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Genetic Control of Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis) in Drosophila

The long-term objective of our research is to gain a comprehensive understanding ofAndreasBergmann thegenetic control of apoptosis and cell proliferation, and their connection to human cancer. Apoptosis and cell proliferation are critical for normal development, homeostasis and aging. Inappropriate control is associated with various diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. We are utilizing the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism. Knowledge obtained in our studies will provide new insights for our understanding of these diseases.

A tutorial in the lab will provide a detailed introduction into modern Drosophila techniques with emphasis on visualizing gene activity and cell death in wild-type and various mutant backgrounds, phenotypic analysis, generating transgenic flies and small scale genetic screens. In addition, students will gain experience in basic molecular biology and protein chemistry. The experiments will be aided by state-of-the-art facilities.

Three major projects are under study in the lab.

1. Genetic screening

We have developed a novel genetic screening method to identify genes involved in cell death control and execution in Drosophila (Figure 1). However, unexpectedly, we also identified genes involved in growth control, signal transduction and tumor suppression. These interesting genes and their role in normal development are currently under intensive study in the lab.

2. Discovery of non-autonomous tumor suppressor genes

We have discovered a novel class of tumor suppressor genes. Normally, cells that lose tumor suppressor genes by genetic inactivation become highly proliferative and resistant to apoptosis, thus promoting tumor formation. However, in our studies, we identified genes which behave differently. If these genes are mutant, it is not the mutant cells which are overgrowing. Instead, the mutant cells influence the behavior of neighboring cells and promote their proliferation and increased apoptotic resistance, causing non-autonomous overgrowth. Thus, these genes qualify as non-autonomous tumor suppressors.

How do non-autonomous tumor suppressor genes work? One class of non-autonomous mutants affects negative regulators of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway such as patched or PKA, causing deregulated Hh signaling. This deregulated activity promotes non-autonomous proliferation as well as increased apoptosis resistance through up-regulation of Diap1, a potent inhibitor of apoptosis (Figure 2). The non-autonomous control of proliferation and apoptosis by Hh signaling may be needed to generate a supportive micro-environment for tumorigenesis.

3. Apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (CP) and its implications for cancer

Before they die, apoptotic cells can secrete cytokines. These cytokines stimulate proliferation of neighboring cells, a process referred to as apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (CP). There are two distinct types of apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation. The first one is triggered when massive apoptosis is induced in proliferation-competent tissue (Figure 3). In extreme cases, this form of CP causes overgrowth which may be relevant for cancer (Figure 4). The second type of CP occurs when apoptosis is induced in post-mitotic tissue (Figure 5).

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of CP is important for cancer research for three reasons. First, apoptosis-induced proliferation resembles inflammation-induced cancer where inflammatory cells secrete cytokines promoting the growth of cancer cells. Second, therapeutic treatment of tumors often seeks to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. However, this may be counter-productive as apoptotic cells can induce proliferation of adjacent cells. In extreme cases, we observe overgrowth of apoptotic tissue. Third, a very important question in cancer research is how transformed cells start proliferating. This is not a trivial question. Cells in a differentiated tissue have exited the cell cycle and rest in a quiescent state. The exact molecular mechanisms by which transformed cells re-enter the cell cycle are largely unknown. The second type of CP may provide answers to this question. When we induce apoptosis in the Drosophila retina which is composed of postmitotic neurons, cone and pigment cells, the neurons produce mitogens which stimulate other cells to re-enter the cell cycle (Figure 5). The characteristics of this cell cycle re-entry are similar to mammalian cells stimulated to re-enter the cell cycle.

Thus, these examples illustrate the importance of CP in for cancer. In genetic screens, we have identified several genes involved in CP. We are analyzing these genes to understand the mechanism of CP and their potential role in cancer.


Initially, the primary focus of research in the laboratory centered on apoptosis. However, over the years it became clear that in the context of a multi-cellular organism such as Drosophila, apoptosis is intimately linked to cell proliferation and tumor suppression. The discovery of apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation is an instructive example. Although the cells are dying, they are able to produce cytokines that stimulate proliferation. In extreme cases, this can cause overgrowth. Because induction of apoptosis in tumor cells is a preferred strategy in the clinic, it is important to understand the mechanism of apoptosis-induced proliferation. Likewise, tumor cells need a supportive cellular micro-environment for tumorigenesis. Non-autonomous tumor suppressor genes may generate such a supportive environment. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of action of these genes. The projects in the laboratory are aimed at these questions.






One or more keywords matched the following items that are connected to Bergmann, Andreas
Item TypeName
Academic Article Regulation of cell number by MAPK-dependent control of apoptosis: a mechanism for trophic survival signaling.
Academic Article Regulation of Drosophila IAP1 degradation and apoptosis by reaper and ubcD1.
Academic Article Regulators of IAP function: coming to grips with the grim reaper.
Academic Article Genetic control of programmed cell death in Drosophila melanogaster.
Academic Article The CARD-carrying caspase Dronc is essential for most, but not all, developmental cell death in Drosophila.
Academic Article vps25 mosaics display non-autonomous cell survival and overgrowth, and autonomous apoptosis.
Academic Article The effector caspases drICE and dcp-1 have partially overlapping functions in the apoptotic pathway in Drosophila.
Academic Article IKK epsilon signaling: not just NF-kappaB.
Academic Article Cytochrome c-d regulates developmental apoptosis in the Drosophila retina.
Academic Article Drosophila cbl is essential for control of cell death and cell differentiation during eye development.
Academic Article Apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation. The Cell is dead. Long live the Cell!
Academic Article Inactivation of effector caspases through nondegradative polyubiquitylation.
Academic Article Common and distinct genetic properties of ESCRT-II components in Drosophila.
Academic Article Genetic control of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in Drosophila.
Academic Article The role of ubiquitylation for the control of cell death in Drosophila.
Academic Article Trim24 targets endogenous p53 for degradation.
Academic Article The enhancer of trithorax and polycomb gene Caf1/p55 is essential for cell survival and patterning in Drosophila development.
Academic Article Drosophila IAP1-mediated ubiquitylation controls activation of the initiator caspase DRONC independent of protein degradation.
Academic Article Ligand-independent activation of the Hedgehog pathway displays non-cell autonomous proliferation during eye development in Drosophila.
Academic Article Activation of the Drosophila MLK by ceramide reveals TNF-alpha and ceramide as agonists of mammalian MLK3.
Academic Article De-regulation of JNK and JAK/STAT signaling in ESCRT-II mutant tissues cooperatively contributes to neoplastic tumorigenesis.
Academic Article Drosophila mixed lineage kinase/slipper, a missing biochemical link in Drosophila JNK signaling.
Academic Article Mis-specified cells die by an active gene-directed process, and inhibition of this death results in cell fate transformation in Drosophila.
Academic Article The two Drosophila cytochrome C proteins can function in both respiration and caspase activation.
Academic Article ARK, the Apaf-1 related killer in Drosophila, requires diverse domains for its apoptotic activity.
Academic Article The E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme Uba1 in Drosophila controls apoptosis autonomously and tissue growth non-autonomously.
Academic Article Autophagy and cell death: no longer at odds.
Academic Article Distinct mechanisms of apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation in proliferating and differentiating tissues in the Drosophila eye.
Academic Article Genetic analysis of ESCRT function in Drosophila: a tumour model for human Tsg101.
Academic Article The cleaved-Caspase-3 antibody is a marker of Caspase-9-like DRONC activity in Drosophila.
Academic Article Dual roles of Drosophila p53 in cell death and cell differentiation.
Academic Article The H3K27me3 demethylase dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rb-dependent tumors in Drosophila.
Academic Article Regulation of EGFR and Notch signaling by distinct isoforms of D-cbl during Drosophila development.
Academic Article Notch signaling activates Yorkie non-cell autonomously in Drosophila.
Concept Drosophila melanogaster
Concept Drosophila
Concept Drosophila Proteins
Academic Article Genetic models of apoptosis-induced proliferation decipher activation of JNK and identify a requirement of EGFR signaling for tissue regenerative responses in Drosophila.
Academic Article Detecting caspase activity in Drosophila larval imaginal discs.
Academic Article Multiple mechanisms modulate distinct cellular susceptibilities toward apoptosis in the developing Drosophila eye.
Academic Article UTX coordinates steroid hormone-mediated autophagy and cell death.
Academic Article The Sound of Silence: Signaling by Apoptotic Cells.
Academic Article Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species Drive Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation via Drosophila Macrophages.
Academic Article The unconventional myosin CRINKLED and its mammalian orthologue MYO7A regulate caspases in their signalling roles.
Academic Article Autophagy-independent function of Atg1 for apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation.
Academic Article The beneficial role of extracellular reactive oxygen species in apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation.
Academic Article An inhibitory mono-ubiquitylation of the Drosophila initiator caspase Dronc functions in both apoptotic and non-apoptotic pathways.
Academic Article (CCUG)n RNA toxicity in a Drosophila model of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) activates apoptosis.
Academic Article Tumor-promoting function of apoptotic caspases by an amplification loop involving ROS, macrophages and JNK in Drosophila.
Academic Article Plasma Membrane Localization of Apoptotic Caspases for Non-apoptotic Functions.
Academic Article Basement membrane damage by ROS- and JNK-mediated Mmp2 activation drives macrophage recruitment to overgrown tissue.
Academic Article Transiently "Undead" Enterocytes Mediate Homeostatic Tissue Turnover in the Adult Drosophila Midgut.
Academic Article Non-apoptotic enteroblast-specific role of the initiator caspase Dronc for development and homeostasis of the Drosophila intestine.
Academic Article Erebosis is a new type of cell death for tissue homeostasis in the Drosophila intestine.
Academic Article Toll-9 interacts with Toll-1 to mediate a feedback loop during apoptosis-induced proliferation in Drosophila.
Academic Article Actin remodeling mediates ROS production and JNK activation to drive apoptosis-induced proliferation.
Academic Article In Vitro Cleavage Assays using Purified Recombinant Drosophila Caspases for Substrate Screening.
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