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Nuclear Medicine Physics Imaging Research Interests

  • Correction for causes of image degradation in nuclear medicine such as attenuation, distance-dependent spatial-resolution, and scatter
  • Detection, estimation, and correction of all forms of patient motion during imaging
  • Tomographic image reconstruction for SPECT and PET.
  • Combination of CT with SPECT and PET
  • Design of the next generation of SPECT Imaging Systems
  • Assessment of image quality by task performance studies using human and numerical observers.
  • Quantification of activity and assessment of physiological function.
  • Image segmentation and computer vision applications in nuclear medicine.
  • Reduction in radiation dose to patients and personnel
  • Applications of Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine

One example of the research accomplishments of the laboratory is our work on the detection and compensation of patient motion during the up to 16 minute period which the patient is required to remain motionless for nuclear medicine studies. We have taken the approach of combining estimates of patient motion as determined from the nuclear medicine images themselves with information from our visual-tracking system (VTS) which tracks the motion of retro-reflective markers on stretchy bands wrapped about the patient to provide a combined correction of respiratory and bodily motion. Once motion is determined it is corrected by inclusion in iterative reconstruction as illustrated in the following figure. These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-HL122484.

Clinical SPECT
Clinical SPECT images showing benefits of respiratory motion correction (RM) as noted in top row versus second row which is without RM correction.

Another example of our current interests is the development of a multi-pinhole collimator (MPH) for use on one gamma-camera head of a general purpose SPECT system in combination with a fan-beam collimator on the second camera head for high resolution / sensitivity imaging of the striatal region of the brain in I-123 DaTscan imaging for Parkinson’s Disease. A rendering of the collimator is shown below followed by reconstructed simulated images of the strata for MPH, Fan, and Combined imaging. These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-EB022092.

MPH collimator
Rendering of the MPH collimator showing the aperture plate with 9 pinholes.
XCAT
A. Example XCAT transverse slice multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator noise-free reconstructions through substantia nigra (left) and the caudate and putamen (right) for 15, 30, and 60 angles for VOI over striata. B. Same for low-energy ultra-high-resolution (LEUHR) fan-beam only collimator reconstruction. C. Same for combined reconstruction using MPH and LEUHR fan-beam collimators. D. Matching slices through original XCAT DaTscan source distribution for substantia nigra (top), and caudate and putamen (bottom) with 8:1 striatal to rest of brain  concentration ratio, and no activity in the ventricles. Note that separation of caudate and putamen can be seen in combined reconstruction.

The third example of our current investigations is the development of a multi-detector-module multi-pinhole (MPH) SPECT brain-imaging system ideally suited for quantitative dynamic and high-spatial-resolution static SPECT imaging. Dynamic imaging will be enabled by obtaining sufficient angular sampling without the need for rotation. The system will automatically adapt its imaging characteristics (aperture size and number of pinholes open for imaging) in response to the imaging tasks and individual patients. It will thereby optimize lesion detection and quantification, as well as provide optimal data for pharmacokinetic analysis within structures throughout the brain. The prototype design for this system is illustrated in the following computer aided design (CAD) drawings.  These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-EB022521.

Frontal view SolidWorks CADRear view SolidWorks CAD
Shown left is a frontal view and right is a view from behind of SolidWorks CAD renderings of the proposed prototype configuration of the 23 detectors of the system dedicated to brain SPECT imaging. Shown are detector modules with MPH aperture plates towards the brain and circular scintillation detector crystals opposed to them.

Current Teaching

Physics of Radiology for Residents Nuclear Medical Physics for Cardiologists A year long course starting in August each year consisting of one-hour lectures plus quizzes on Wednesday mornings each week.

Physics Review for Radiology Residents Taking the ABR Exam Nuclear Medical Physics for Cardiologists: Lectures, demonstrations, and practice question review for physics portion of ABR exam from January to June.

List of Graduate Students and Post-Doctoral Fellows List of Graduate Students

Honors and Awards

  1. Graduated Magna Cum Laude from the State University of New York at Oswego in 1969
  2. Anne-Dorte Achtert, 4th year medical student from Humboldt University, Berlin. Advisor for 1 year research fellowship under Biomedical Sciences Exchange Program, 1996-1997. Manuscript based on directed research (JNC 5:144-152, 1997) won the Best Scientific Paper Award from the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology for 1998.
  3. Daniel deVries, thesis advisor for Doctor's degree (1996) in Biomedical Engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Paper based on thesis work (JNM 40:1011-1023, 1999) received The Journal of Nuclear Medicine's First Place Award for Outstanding Basic Science Manuscript for 1999.
  4. Ed Hoffman Memorial Award for Outstanding Scientific Contributions to the Field of Computers and Instrumentation in Nuclear Medicine. From Society of Nuclear Medicine Computer and Instrumentation Council. June 5, 2006.
  5. Teacher of the Year Award for excellence in teaching presented by the residents of the Department of Radiology, UMMS, June 11, 2008.
  6. IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society 2015 Edward J Hoffman Medical Imaging Scientist Award for contributions to clinical nuclear medicine imaging, especially compensation for realistic physical effects and motion in image reconstruction, emission and transmission imaging geometries, and task-based evaluation methods. Nov 4, 2015.
  7. Charter Member of the Biomedical Imaging Technology-A Study Section, Center for Scientific Review, NIH, from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2020.
  8. Fellow Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. June 14, 2020

Current Grant Support

  1. NIH, No R01-EB022092, Combined Multi-Pinhole and Fan-Beam Brain SPECT. M. A. King, PI, 5/18/2016-2/29/2021 (no cost extension).
  2. NIH, No. R01 EB022521, AdaptiSPECT-C: A Next-Generation, Adaptive Brain-Imaging SPECT System for Drug Discovery and Clinical Imaging, M. A. King, contact PI, L. Furenlid, MPI, G. Zubal, MPI, 9/1/2016-8/30/2021.
  3. NIH, No. R21 EB027250, Wave-Cam: A novel micro-radar imaging array for non-rigid motion estimation in hybrid medical imaging, C. Lindsay, PI, 9/21/2019 – 6/30/2022, Role: Co-investigator.
  4. NIH, No. R01 EB029315, Improving Pediatric SPECT Imaging: Enhanced Lesion Detection with Dose Reduction through Advanced Reconstruction and Motion Correction, M. A. King, contact PI, F. Fahey, MPI, Y. Yang, MPI, 6/01/2020 – 0/29/2024.
  5. NIH, No. R01 HL154687, Optimization of diagnostic accuracy, radiation dose, and patient throughput for cardiac SPECT via advanced and clinically practical cardiac-respiratory motion correction and deep learning, W. Wernick, contact PI, M. A. King, MPI, 06/01/20-05/31/24.
  6. NIH, No. R15 HL150708, Attenuation correction strategies for myocardial perfusion imaging using dual-gated, M. Jin, PI 8/05/2020 – 07/31/2023, $300,000, Role: Co-investigator.
One or more keywords matched the following items that are connected to King, Michael
Item TypeName
Academic Article A Monte Carlo investigation of artifacts caused by liver uptake in single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled agents.
Academic Article Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 2. Attenuation compensation algorithms.
Academic Article Evaluation of right and left ventricular volume and ejection fraction using a mathematical cardiac torso phantom.
Academic Article Influence of OSEM, elliptical orbits and background activity on SPECT 3D resolution recovery.
Academic Article Reducing the influence of the partial volume effect on SPECT activity quantitation with 3D modelling of spatial resolution in iterative reconstruction.
Academic Article Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging.
Academic Article Attenuation compensation in 99mTc SPECT brain imaging: a comparison of the use of attenuation maps derived from transmission versus emission data in normal scans.
Academic Article Bone SPECT of the spine: a comparison of attenuation correction techniques.
Academic Article The effect of intrinsic attenuation correction methods on the stationarity of the 3-D modulation transfer function of SPECT.
Academic Article Channelized hotelling and human observer correlation for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging.
Academic Article Comparing filtered backprojection and ordered-subsets expectation maximization for small-lesion detection and localization in 67Ga SPECT.
Academic Article Improved image quality and computation reduction in 4-D reconstruction of cardiac-gated SPECT images.
Academic Article LROC analysis of detector-response compensation in SPECT.
Academic Article Comparative evaluation of image segmentation methods for volume quantitation in SPECT.
Academic Article Improvement of image resolution and quantitative accuracy in clinical Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography.
Academic Article Estimation of attenuation maps from scatter and photopeak window single photon-emission computed tomographic images of technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi.
Academic Article An investigation of the estimation of ejection fractions and cardiac volumes by a quantitative gated SPECT software package in simulated gated SPECT images.
Academic Article An iterative transmission algorithm incorporating cross-talk correction for SPECT.
Academic Article Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT.
Academic Article Introduction to the physics of molecular imaging with radioactive tracers in small animals.
Academic Article Assessment of scatter compensation strategies for (67)Ga SPECT using numerical observers and human LROC studies.
Academic Article Effect of filtering on the detection and localization of small Ga-67 lesions in thoracic single photon emission computed tomography images.
Academic Article Effects of scatter substraction on detection and quantitation in hepatic SPECT.
Academic Article SPECT volume quantitation: influence of spatial resolution, source size and shape, and voxel size.
Academic Article A mathematical model of motion of the heart for use in generating source and attenuation maps for simulating emission imaging.
Academic Article Myocardial perfusion SPECT reconstruction: receiver operating characteristic comparison of CAD detection accuracy of filtered backprojection reconstruction with all of the clinical imaging information available to readers and solely stress slices iteratively reconstructed with combined compensation.
Academic Article Counting moles automatically from back images.
Academic Article Comparing cardiac ejection fraction estimation algorithms without a gold standard.
Academic Article Fully 4D motion-compensated reconstruction of cardiac SPECT images.
Academic Article An interior point iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm incorporating upper and lower bounds with application to SPECT transmission imaging.
Academic Article Diminishing the impact of the partial volume effect in cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging.
Academic Article Impact on reader performance for lesion-detection/ localization tasks of anatomical priors in SPECT reconstruction.
Academic Article A flexible multicamera visual-tracking system for detecting and correcting motion-induced artifacts in cardiac SPECT slices.
Academic Article A quantitative evaluation study of four-dimensional gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction.
Academic Article Detectability of perfusion defect in five-dimensional gated-dynamic cardiac SPECT images.
Academic Article Estimation and correction of cardiac respiratory motion in SPECT in the presence of limited-angle effects due to irregular respiration.
Academic Article Modifying constrained least-squares restoration for application to single photon emission computed tomography projection images.
Academic Article Coping with perturbations to a layout somersault in tumbling.
Academic Article A comparison of human and model observers in multislice LROC studies.
Academic Article An investigation of the 3D modulation transfer function used in 3D post-reconstruction restoration filtering of SPECT imaging.
Academic Article 2D vs. 3D edge detection as a basis for volume quantitation in SPECT.
Academic Article Activity quantitation in SPECT: a study of prereconstruction Metz filtering and use of the scatter degradation factor.
Academic Article Simultaneous assessment of cardiac perfusion and function using 5-dimensional imaging with Tc-99m teboroxime.
Academic Article Use of three-dimensional Gaussian interpolation in the projector/backprojector pair of iterative reconstruction for compensation of known rigid-body motion in SPECT.
Academic Article Incorporation of system resolution compensation (RC) in the ordered-subset transmission (OSTR) algorithm for transmission imaging in SPECT.
Academic Article Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT.
Academic Article An evaluation of iterative reconstruction strategies based on mediastinal lesion detection using hybrid Ga-67 SPECT images.
Academic Article Effects of motion, attenuation, and scatter corrections on gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction.
Academic Article Comparison study of temporal regularization methods for fully 5D reconstruction of cardiac gated dynamic SPECT.
Academic Article A quantitative study of motion estimation methods on 4D cardiac gated SPECT reconstruction.
Academic Article 4D reconstruction for low-dose cardiac gated SPECT.
Academic Article Stationary and nonstationary spatial domain Metz filtering.
Academic Article Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function.
Concept Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted
Concept Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted
Concept Computer Simulation
Concept Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Concept Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Concept Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography
Concept Computer-Aided Design
Concept Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Concept Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Concept Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Academic Article An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging.
Academic Article Use of MRI to assess the prediction of heart motion with gross body motion in myocardial perfusion imaging by stereotracking of markers on the body surface.
Academic Article Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging.
Academic Article Adaptation of the modified Bouc-Wen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: testing using MRI.
Academic Article Limited-angle effect compensation for respiratory binned cardiac SPECT.
Academic Article Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging.
Academic Article Correction of hysteretic respiratory motion in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging: Simulation and patient studies.
Academic Article Motion-compensated image reconstruction vs postreconstruction correction in respiratory-binned SPECT with standard and reduced-dose acquisitions.
Academic Article Evaluation of different respiratory gating schemes for cardiac SPECT.
Academic Article 4-D Reconstruction With Respiratory Correction for Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT.
Academic Article Investigation of dose reduction in cardiac perfusion SPECT via optimization and choice of the image reconstruction strategy.
Academic Article 4D non-local means post-filtering for cardiac gated SPECT.
Academic Article Improving perfusion defect detection with respiratory motion correction in cardiac SPECT at standard and reduced doses.
Academic Article Evaluation of the effect of reducing administered activity on assessment of function in cardiac gated SPECT.
Academic Article Cardiac motion correction for improving perfusion defect detection in cardiac SPECT at standard and reduced doses of activity.
Academic Article Improving Diagnostic Accuracy in Low-Dose SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging With Convolutional Denoising Networks.
Academic Article Investigation of Axial and Angular Sampling in Multi-Detector Pinhole-SPECT Brain Imaging.
Academic Article Inclusion of quasi-vertex views in a brain-dedicated multi-pinhole SPECT system for improved imaging performance.
Academic Article Deep learning with noise-to-noise training for denoising in SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.
Academic Article Improvement in sampling and modulation of multiplexing with temporal shuttering of adaptable apertures in a brain-dedicated multi-pinhole SPECT system.
Academic Article A novel deep-learning-based approach for automatic reorientation of 3D cardiac SPECT images.
Academic Article Improving detection accuracy of perfusion defect in standard dose SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging by deep-learning denoising.
Academic Article A computer program for reconstruction of images from a scanning gamma camera
Academic Article Considerations in the purchase of a nuclear medicine computer system
Academic Article Data-driven respiratory signal estimation from temporally finely sampled projection data in conventional cardiac perfusion SPECT imaging.
Academic Article Dual gating myocardial perfusion SPECT denoising using a conditional generative adversarial network.
Academic Article Mesh modeling of system geometry and anatomy phantoms for realistic GATE simulations and their inclusion in SPECT reconstruction.
Academic Article Observer studies of image quality of denoising reduced-count cardiac single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging by three-dimensional Gaussian post-reconstruction filtering and deep learning.
Academic Article Quantitative single photon emission tomography: verification for sources in an elliptical water phantom.
Academic Article Respiratory signal estimation for cardiac perfusion SPECT using deep learning.
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