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Biographical Information

Post-graduate training

  • Internal Medicine Residency, Oregon Health Sciences University
  • Fellowship, Infectious Disease, University of California, San Diego

Board certification

  • Diplomate in Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine
  • Diplomate in Infectious Disease, American Board of Internal Medicine

Research interests

My research focuses on the evolution of influenza A virus under the selective pressure of antiviral drugs and antibodies using high-throughput sequencing. My laboratory also investigates viral activation of pattern recognition receptors and downstream pathways in various host cells and models. Recently we have examined how innate immune responses contribute to autoimmune disease processes, in particular how activation of inflammatory pathways and type I interferon can lead to type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas and typically develops in children and teenagers. Enteroviruses including Coxsackie B virus (CVB) have been implicated in the etiology of T1D and polymorphisms in viral sensors have been associated with various autoimmune phenotypes including T1D. We demonstrated that CVB can activate type I interferon via Toll-like receptor 7 as well as through MDA5. We have used mice engrafted with human islets to study the effects of virus challenge on beta cells and development of diabetes. We also generated IFNAR1 knockout rats that are protected from virus-triggered T1D to better understand the links between innate and adaptive immunity and the development of diabetes.


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  • Receptors Pattern Recognition