cells.
Academic Article Helper cells activated by allogeneic H-2K or H-2D differences have a Ly phenotype distinct from those responsive to I differences.
Academic Article Unique ability of activated CD4+ T cells but not rested effectors to migrate to non-lymphoid sites in the absence of inflammation.
Academic Article Continuously proliferating allospecific T cells. I. Specificity of cooperation with allogeneic B cells in the humoral antibody response to sheep erythrocytes.
Academic Article Environmental and intrinsic factors lead to antigen unresponsiveness in CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants from aged mice.
Academic Article IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge.
Academic Article Accumulation of NFAT mediates IL-2 expression in memory, but not naïve, CD4+ T cells.
Academic Article Persistent depots of influenza antigen fail to induce a cytotoxic CD8 T cell response.
Academic Article IFN-gamma acts directly on activated CD4+ T cells during mycobacterial infection to promote apoptosis by inducing components of the intracellular apoptosis machinery and by inducing extracellular proapoptotic signals.
Academic Article c-FLIP(S) reduces activation of caspase and NF-kappaB pathways and decreases T cell survival.
Academic Article Impact of post-thymic cellular longevity on the development of age-associated CD4+ T cell defects.
Academic Article Influencing the fates of CD4 T cells on the path to memory: lessons from influenza.
Academic Article Interleukin 18: tipping the balance towards a T helper cell 1 response.
Academic Article SAP enables T cells to help B cells by a mechanism distinct from Th cell programming or CD40 ligand regulation.
Academic Article Bone marrow precursor cells from aged mice generate CD4 T cells that function well in primary and memory responses.
Academic Article Functionally diverse subsets in CD4 T cell responses against influenza.
Academic Article Tc17, a unique subset of CD8 T cells that can protect against lethal influenza challenge.
Academic Article T-cell immunosenescence: lessons learned from mouse models of aging.
Academic Article Role of antigen in the B cell response. Specific antigen and the lymphokine IL-5 synergize to drive B cell lymphoma proliferation and differentiation to Ig secretion.
Academic Article Stimulation of gut-associated lymphoid cells by IL-4 and B-cell growth factor II.
Academic Article Age-associated declines in immune system development and function: causes, consequences, and reversal.
Academic Article Age-associated increase in lifespan of naive CD4 T cells contributes to T-cell homeostasis but facilitates development of functional defects.
Academic Article The potential of CD4 T-cell memory.
Academic Article Characterization of antigen-specific CD4+ effector T cells in vivo: immunization results in a transient population of MEL-14-, CD45RB- helper cells that secretes interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma.
Academic Article T-cell factors that promote B-cell proliferation and differentiation.
Academic Article Role of BCGFII in the differentiation to antibody secretion normal and tumor B cells.
Academic Article Bim dictates naive CD4 T cell lifespan and the development of age-associated functional defects.
Academic Article Induction of the H-2 D antigen during B cell activation.
Academic Article Hallmarks of CD4 T cell immunity against influenza.
Academic Article Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) directly regulates proliferation in thymocyte development and IL-17 expression during Th17 differentiation.
Academic Article Transforming growth factor-beta and IL-4 cause helper T cell precursors to develop into distinct effector helper cells that differ in lymphokine secretion pattern and cell surface phenotype.
Academic Article Helper T-cell subsets: phenotype, function and the role of lymphokines in regulating their development.
Academic Article Effect of age on naive CD4 responses: impact on effector generation and memory development.
Academic Article Control of innate immunity by memory CD4 T cells.
Academic Article Aged-related shifts in T cell homeostasis lead to intrinsic T cell defects.
Academic Article Memory CD4+ T cells protect against influenza through multiple synergizing mechanisms.
Academic Article Nitric oxide inhibits the accumulation of CD4+CD44hiTbet+CD69lo T cells in mycobacterial infection.
Academic Article Memory CD4+ T-cell-mediated protection depends on secondary effectors that are distinct from and superior to primary effectors.
Academic Article The biological outcome of CD40 signaling is dependent on the duration of CD40 ligand expression: reciprocal regulation by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12.
Academic Article The specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells. II. Reorientation of the microtubule organizing center and reorganization of the membrane-associated cytoskeleton inside the bound helper T cells.
Academic Article Consequences of the direct interaction of helper T cells with B cells presenting antigen.
Academic Article Characterization of T helper 1 and 2 cell subsets in normal mice. Helper T cells responsible for IL-4 and IL-5 production are present as precursors that require priming before they develop into lymphokine-secreting cells.
Academic Article Germinal center B cells in Peyer's patches of aged mice exhibit a normal activation phenotype and highly mutated IgM genes.
Academic Article B cell surface glycoprotein induced during growth response: molecular structure and expression pattern.
Academic Article Purification and partial sequence analysis of murine B cell growth factor II (interleukin 5).
Academic Article The specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting B cells.
Academic Article B cell response to fresh and effector T helper cells. Role of cognate T-B interaction and the cytokines IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6.
Academic Article Regulation of the development of helper T cell subsets.
Academic Article Fine specificity mapping of two allospecific T cell lines: recognition of private specificities in the H-2 IA subregion.
Academic Article Monoclonal antibody to L3T4 blocks the function of T cells specific for class 2 major histocompatibility complex antigens.
Academic Article T cell subsets and the recognition of MHC class.
Academic Article Association of Ly phenotypes, T cell function and MHC recognition.
Academic Article The Lyt phenotype of a long-term allospecific T cell line. Both helper and killer activities to IA are mediated by Ly-1 cells.
Academic Article Induction of B cell differentiation by T cell factors. I. Stimulation of IgM secretion by products of a T cell hybridoma and a T cell line.
Academic Article Production of a B cell growth-promoting activity, (DL)BCGF, from a cloned T cell line and its assay on the BCL1 B cell tumor.
Academic Article IL-7 promotes the transition of CD4 effectors to persistent memory cells.
Academic Article T cell replacing factors in the B cell response to antigen.
Academic Article Entry of naive CD4 T cells into peripheral lymph nodes requires L-selectin.
Academic Article Generation and in vivo persistence of polarized Th1 and Th2 memory cells.
Academic Article Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. III. Independence of antigen-binding cells in normal animals from antigenic stimulation.
Academic Article Effector functions of helper T cells.
Academic Article IL4 dictates T-cell differentiation.
Academic Article Distinct lymphokine production by CD4+ T cells isolated from mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs.
Academic Article Naive versus memory CD4 T cell response to antigen. Memory cells are less dependent on accessory cell costimulation and can respond to many antigen-presenting cell types including resting B cells.
Academic Article Both naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets become anergic during MAIDS and each subset can sustain disease.
Academic Article Memory effectors: a potent, IL-4-secreting helper T cell population that develops in vivo after restimulation with antigen.
Academic Article T-cell memory: new perspectives.
Academic Article Inflammatory cytokines overcome age-related defects in CD4 T cell responses in vivo.
Academic Article CD4 T cell responses to influenza infection.
Academic Article Helper T cells: polarized patterns of cytokine secretion.
Academic Article CD4 T cells producing IFN-gamma in the lungs of mice challenged with mycobacteria express a CD27-negative phenotype.
Academic Article Effector CD4+ T cells generate intermediate caspase activity and cleavage of caspase-8 substrates.
Academic Article Newly generated CD4 T cells in aged animals do not exhibit age-related defects in response to antigen.
Academic Article CD4+ T cell subsets. Lymphokine secretion of memory cells and of effector cells that develop from precursors in vitro.
Academic Article Homeostasis and the age-associated defect of CD4 T cells.
Academic Article Unexpected prolonged presentation of influenza antigens promotes CD4 T cell memory generation.
Academic Article Interleukin 12p40 is required for dendritic cell migration and T cell priming after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Academic Article Mechanism of allosuppression: evidence for direct suppression of responding B cells.
Academic Article SAP is required for Th cell function and for immunity to influenza.
Academic Article Frequency of allogeneic helper T cells responding to whole H-2 differences and to an H-2K difference alone.
Academic Article Negative allogeneic effects in vitro. I. Allogeneic T cells markedly suppress the secondary antibody-forming cell response.
Academic Article Rapid default transition of CD4 T cell effectors to functional memory cells.
Academic Article The effector to memory transition of CD4 T cells.
Academic Article Regulation of the IgM and IgA anti-dextran B1355S response: synergy between IFN-gamma, BCGF II, and IL 2.
Academic Article Key research opportunities in immune system aging.
Academic Article IL-2 and antigen dose differentially regulate perforin- and FasL-mediated cytolytic activity in antigen specific CD4+ T cells.
Academic Article Ly phenotypes and MHC recognition: the allohelper that recognizes K or D is a mature Ly123 cell.
Academic Article Role of helper T cells in the B cell response.
Academic Article Memory CD4+ T cells induce innate responses independently of pathogen.
Academic Article Regulation of CD4+ T-cell contraction during pathogen challenge.
Academic Article TLR-activated dendritic cells enhance the response of aged naive CD4 T cells via an IL-6-dependent mechanism.
Academic Article Regulation of isotype production by IL-4 and IL-5. Effects of lymphokines on Ig production depend on the state of activation of the responding B cells.
Academic Article Cytotoxic CD4 T cells in antiviral immunity.
Academic Article Expanding roles for CD4? T cells in immunity to viruses.
Academic Article Multifunctional CD4 cells expressing gamma interferon and perforin mediate protection against lethal influenza virus infection.
Academic Article Multiple redundant effector mechanisms of CD8+ T cells protect against influenza infection.
Academic Article Coclustering of CD4 (L3T4) molecule with the T-cell receptor is induced by specific direct interaction of helper T cells and antigen-presenting cells.
Academic Article The role of IL4 and IL5: characterization of a distinct helper T cell subset that makes IL4 and IL5 (Th2) and requires priming before induction of lymphokine secretion.
Academic Article Memory CD4 T cell-mediated immunity against influenza A virus: more than a little helpful.
Academic Article Multipronged CD4(+) T-cell effector and memory responses cooperate to provide potent immunity against respiratory virus.
Academic Article Immune senescence: new insights into defects but continued mystery of root causes.
Academic Article B cell growth factor interactions.
Academic Article Interleukin 5 and interleukin 4 produced by Peyer's patch T cells selectively enhance immunoglobulin A expression.
Academic Article B cell stimulatory factor 1 (interleukin 4) is sufficient for the proliferation and differentiation of lectin-stimulated cytolytic T lymphocyte precursors.
Academic Article Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. I. beta-galactosidase-binding cells in the thymus and spleen of normal mice.
Academic Article Small subunit of I-A subregion antigens determines the allospecificity recognized by a monoclonal antibody.
Academic Article Analysis of histocompatibility requirements for proliferative and helper T cell activity. T cell populations depleted of alloreactive cells by negative selection.
Academic Article Regulation of the immune response T-cell interactions.
Academic Article Xenogeneic human anti-mouse T cell responses are due to the activity of the same functional T cell subsets responsible for allospecific and major histocompatibility complex-restricted responses.
Academic Article Lymphokine-mediated activation of a T cell-dependent IgA antipolysaccharide response.
Academic Article Evidence for two distinct activation states available to B lymphocytes.
Academic Article Evidence for two distinct classes of murine B cell growth factors with activities in different functional assays.
Academic Article Partial purification and characterization of a BCGFII from EL4 culture supernatants.
Academic Article Culture supernatants of a stimulated T-cell line have helper activity that acts synergistically with interleukin 2 in the response of B cells to antigen.
Academic Article Production of Con A-induced helper T cell replacing factor requires a T cell and an Ia-positive non-T cells.
Academic Article Role of Ia-positive cells in the production of T cell-replacing factors: blocking of factor production with anti-Ia serum.
Academic Article Significance of Lyt phenotypes: Lyt2 antibodies block activities of T cells that recognize class 1 major histocompatibility complex antigens regardless of their function.
Academic Article The role of IA in G-cell activation.
Academic Article A monoclonal T cell-replacing activity can act directly on B cells to enhance clonal expansion.
Academic Article Alloreactivity, the development of the T cell repertoire and the understanding of T cell function.
Academic Article Generation of polarized antigen-specific CD8 effector populations: reciprocal action of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in promoting type 2 versus type 1 cytokine profiles.
Academic Article Recently activated naive CD4 T cells can help resting B cells, and can produce sufficient autocrine IL-4 to drive differentiation to secretion of T helper 2-type cytokines.
Academic Article Costimulatory requirements of naive CD4+ T cells. ICAM-1 or B7-1 can costimulate naive CD4 T cell activation but both are required for optimum response.
Academic Article T-cell subsets. Who does the polarizing?
Academic Article The cytokines IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-12 regulate the development of subsets of memory effector helper T cells in vitro.
Academic Article Control of CD4 effector fate: transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukin 2 synergize to prevent apoptosis and promote effector expansion.
Academic Article Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. II. T antigen-binding cells.
Academic Article CD4 T cell development and cytokine polarization: an overview.
Academic Article Role of antigen-presenting cells in the polarized development of helper T cell subsets: evidence for differential cytokine production by Th0 cells in response to antigen presentation by B cells and macrophages.
Concept Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta
Concept Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Concept Cell Nucleus
Concept Cell Division
Concept Cell Communication
Concept Cell Adhesion Molecules
Concept Cell Survival
Concept Receptors, Cell Surface
Concept Cell Adhesion
Concept Dendritic Cells
Concept Genes, T-Cell Receptor
Concept CHO Cells
Concept Tumor Cells, Cultured
Concept Cell Differentiation
Concept Cell-Free System
Concept Antibody-Producing Cells
Concept Bone Marrow Cells
Concept Plasma Cells
Concept Cell Fractionation
Concept Cell Movement
Concept Cells, Cultured
Concept Stem Cells
Concept Cell Separation
Concept Cell Proliferation
Concept Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Concept L Cells (Cell Line)
Concept Cell Death
Concept Cell Cycle
Concept Cell Membrane
Concept Cell Aging
Concept Cell Culture Techniques
Concept Clone Cells
Concept Th1 Cells
Concept Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Concept Stem Cell Transplantation
Concept Antigen-Presenting Cells
Concept Th2 Cells
Concept Cell Line
Concept NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C
Concept Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell
Concept Myeloid Cells
Concept Cell Count
Academic Article CD28 and ITK signals regulate autoreactive T cell trafficking.
Academic Article CD4 T cell defects in the aged: causes, consequences and strategies to circumvent.
Academic Article Graded levels of IRF4 regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion, but not attrition, in response to acute virus infection.
Academic Article Location, location, location: the impact of migratory heterogeneity on T cell function.
Academic Article Effector CD4 T-cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2.
Academic Article Intraepithelial T-cell cytotoxicity, induced bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue, and proliferation of pneumocytes in experimental mouse models of influenza.
Academic Article IL-6-mediated environmental conditioning of defective Th1 differentiation dampens antitumour immune responses in old age.
Academic Article Interleukin 27R regulates CD4+ T cell phenotype and impacts protective immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
Academic Article IL-21 Promotes Pulmonary Fibrosis through the Induction of Profibrotic CD8+ T Cells.
Academic Article T-Cell Immunity to Influenza in Older Adults: A Pathophysiological Framework for Development of More Effective Vaccines.
Academic Article PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion.
Academic Article Direct IL-6 Signals Maximize Protective Secondary CD4 T Cell Responses against Influenza.
Academic Article IL-2 and IL-6 cooperate to enhance the generation of influenza-specific CD8 T cells responding to live influenza virus in aged mice and humans.
Academic Article Short-Lived Antigen Recognition but Not Viral Infection at a Defined Checkpoint Programs Effector CD4 T Cells To Become Protective Memory.
Academic Article PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion.
Academic Article NKG2C/E Marks the Unique Cytotoxic CD4 T Cell Subset, ThCTL, Generated by Influenza Infection.
Academic Article IL-6 Production by TLR-Activated APC Broadly Enhances Aged Cognate CD4 Helper and B Cell Antibody Responses In Vivo.
Academic Article IL-15 supports the generation of protective lung-resident memory CD4 T cells.
Academic Article Pathogen Recognition by CD4 Effectors Drives Key Effector and Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus.
Academic Article The properties of the unique age-associated B cell subset reveal a shift in strategy of immune response with age.
Academic Article Original Antigenic Sin: Friend or Foe in Developing a Broadly Cross-Reactive Vaccine to Influenza?
Academic Article Memory CD4 T cell-derived IL-2 synergizes with viral infection to exacerbate lung inflammation.
Academic Article Virus-induced natural killer cell lysis of T cell subsets.

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