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    Last Name
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    Ricardo T Gazzinelli DSc, DVM

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-2400
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Research:

        Ricardo Gazinelli

        Many parasites target antigens as well as mechanisms involving acquired immunity in host resistance to protozoan infections have been defined over the years. However, the same cannot be said about innate immune mechanisms involved in initial host resistance, initiation of immune responses and pathogenesis during infection with this class of pathogens. The lack of information in this area seems to be an important impediment for development of effective prophylactic as well as therapeutic immunologic-based protocols to prevent or treat these diseases. Therefore, the main scientific interests of my laboratory are: (i) to understand the role of innate immunity on host resistance and pathogenesis to infection with protozoan parasites; and (ii) to develop vaccines that induce cell-mediated immunity and protection against protozoan infections. When possible, we try to address our questions regarding host-parasite interactions, employing cellular systems, experimental rodent models and primary cells derived from well-characterized patients undergoing specific protozoan infection. My research program is developed at the Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, UMASS Medical School and at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation / Federal University of Minas Gerais, in Brazil.

        Innate Immunity

        Innate Immunity Image

        IFNgseems to be a primary cytokine involved in host resistance and infection with protozoan parasites. The early studies describing the counter-regulatory role of IL-10 and IL-12 were important to understand the induction of IFNg by Natural Killer cells as well as on differentiation of CD4+ T lymphocytes towards the Th1 phenotype during infection with protozoan parasites. These studies were also essential to understand induction/evasion of cell mediated immunity, and thus explain a major mechanism of susceptibility/resistance as well as pathogenesis of infection with distinct parasitic protozoa. Currently, we are very interestedin identifying cognate innate immune receptors for protozoan parasites and how they participate in the induction phase of cell mediated immunity and development of protective acquired immunity against this class of pathogens. We hope that these studies will contribute with a more rational design of effective vaccines against protozoan parasites, and new strategies to interfere with hypo-responsiveness (may favor parasite growth) or hyper-responsiveness (may be deleterious to the host), immunological status that are often associated with pathogenesis and lethality observed during protozoan infections. Below I provide a short summary of the research performed in my laboratory, which employ different protozoan parasites.

        Chagas Disease Image

        Chagas Disease- We have characterized the structure and function protozoan-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors (GPIs) as well as genomic unmethylated CpG motifs derived from T. cruziparasites, which possess potent pro-inflammatory activities. We have also defined Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 9 as the host counterpart receptors for GPIs and CpG motifs both in mouse and human systems. In addition, we demonstrated the role of MyD88, TLR2 and TLR9 in early pro-inflammatory response and host resistance to infection with T. cruzi in mice and potential implications on immunopathology of Chagas' disease in humans are being considered. Questions regarding the involvement of TLRs and other innate immune receptors on pathogenesis of Chagas disease, the mechanisms of induction of cell mediated immunity as well as the use of T. cruzi derived agonists as vaccine adjuvants are currently being approached in my lab.

        Malaria Image

        Malaria- We have also investigated the role of different TLRs and MyD88 in host resistance to infection and malaria pathogenesis. Together, our findings suggest that MyD88 and possibly its associated TLRs expressed by dendritic cells play an important role in pro-inflammatory responses, T cell activation, and pathogenesis of malaria, but are not critical for the immunological control of the erythrocytic stage of P. chabaudi. By in silico analysis and in vitro assays, we have defined CpG as well as AT rich motifs that activate human TLR9 and a new category of cytoplasmatic receptors. We have also shown that TLR responses are boosted in febrile patients during natural infection with P. falciparum. Microarray analyses demonstrated that an extraordinary percentage of the up-regulated genes, including genes of TLR signaling pathway, had sites for IFN-inducible transcription factors. Consistently, acutely infected wild-type mice were highly susceptible to LPS-induced lethality while TLR9-/-, and to a greater extent,IFNg -/- mice were protected. Our data provide unprecedented evidence that TLR9 and MyD88 are essential to initiate IFNγ responses and favor host hyper-responsiveness to TLR agonists resulting in overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the sepsis-like symptoms of acute malaria. We are currently trying to map the array of innate immune receptors and signaling pathways involved on early pro-inflammatory responses and sepsis symptoms/signs observed during P. falciparum malaria.

        Toxoplasmosis Image

        Toxoplasmosis – MyD88 has also been shown critical in eliciting IL-12/IFNg production and host resistance to infection with T. gondii. However, none of the single TLR deficient mice seem to recapitulate the susceptibility of MyD88-/- mice to infection with this parasite. Our main goal is to establish what receptor(s) are responsible for MyD88 dependent activity during T. gondiiinfection. In parallel we are studying the innate immune responses to patients with asymptomatic and ocular toxoplasmosis. We have currently shown that human TLR2 / TLR4 and TLR9 are responsive to T. gondii derived GPI anchors as well as unmethylated CpG motifs, respectively. Further, the presence of specific gene variants (polymorphisms) associated with outcome of acquired immune responses and ocular disease are under evaluation.

        Vaccine Development

        In regard to vaccine development two main issues have been investigated in my lab: (i) the question of appropriate antigen delivery and (ii) the use of specific TLR agonists as vaccine adjuvants to induce a strong cell-mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses. For the first question, we have engineered protective antigens from T. cruzi (ASP and TS); T. gondii (SAG1, SAG2 and SAG3); and Leishmania sp. (A2) into different viral vectors, i.e. adenovirus, MVA and influenza. In addition, these same antigens are being tested in association with well defined TLR agonists. The different protocols are being tested in the rodent model, as well as in primates and dogs in the case of leishmaniasis. The involvement of different components of innate as well as acquired immunity are being defined in various knockout mice that receive vaccination protocols that are effective protecting wild type controls against experimental challenges. Finally, GPI anchors and CpG motifs derived from T. cruzi are being tested as potential novel immunological adjuvants in vaccine formulations.

        Financial Support: My current research is supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cinetifico e Tecnologico-CNPq, Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais-FAPEMIG, the National Institutes of Health-NIH and the Atlantic Philanthropies / Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Silva GK, Costa RS, Silveira TN, Caetano BC, Horta CV, Gutierrez FR, Guedes PM, Andrade WA, De Niz M, Gazzinelli RT, Zamboni DS, Silva JS. Apoptosis-Associated Speck-like Protein Containing a Caspase Recruitment Domain Inflammasomes Mediate IL-1ß Response and Host Resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 15; 191(6):3373-83.
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        2. Cardoso MS, Junqueira C, Trigueiro RC, Shams-Eldin H, Macedo CS, Araújo PR, Gomes DA, Martinelli PM, Kimmel J, Stahl P, Niehus S, Schwarz RT, Previato JO, Mendonça-Previato L, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira SM. Identification and Functional Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Genes That Encode Proteins of the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Biosynthetic Pathway. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug; 7(8):e2369.
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        3. Stahl P, Ruppert V, Meyer T, Schmidt J, Campos MA, Gazzinelli RT, Maisch B, Schwarz RT, Debierre-Grockiego F. Trypomastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi induce apoptosis and STAT3 activation in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Apoptosis. 2013 Jun; 18(6):653-63.
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        4. Mendes EA, Fonseca FG, Casério BM, Colina JP, Gazzinelli RT, Caetano BC. Recombinant Vaccines against T. gondii: Comparison between Homologous and Heterologous Vaccination Protocols Using Two Viral Vectors Expressing SAG1. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63201.
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        5. Gravina HD, Antonelli L, Gazzinelli RT, Ropert C. Differential Use of TLR2 and TLR9 in the Regulation of Immune Responses during the Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63100.
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        6. Barbosa RP, Filho BG, Dos Santos LI, Junior PA, Marques PE, Pereira RV, Cara DC, Bruña-Romero O, Rodrigues MM, Gazzinelli RT, Machado AV. Vaccination Using Recombinants Influenza and Adenoviruses Encoding Amastigote Surface Protein-2 Are Highly Effective on Protection against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e61795.
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        7. Roman-Campos D, Sales-Júnior P, Duarte HL, Gomes ER, Guatimosim S, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT, Cruz JS. Cardiomyocyte dysfunction during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2013 Apr; 108(2):243-5.
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        8. Schamber-Reis BL, Petritus PM, Caetano BC, Martinez ER, Okuda K, Golenbock D, Scott P, Gazzinelli RT. UNC93B1 and Nucleic Acid-sensing Toll-like Receptors Mediate Host Resistance to Infection with Leishmania major. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 8; 288(10):7127-36.
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        9. Andrade WA, Souza Mdo C, Ramos-Martinez E, Nagpal K, Dutra MS, Melo MB, Bartholomeu DC, Ghosh S, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Combined Action of Nucleic Acid-Sensing Toll-like Receptors and TLR11/TLR12 Heterodimers Imparts Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in Mice. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jan 16; 13(1):42-53.
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        10. Dutra MS, Béla SR, Peixoto-Rangel AL, Fakiola M, Cruz AG, Gazzinelli A, Quites HF, Bahia-Oliveira LM, Peixe RG, Campos WR, Higino-Rocha AC, Miller NE, Blackwell JM, Antonelli LR, Gazzinelli RT. Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan; 207(1):152-63.
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        11. Béla SR, Dutra MS, Mui E, Montpetit A, Oliveira FS, Oliveira SC, Arantes RM, Antonelli LR, McLeod R, Gazzinelli RT. Impaired Innate Immunity in Mice Deficient in Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 Leads to Defective Type 1 T Cell Responses, B Cell Expansion, and Enhanced Susceptibility to Infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4298-308.
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        12. Roman-Campos D, Sales-Junior P, Duarte HL, Gomes ER, Lara A, Campos P, Rocha NN, Resende RR, Ferreira A, Guatimosim S, Gazzinelli RT, Ropert C, Cruz JS. Novel insights into the development of chagasic cardiomyopathy: Role of PI3Kinase/NO axis. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 10; 167(6):3011-20.
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        13. Trevelin SC, Alves-Filho JC, Sônego F, Turato W, Nascimento DC, Souto FO, Cunha TM, Gazzinelli RT, Cunha FQ. Toll-like receptor 9 activation in neutrophils impairs chemotaxis and reduces sepsis outcome*. Crit Care Med. 2012 Sep; 40(9):2631-7.
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        14. Dos Santos SL, Freitas LM, Lobo FP, Rodrigues-Luiz GF, Mendes TA, Oliveira AC, Andrade LO, Chiari E, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira SM, Fujiwara RT, Bartholomeu DC. The MASP Family of Trypanosoma cruzi: Changes in Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile during the Acute Phase of Experimental Infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Aug; 6(8):e1779.
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        15. Leoratti FM, Trevelin SC, Cunha FQ, Rocha BC, Costa PA, Gravina HD, Tada MS, Pereira DB, Golenbock DT, do Valle Antonelli LR, Gazzinelli RT. Neutrophil Paralysis in Plasmodium vivax Malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jun; 6(6):e1710.
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        16. Fernandes AP, Coelho EA, Machado-Coelho GL, Grimaldi G, Gazzinelli RT. Making an anti-amastigote vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: rational, update and perspectives. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012 Aug; 15(4):476-85.
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        17. Costa MM, Penido M, Dos Santos MS, Doro D, de Freitas E, Michalick MS, Grimaldi G, Gazzinelli RT, Fernandes AP. Improved canine and human visceral leishmaniasis immunodiagnosis using combinations of synthetic peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 May; 6(5):e1622.
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        18. Vasconcelos JR, Bruña-Romero O, Araújo AF, Dominguez MR, Ersching J, de Alencar BC, Machado AV, Gazzinelli RT, Bortoluci KR, Amarante-Mendes GP, Lopes MF, Rodrigues MM. Pathogen-Induced Proapoptotic Phenotype and High CD95 (Fas) Expression Accompany a Suboptimal CD8(+) T-Cell Response: Reversal by Adenoviral Vaccine. PLoS Pathog. 2012 May; 8(5):e1002699.
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        19. Carvalho CM, Silverio JC, da Silva AA, Pereira IR, Coelho JM, Britto CC, Moreira OC, Marchevsky RS, Xavier SS, Gazzinelli RT, da Glória Bonecini-Almeida M, Lannes-Vieira J. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Heart Tissue and Nitric Oxide in Serum of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Rhesus Monkeys: Association with Heart Injury. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 May; 6(5):e1644.
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        20. Junqueira C, Guerrero AT, Galvão-Filho B, Andrade WA, Salgado AP, Cunha TM, Ropert C, Campos MA, Penido ML, Mendonça-Previato L, Previato JO, Ritter G, Cunha FQ, Gazzinelli RT. Trypanosoma cruzi Adjuvants Potentiate T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by a NY-ESO-1 Based Antitumor Vaccine. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e36245.
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        21. Silverio JC, Pereira IR, Cipitelli Mda C, Vinagre NF, Rodrigues MM, Gazzinelli RT, Lannes-Vieira J. CD8(+) T-cells expressing interferon gamma or perforin play antagonistic roles in heart injury in experimental trypanosoma cruzi-elicited cardiomyopathy. PLoS Pathog. 2012 Apr; 8(4):e1002645.
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        22. Junqueira C, Santos LI, Galvão-Filho B, Teixeira SM, Rodrigues FG, Darocha WD, Chiari E, Jungbluth AA, Ritter G, Gnjatic S, Old LJ, Gazzinelli RT. Trypanosoma cruzi as an effective cancer antigen delivery vector. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Dec 6; 108(49):19695-700.
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        23. Caetano BC, Biswas A, Lima-Junior DS, Benevides L, Mineo TW, Horta CV, Lee KH, Silva JS, Gazzinelli RT, Zamboni DS, Kobayashi KS. Intrinsic expression of Nod2 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes is not necessary for the development of cell-mediated immunity and host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3627-31.
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        24. Guerrero AT, Cunha TM, Verri WA, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira MM, Cunha FQ, Ferreira SH. Toll-like receptor 2/MyD88 signaling mediates zymosan-induced joint hypernociception in mice: Participation of TNF-a, IL-1ß and CXCL1/KC. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Jan 5; 674(1):51-7.
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        25. Freitas LM, dos Santos SL, Rodrigues-Luiz GF, Mendes TA, Rodrigues TS, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira SM, Fujiwara RT, Bartholomeu DC. Genomic analyses, gene expression and antigenic profile of the trans-sialidase superfamily of Trypanosoma cruzi reveal an undetected level of complexity. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25914.
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        26. Faria AR, Costa MM, Giusta MS, Grimaldi G, Penido ML, Gazzinelli RT, Andrade HM. High-throughput analysis of synthetic peptides for the immunodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Sep; 5(9):e1310.
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        27. Sharma S, Deoliveira RB, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Chan J, Bartholomeu DC, Lauw F, Hall JP, Barber GN, Gazzinelli RT, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Innate Immune Recognition of an AT-Rich Stem-Loop DNA Motif in the Plasmodium falciparum Genome. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):194-207.
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        28. Dominguez MR, Silveira EL, de Vasconcelos JR, de Alencar BC, Machado AV, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM. Subdominant/Cryptic CD8 T Cell Epitopes Contribute to Resistance against Experimental Infection with a Human Protozoan Parasite. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e22011.
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        29. Caetano BC, Carmo BB, Melo MB, Cerny A, Dos Santos SL, Bartholomeu DC, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Requirement of UNC93B1 Reveals a Critical Role for TLR7 in Host Resistance to Primary Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15; 187(4):1903-11.
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        30. Bouillet LÉ, Dias MO, Dorigo NA, Moura AD, Russell B, Nosten F, Renia L, Braga EM, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM, Soares IS, Bruna-Romero O. Long-Term Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses Elicited by a Heterologous Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen 1 Protein Prime/Adenovirus Boost Immunization Protocol. Infect Immun. 2011 Sep; 79(9):3642-52.
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        31. Mendes EA, Caetano BC, Penido ML, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT. MyD88-dependent protective immunity elicited by adenovirus 5 expressing the surface antigen 1 from Toxoplasma gondii is mediated by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Vaccine. 2011 Jun 15; 29(27):4476-84.
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        32. Costa MM, Andrade HM, Bartholomeu DC, Freitas LM, Pires SF, Chapeaurouge AD, Perales J, Ferreira AT, Giusta MS, Melo MN, Gazzinelli RT. Analysis of Leishmania chagasi by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and immunoproteomic: identification of novel candidate antigens for diagnostic tests and vaccine. J Proteome Res. 2011 May 6; 10(5):2172-84.
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        33. Rigato PO, de Alencar BC, de Vasconcelos JR, Dominguez MR, Araújo AF, Machado AV, Gazzinelli RT, Bruna-Romero O, Rodrigues MM. Heterologous Plasmid DNA Prime-Recombinant Human Adenovirus 5 Boost Vaccination Generates a Stable Pool of Protective Long-Lived CD8+ T Effector Memory Cells Specific for a Human Parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect Immun. 2011 May; 79(5):2120-30.
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        34. Andrade MV, Iwaki S, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT, Cunha-Melo JR, Beaven MA. Amplification of cytokine production through synergistic activation of NFAT and AP-1 following stimulation of mast cells with antigen and IL-33. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Mar; 41(3):760-72.
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        35. Franklin BS, Ishizaka ST, Lamphier M, Gusovsky F, Hansen H, Rose J, Zheng W, Ataíde MA, de Oliveira RB, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Therapeutical targeting of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors prevents experimental cerebral malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 1; 108(9):3689-94.
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        36. Lima GK, Zolini GP, Mansur DS, Freire Lima BH, Wischhoff U, Astigarraga RG, Dias MF, das Graças Almeida Silva M, Béla SR, do Valle Antonelli LR, Arantes RM, Gazzinelli RT, Báfica A, Kroon EG, Campos MA. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR9 expressed in trigeminal ganglia are critical to viral control during herpes simplex virus 1 infection. Am J Pathol. 2010 Nov; 177(5):2433-45.
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        37. Junqueira C, Caetano B, Bartholomeu DC, Melo MB, Ropert C, Rodrigues MM, Gazzinelli RT. The endless race between Trypanosoma cruzi and host immunity: lessons for and beyond Chagas disease. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010; 12:e29.
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        38. Melo MB, Kasperkovitz P, Cerny A, Könen-Waisman S, Kurt-Jones EA, Lien E, Beutler B, Howard JC, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(8).
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        39. Machado AV, Caetano BC, Barbosa RP, Salgado AP, Rabelo RH, Garcia CC, Bruna-Romero O, Escriou N, Gazzinelli RT. Prime and boost immunization with influenza and adenovirus encoding the Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 2 (SAG2) induces strong protective immunity. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 19; 28(18):3247-56.
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        40. Andrade WA, Silva AM, Alves VS, Salgado AP, Melo MB, Andrade HM, Dall'Orto FV, Garcia SA, Silveira TN, Gazzinelli RT. Early endosome localization and activity of RasGEF1b, a toll-like receptor-inducible Ras guanine-nucleotide exchange factor. Genes Immun. 2010 Sep; 11(6):447-57.
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        41. Gutierrez FR, Guedes PM, Gazzinelli RT, Silva JS. The role of parasite persistence in pathogenesis of Chagas heart disease. Parasite Immunol. 2009 Nov; 31(11):673-85.
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        42. de Alencar BC, Persechini PM, Haolla FA, de Oliveira G, Silverio JC, Lannes-Vieira J, Machado AV, Gazzinelli RT, Bruna-Romero O, Rodrigues MM. Perforin and gamma interferon expression are required for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell-dependent protective immunity against a human parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, elicited by heterologous plasmid DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 boost vaccination. Infect Immun. 2009 Oct; 77(10):4383-95.
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        43. Haolla FA, Claser C, de Alencar BC, Tzelepis F, de Vasconcelos JR, de Oliveira G, Silvério JC, Machado AV, Lannes-Vieira J, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT, dos Santos RR, Soares MB, Rodrigues MM. Strain-specific protective immunity following vaccination against experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Vaccine. 2009 Sep 18; 27(41):5644-53.
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        44. Franklin BS, Parroche P, Ataíde MA, Lauw F, Ropert C, de Oliveira RB, Pereira D, Tada MS, Nogueira P, da Silva LH, Bjorkbacka H, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Malaria primes the innate immune response due to interferon-gamma induced enhancement of toll-like receptor expression and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 7; 106(14):5789-94.
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        45. Brandão GP, Melo MN, Gazzinelli RT, Caetano BC, Ferreira AM, Silva LA, Vitor RW. Experimental reinfection of BALB/c mice with different recombinant type I/III strains of Toxoplasma gondii: involvement of IFN-gamma and IL-10. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Mar; 104(2):241-5.
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        46. Alves-Filho JC, Freitas A, Souto FO, Spiller F, Paula-Neto H, Silva JS, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira MM, Ferreira SH, Cunha FQ. Regulation of chemokine receptor by Toll-like receptor 2 is critical to neutrophil migration and resistance to polymicrobial sepsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Mar 10; 106(10):4018-23.
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        47. Roman-Campos D, Duarte HL, Sales PA, Natali AJ, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT, Cruz JS. Changes in cellular contractility and cytokines profile during Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice. Basic Res Cardiol. 2009 May; 104(3):238-46.
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        48. Ferraz ML, Gazzinelli RT, Alves RO, Urbina JA, Romanha AJ. Absence of CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, or B lymphocytes has different effects on the efficacy of posaconazole and benznidazole in treatment of experimental acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jan; 53(1):174-9.
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        49. Fernandes AP, Costa MM, Coelho EA, Michalick MS, de Freitas E, Melo MN, Luiz Tafuri W, Resende Dde M, Hermont V, Abrantes Cde F, Gazzinelli RT. Protective immunity against challenge with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in beagle dogs vaccinated with recombinant A2 protein. Vaccine. 2008 Oct 29; 26(46):5888-95.
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        50. Bartholomeu DC, Ropert C, Melo MB, Parroche P, Junqueira CF, Teixeira SM, Sirois C, Kasperkovitz P, Knetter CF, Lien E, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15; 181(2):1333-44.
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        51. Resende DM, Caetano BC, Dutra MS, Penido ML, Abrantes CF, Verly RM, Resende JM, Piló-Veloso D, Rezende SA, Bruna-Romero O, Fernandes AP, Gazzinelli RT. Epitope mapping and protective immunity elicited by adenovirus expressing the Leishmania amastigote specific A2 antigen: correlation with IFN-gamma and cytolytic activity by CD8+ T cells. Vaccine. 2008 Aug 18; 26(35):4585-93.
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        52. Kroll-Palhares K, Silvério JC, Silva AA, Michailowsky V, Marino AP, Silva NM, Carvalho CM, Pinto LM, Gazzinelli RT, Lannes-Vieira J. TNF/TNFR1 signaling up-regulates CCR5 expression by CD8+ T lymphocytes and promotes heart tissue damage during Trypanosoma cruzi infection: beneficial effects of TNF-alpha blockade. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 Jun; 103(4):375-85.
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        53. Pais FS, DaRocha WD, Almeida RM, Leclercq SY, Penido ML, Fragoso SP, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira SM. Molecular characterization of ribonucleoproteic antigens containing repeated amino acid sequences from Trypanosoma cruzi. Microbes Infect. 2008 Jun; 10(7):716-25.
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        54. Sales PA, Golgher D, Oliveira RV, Vieira V, Arantes RM, Lannes-Vieira J, Gazzinelli RT. The regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells have a limited role on pathogenesis of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Microbes Infect. 2008 May; 10(6):680-8.
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        55. Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Specht CA, Wang JP, Lee CK, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent immune activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2123-9.
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        56. Resende MG, Fux B, Caetano BC, Mendes EA, Silva NM, Ferreira AM, Melo MN, Vitor RW, Gazzinelli RT. The role of MHC haplotypes H2d/H2b in mouse resistance/susceptibility to cyst formation is influenced by the lineage of infective Toxoplasma gondii strain. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2008 Mar; 80(1):85-99.
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        57. Tzelepis F, de Alencar BC, Penido ML, Claser C, Machado AV, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi restricts the repertoire of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells leading to immunodominance. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 1; 180(3):1737-48.
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        58. Macedo GC, Magnani DM, Carvalho NB, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT, Oliveira SC. Central role of MyD88-dependent dendritic cell maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production to control Brucella abortus infection. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 15; 180(2):1080-7.
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        59. Ropert C, Franklin BS, Gazzinelli RT. Role of TLRs/MyD88 in host resistance and pathogenesis during protozoan infection: lessons from malaria. Semin Immunopathol. 2008 Feb; 30(1):41-51.
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        60. Portugal LR, Fernandes LR, Pietra Pedroso VS, Santiago HC, Gazzinelli RT, Alvarez-Leite JI. Influence of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor on lipid composition, inflammation and parasitism during Toxoplasma gondii infection. Microbes Infect. 2008 Mar; 10(3):276-84.
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        61. de Andrade BP, Gazzinelli RT, Del Val M, Bruna-Romero O. Protective immunization against murine cytomegalovirus infection using adenoviruses and poxviruses expressing hepatitis B virus chimeras. Int Microbiol. 2007 Dec; 10(4):261-9.
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        62. Debierre-Grockiego F, Campos MA, Azzouz N, Schmidt J, Bieker U, Resende MG, Mansur DS, Weingart R, Schmidt RR, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT, Schwarz RT. Activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by glycosylphosphatidylinositols derived from Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 15; 179(2):1129-37.
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        63. de Alencar BC, Araújo AF, Penido ML, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM. Cross-priming of long lived protective CD8+ T cells against Trypanosoma cruzi infection: importance of a TLR9 agonist and CD4+ T cells. Vaccine. 2007 Aug 10; 25(32):6018-27.
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        64. Zanin FH, Coelho EA, Tavares CA, Marques-da-Silva EA, Silva Costa MM, Rezende SA, Gazzinelli RT, Fernandes AP. Evaluation of immune responses and protection induced by A2 and nucleoside hydrolase (NH) DNA vaccines against Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis experimental infections. Microbes Infect. 2007 Jul; 9(9):1070-7.
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        65. Paiva CN, Arras RH, Lessa LP, Gibaldi D, Alves L, Metz CN, Gazzinelli R, Pyrrho AS, Lannes-Vieira J, Bozza MT. Unraveling the lethal synergism between Trypanosoma cruzi infection and LPS: a role for increased macrophage reactivity. Eur J Immunol. 2007 May; 37(5):1355-64.
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        66. Franklin BS, Rodrigues SO, Antonelli LR, Oliveira RV, Goncalves AM, Sales-Junior PA, Valente EP, Alvarez-Leite JI, Ropert C, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. MyD88-dependent activation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T lymphocytes mediates symptoms, but is not required for the immunological control of parasites during rodent malaria. Microbes Infect. 2007 Jun; 9(7):881-90.
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        67. Porrozzi R, Santos da Costa MV, Teva A, Falqueto A, Ferreira AL, dos Santos CD, Fernandes AP, Gazzinelli RT, Campos-Neto A, Grimaldi G. Comparative evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on crude and recombinant leishmanial antigens for serodiagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania infantum visceral infections in dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007 May; 14(5):544-8.
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        68. Silva AA, Roffê E, Santiago H, Marino AP, Kroll-Palhares K, Teixeira MM, Gazzinelli RT, Lannes-Vieira J. Trypanosoma cruzi-triggered meningoencephalitis is a CCR1/CCR5-independent inflammatory process. J Neuroimmunol. 2007 Mar; 184(1-2):156-63.
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        69. Parroche P, Lauw FN, Goutagny N, Latz E, Monks BG, Visintin A, Halmen KA, Lamphier M, Olivier M, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT. Malaria hemozoin is immunologically inert but radically enhances innate responses by presenting malaria DNA to Toll-like receptor 9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 6; 104(6):1919-24.
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        70. Ferraz ML, Gazzinelli RT, Alves RO, Urbina JA, Romanha AJ. The Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of posaconazole in a murine model of acute Chagas' disease is less dependent on gamma interferon than that of benznidazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Apr; 51(4):1359-64.
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        71. Yamauchi LM, Aliberti JC, Baruffi MD, Portela RW, Rossi MA, Gazzinelli RT, Mineo JR, Silva JS. The binding of CCL2 to the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi induces chemo-attraction and morphogenesis. Microbes Infect. 2007 Jan; 9(1):111-8.
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        72. Gazzinelli RT, Denkers EY. Protozoan encounters with Toll-like receptor signalling pathways: implications for host parasitism. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Dec; 6(12):895-906.
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        73. Monteiro AC, Schmitz V, Svensjo E, Gazzinelli RT, Almeida IC, Todorov A, de Arruda LB, Torrecilhas AC, Pesquero JB, Morrot A, Bouskela E, Bonomo A, Lima AP, Müller-Esterl W, Scharfstein J. Cooperative activation of TLR2 and bradykinin B2 receptor is required for induction of type 1 immunity in a mouse model of subcutaneous infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1; 177(9):6325-35.
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        74. Bafica A, Santiago HC, Goldszmid R, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A. Cutting edge: TLR9 and TLR2 signaling together account for MyD88-dependent control of parasitemia in Trypanosoma cruzi infection. J Immunol. 2006 Sep 15; 177(6):3515-9.
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        75. Machado AV, Cardoso JE, Claser C, Rodrigues MM, Gazzinelli RT, Bruna-Romero O. Long-term protective immunity induced against Trypanosoma cruzi infection after vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses encoding amastigote surface protein-2 and trans-sialidase. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Sep; 17(9):898-908.
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        76. Coelho Neto J, Agero U, Gazzinelli RT, Mesquita ON. Measuring optical and mechanical properties of a living cell with defocusing microscopy. Biophys J. 2006 Aug 1; 91(3):1108-15.
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        77. Tzelepis F, de Alencar BC, Penido ML, Gazzinelli RT, Persechini PM, Rodrigues MM. Distinct kinetics of effector CD8+ cytotoxic T cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in naive or vaccinated mice. Infect Immun. 2006 Apr; 74(4):2477-81.
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        78. Caetano BC, Bruña-Romero O, Fux B, Mendes EA, Penido ML, Gazzinelli RT. Vaccination with replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses encoding the main surface antigens of toxoplasma gondii induces immune response and protection against infection in mice. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Apr; 17(4):415-26.
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        79. Santiago HC, Feng CG, Bafica A, Roffe E, Arantes RM, Cheever A, Taylor G, Vieira LQ, Vierira LQ, Aliberti J, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A. Mice deficient in LRG-47 display enhanced susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection associated with defective hemopoiesis and intracellular control of parasite growth. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 15; 175(12):8165-72.
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        80. Araújo AF, de Alencar BC, Vasconcelos JR, Hiyane MI, Marinho CR, Penido ML, Boscardin SB, Hoft DF, Gazzinelli RT, Rodrigues MM. CD8+-T-cell-dependent control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a highly susceptible mouse strain after immunization with recombinant proteins based on amastigote surface protein 2. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):6017-25.
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        81. Mansur DS, Kroon EG, Nogueira ML, Arantes RM, Rodrigues SC, Akira S, Gazzinelli RT, Campos MA. Lethal encephalitis in myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient mice infected with herpes simplex virus 1. Am J Pathol. 2005 May; 166(5):1419-26.
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        82. Coelho Neto J, Agero U, Oliveira DC, Gazzinelli RT, Mesquita ON. Real-time measurements of membrane surface dynamics on macrophages and the phagocytosis of Leishmania parasites. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Feb 15; 303(2):207-17.
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        83. Ferreira Ade M, Vitor RW, Gazzinelli RT, Melo MN. Genetic analysis of natural recombinant Brazilian Toxoplasma gondii strains by multilocus PCR-RFLP. Infect Genet Evol. 2006 Jan; 6(1):22-31.
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        84. Oliveira AC, Peixoto JR, de Arruda LB, Campos MA, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT, Akira S, Previato JO, Mendonça-Previato L, Nobrega A, Bellio M. Expression of functional TLR4 confers proinflammatory responsiveness to Trypanosoma cruzi glycoinositolphospholipids and higher resistance to infection with T. cruzi. J Immunol. 2004 Nov 1; 173(9):5688-96.
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        85. Zamboni DS, Campos MA, Torrecilhas AC, Kiss K, Samuel JE, Golenbock DT, Lauw FN, Roy CR, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 by Coxiella burnetii is required for macrophage production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and resistance to infection. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24; 279(52):54405-15.
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        86. Gazzinelli RT, Ropert C, Campos MA. Role of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor signaling pathway in host resistance and pathogenesis during infection with protozoan parasites. Immunol Rev. 2004 Oct; 201:9-25.
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        87. Agero U, Mesquita LG, Neves BR, Gazzinelli RT, Mesquita ON. Defocusing microscopy. Microsc Res Tech. 2004 Oct; 65(3):159-65.
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        88. Bruna-Romero O, Rocha CD, Tsuji M, Gazzinelli RT. Enhanced protective immunity against malaria by vaccination with a recombinant adenovirus encoding the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium lacking the GPI-anchoring motif. Vaccine. 2004 Sep 9; 22(27-28):3575-84.
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        89. Vasconcelos JR, Hiyane MI, Marinho CR, Claser C, Machado AM, Gazzinelli RT, Bruña-Romero O, Alvarez JM, Boscardin SB, Rodrigues MM. Protective immunity against trypanosoma cruzi infection in a highly susceptible mouse strain after vaccination with genes encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 and trans-sialidase. Hum Gene Ther. 2004 Sep; 15(9):878-86.
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        90. Marino AP, da Silva A, dos Santos P, Pinto LM, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira MM, Lannes-Vieira J. Regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) antagonist (Met-RANTES) controls the early phase of Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis. Circulation. 2004 Sep 14; 110(11):1443-9.
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        91. Golgher D, Gazzinelli RT. Innate and acquired immunity in the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. Autoimmunity. 2004 Aug; 37(5):399-409.
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        92. Santiago HC, Oliveira CF, Santiago L, Ferraz FO, de Souza D G, de-Freitas LA, Afonso LC, Teixeira MM, Gazzinelli RT, Vieira LQ. Involvement of the chemokine RANTES (CCL5) in resistance to experimental infection with Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 2004 Aug; 72(8):4918-23.
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        93. Andrade AA, Silva PN, Pereira AC, De Sousa LP, Ferreira PC, Gazzinelli RT, Kroon EG, Ropert C, Bonjardim CA. The vaccinia virus-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is required for virus multiplication. Biochem J. 2004 Jul 15; 381(Pt 2):437-46.
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        94. Michailowsky V, Celes MR, Marino AP, Silva AA, Vieira LQ, Rossi MA, Gazzinelli RT, Lannes-Vieira J, Silva JS. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 deficiency leads to impaired recruitment of T lymphocytes and enhanced host susceptibility to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2004 Jul 1; 173(1):463-70.
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        95. Portugal LR, Fernandes LR, Cesar GC, Santiago HC, Oliveira DR, Silva NM, Silva AA, Lannes-Vieira J, Arantes RM, Gazzinelli RT, Alvarez-Leite JI. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii increases atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE-deficient mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3571-6.
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        96. Campos MA, Gazzinelli RT. Trypanosoma cruzi and its components as exogenous mediators of inflammation recognized through Toll-like receptors. Mediators Inflamm. 2004 Jun; 13(3):139-43.
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        97. Portela RW, Bethony J, Costa MI, Gazzinelli A, Vitor RW, Hermeto FM, Correa-Oliveira R, Gazzinelli RT. A multihousehold study reveals a positive correlation between age, severity of ocular toxoplasmosis, and levels of glycoinositolphospholipid-specific immunoglobulin A. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 1; 190(1):175-83.
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        98. Brito CF, Carvalho CB, Santos F, Gazzinelli RT, Oliveira SC, Azevedo V, Teixeira SM. Chromobacterium violaceum genome: molecular mechanisms associated with pathogenicity. Genet Mol Res. 2004; 3(1):148-61.
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        99. Campos MA, Closel M, Valente EP, Cardoso JE, Akira S, Alvarez-Leite JI, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT. Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and host resistance to acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice lacking functional myeloid differentiation factor 88. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 1; 172(3):1711-8.
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        100. Campos MA, Rosinha GM, Almeida IC, Salgueiro XS, Jarvis BW, Splitter GA, Qureshi N, Bruna-Romero O, Gazzinelli RT, Oliveira SC. Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in induction of cell-mediated immunity and resistance to Brucella abortus infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Jan; 72(1):176-86.
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        101. Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT. Regulatory role of Toll-like receptor 2 during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(6):425-30.
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        102. Fux B, Rodrigues CV, Portela RW, Silva NM, Su C, Sibley D, Vitor RW, Gazzinelli RT. Role of cytokines and major histocompatibility complex restriction in mouse resistance to infection with a natural recombinant strain (type I-III) of Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun. 2003 Nov; 71(11):6392-401.
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        103. Ropert C, Closel M, Chaves AC, Gazzinelli RT. Inhibition of a p38/stress-activated protein kinase-2-dependent phosphatase restores function of IL-1 receptor-associate kinase-1 and reverses Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-dependent tolerance of macrophages. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1; 171(3):1456-65.
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        104. Coelho EA, Tavares CA, Carvalho FA, Chaves KF, Teixeira KN, Rodrigues RC, Charest H, Matlashewski G, Gazzinelli RT, Fernandes AP. Immune responses induced by the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani A2 antigen, but not by the LACK antigen, are protective against experimental Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul; 71(7):3988-94.
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        105. Michailowsky V, Luhrs K, Rocha MO, Fouts D, Gazzinelli RT, Manning JE. Humoral and cellular immune responses to Trypanosoma cruzi-derived paraflagellar rod proteins in patients with Chagas' disease. Infect Immun. 2003 Jun; 71(6):3165-71.
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        106. Agero U, Monken CH, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT, Mesquita ON. Cell surface fluctuations studied with defocusing microscopy. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2003 May; 67(5 Pt 1):051904.
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        107. Rabelo FL, Ropert C, Ramos MG, Bonjardim CA, Gazzinelli RT, Alvarez-Leite JI. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation by caspase-dependent mechanism enhances apoptosis in a fibrosarcoma cell line treated with butyrate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Apr 11; 303(3):968-72.
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        108. Ferreira LR, Abrantes EF, Rodrigues CV, Caetano B, Cerqueira GC, Salim AC, Reis LF, Gazzinelli RT. Identification and characterization of a novel mouse gene encoding a Ras-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor: expression in macrophages and myocarditis elicited by Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Dec; 72(6):1215-27.
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        109. Procópio DO, Almeida IC, Torrecilhas AC, Cardoso JE, Teyton L, Travassos LR, Bendelac A, Gazzinelli RT. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like glycoproteins from Trypanosoma cruzi bind to CD1d but do not elicit dominant innate or adaptive immune responses via the CD1d/NKT cell pathway. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 1; 169(7):3926-33.
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        110. Romanha AJ, Alves RO, Murta SM, Silva JS, Ropert C, Gazzinelli RT. Experimental chemotherapy against Trypanosoma cruzi infection: essential role of endogenous interferon-gamma in mediating parasitologic cure. J Infect Dis. 2002 Sep 15; 186(6):823-8.
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        111. Carvalho FA, Charest H, Tavares CA, Matlashewski G, Valente EP, Rabello A, Gazzinelli RT, Fernandes AP. Diagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis in humans and dogs using the recombinant Leishmania donovani A2 antigen. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2002 Aug; 43(4):289-95.
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        112. Ropert C, Ferreira LR, Campos MA, Procópio DO, Travassos LR, Ferguson MA, Reis LF, Teixeira MM, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Macrophage signaling by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like glycoproteins derived from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul; 4(9):1015-25.
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        113. Teixeira MM, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Introduction: innate recognition of bacteria and protozoan parasites. Microbes Infect. 2002 Jul; 4(9):883-6.
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        114. Teixeira MM, Gazzinelli RT, Silva JS. Chemokines, inflammation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Trends Parasitol. 2002 Jun; 18(6):262-5.
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        115. Coelho PS, Klein A, Talvani A, Coutinho SF, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Silva JS, Canizzaro H, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira MM. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like glycoproteins isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes induce in vivo leukocyte recruitment dependent on MCP-1 production by IFN-gamma-primed-macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 May; 71(5):837-44.
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        116. Soares RP, Macedo ME, Ropert C, Gontijo NF, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT, Pimenta PF, Turco SJ. Leishmania chagasi: lipophosphoglycan characterization and binding to the midgut of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002 May; 121(2):213-24.
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        117. Giraldo M, Portela RW, Snege M, Leser PG, Camargo ME, Mineo JR, Gazzinelli RT. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-glycoinositolphospholipid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: an immunoenzymatic assay for discrimination between patients with acute toxoplasmosis and those with persistent parasite-specific IgM antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Apr; 40(4):1400-5.
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        118. Silva NM, Tafuri WL, Alvarez-Leite JI, Mineo JR, Gazzinelli RT. Toxoplasma gondii: in vivo expression of BAG-5 and cyst formation is independent of TNF p55 receptor and inducible nitric oxide synthase functions. Microbes Infect. 2002 Mar; 4(3):261-70.
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        119. Silva NM, Rodrigues CV, Santoro MM, Reis LF, Alvarez-Leite JI, Gazzinelli RT. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, tryptophan degradation, and kynurenine formation during in vivo infection with Toxoplasma gondii: induction by endogenous gamma interferon and requirement of interferon regulatory factor 1. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):859-68.
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        120. Ramos MG, Rabelo FL, Duarte T, Gazzinelli RT, Alvarez-Leite JI. Butyrate induces apoptosis in murine macrophages via caspase-3, but independent of autocrine synthesis of tumor necrosis factor and nitric oxide. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2002 Feb; 35(2):161-73.
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        121. Teixeira SM, Vieira LQ, Gazzinelli RT. Genomics, pathogenesis and control of infection with protozoan parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2002 Feb; 18(2):52-4.
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        122. Michailowsky V, Silva NM, Rocha CD, Vieira LQ, Lannes-Vieira J, Gazzinelli RT. Pivotal role of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma axis in controlling tissue parasitism and inflammation in the heart and central nervous system during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Am J Pathol. 2001 Nov; 159(5):1723-33.
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        123. Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Proinflammatory activity of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors derived from Trypanosoma cruzi: structural and functional analyses. J Leukoc Biol. 2001 Oct; 70(4):467-77.
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        124. dos Santos PV, Roffê E, Santiago HC, Torres RA, Marino AP, Paiva CN, Silva AA, Gazzinelli RT, Lannes-Vieira J. Prevalence of CD8(+)alpha beta T cells in Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is associated with acquisition of CD62L(Low)LFA-1(High)VLA-4(High) activation phenotype and expression of IFN-gamma-inducible adhesion and chemoattractant molecules. Microbes Infect. 2001 Oct; 3(12):971-84.
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        125. de Magalhães JC, Andrade AA, Silva PN, Sousa LP, Ropert C, Ferreira PC, Kroon EG, Gazzinelli RT, Bonjardim CA. A mitogenic signal triggered at an early stage of vaccinia virus infection: implication of MEK/ERK and protein kinase A in virus multiplication. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 19; 276(42):38353-60.
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        126. Campos MA, Almeida IC, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Valente EP, Procópio DO, Travassos LR, Smith JA, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors from a protozoan parasite. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 1; 167(1):416-23.
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        127. Fernandes AP, Carvalho FA, Tavares CA, Santiago HC, Castro GA, Tafuri WL, Ferreira LA, Gazzinelli RT. Combined interleukin-12 and topical chemotherapy for established Leishmaniasis drastically reduces tissue parasitism and relapses in susceptible mice. J Infect Dis. 2001 Jun 1; 183(11):1646-52.
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        128. Aliberti JC, Souto JT, Marino AP, Lannes-Vieira J, Teixeira MM, Farber J, Gazzinelli RT, Silva JS. Modulation of chemokine production and inflammatory responses in interferon-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor-R1-deficient mice during Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Am J Pathol. 2001 Apr; 158(4):1433-40.
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        129. Ropert C, Almeida IC, Closel M, Travassos LR, Ferguson MA, Cohen P, Gazzinelli RT. Requirement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and I kappa B phosphorylation for induction of proinflammatory cytokines synthesis by macrophages indicates functional similarity of receptors triggered by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors from parasitic protozoa and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 1; 166(5):3423-31.
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        130. Chaves AC, Cerávolo IP, Gomes JA, Zani CL, Romanha AJ, Gazzinelli RT. IL-4 and IL-13 regulate the induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and the control of Toxoplasma gondii replication in human fibroblasts activated with IFN-gamma. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Feb; 31(2):333-44.
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        131. Teixeira MM, Correa-Oliveira R, Gazzinelli RT. Immunoregulation in parasitic infection: insights for therapeutic intervention. Immunol Today. 2000 Nov; 21(11):536-8.
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        132. Charest H, Sedegah M, Yap GS, Gazzinelli RT, Caspar P, Hoffman SL, Sher A. Recombinant attenuated Toxoplasma gondii expressing the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein provides highly effective priming for CD8+ T cell-dependent protective immunity against malaria. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 15; 165(4):2084-92.
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        134. Talvani A, Ribeiro CS, Aliberti JC, Michailowsky V, Santos PV, Murta SM, Romanha AJ, Almeida IC, Farber J, Lannes-Vieira J, Silva JS, Gazzinelli RT. Kinetics of cytokine gene expression in experimental chagasic cardiomyopathy: tissue parasitism and endogenous IFN-gamma as important determinants of chemokine mRNA expression during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Microbes Infect. 2000 Jul; 2(8):851-66.
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        135. Yamamoto JH, Vallochi AL, Silveira C, Filho JK, Nussenblatt RB, Cunha-Neto E, Gazzinelli RT, Belfort R, Rizzo LV. Discrimination between patients with acquired toxoplasmosis and congenital toxoplasmosis on the basis of the immune response to parasite antigens. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jun; 181(6):2018-22.
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        136. Oliveira MA, Santiago HC, Lisboa CR, Ceravollo IP, Trinchieri G, Gazzinelli RT, Vieira LQ. Leishmania sp: comparative study with Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi in their ability to initialize IL-12 and IFN-gamma synthesis. Exp Parasitol. 2000 Jun; 95(2):96-105.
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        137. Almeida IC, Camargo MM, Procópio DO, Silva LS, Mehlert A, Travassos LR, Gazzinelli RT, Ferguson MA. Highly purified glycosylphosphatidylinositols from Trypanosoma cruzi are potent proinflammatory agents. EMBO J. 2000 Apr 3; 19(7):1476-85.
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        138. Giraldo M, Cannizzaro H, Ferguson MA, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Fractionation of membrane components from tachyzoite forms of Toxoplasma gondii: differential recognition by immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG present in sera from patients with acute or chronic toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Apr; 38(4):1453-60.
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        139. Ferreira LR, Silva AM, Michailowsky V, Reis LF, Gazzinelli RT. Expression of serum amyloid A3 mRNA by inflammatory macrophages exposed to membrane glycoconjugates from Trypanosoma cruzi. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Oct; 66(4):593-600.
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        140. Murta SM, Ropert C, Alves RO, Gazzinelli RT, Romanha AJ. In-vivo treatment with benznidazole enhances phagocytosis, parasite destruction and cytokine release by macrophages during infection with a drug-susceptible but not with a derived drug-resistant Trypansoma cruzi population. Parasite Immunol. 1999 Oct; 21(10):535-44.
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        141. Aliberti JC, Machado FS, Souto JT, Campanelli AP, Teixeira MM, Gazzinelli RT, Silva JS. beta-Chemokines enhance parasite uptake and promote nitric oxide-dependent microbiostatic activity in murine inflammatory macrophages infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep; 67(9):4819-26.
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        142. Santiago HC, Oliveira MA, Bambirra EA, Faria AM, Afonso LC, Vieira LQ, Gazzinelli RT. Coinfection with Toxoplasma gondii inhibits antigen-specific Th2 immune responses, tissue inflammation, and parasitism in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep; 67(9):4939-44.
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        143. Magalhães MM, Pereira ME, Amaral CF, Rezende NA, Campolina D, Bucaretchi F, Gazzinelli RT, Cunha-Melo JR. Serum levels of cytokines in patients envenomed by Tityus serrulatus scorpion sting. Toxicon. 1999 Aug; 37(8):1155-64.
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        144. Procópio DO, Teixeira MM, Camargo MM, Travassos LR, Ferguson MA, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Differential inhibitory mechanism of cyclic AMP on TNF-alpha and IL-12 synthesis by macrophages exposed to microbial stimuli. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Jul; 127(5):1195-205.
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        145. Silva AM, Pires EG, Abrantes EF, Ferreira LR, Gazzinelli RT, Reis LF. Application of the differential display RT-PCR strategy for the identification of inflammation-related mouse genes. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999 Jul; 32(7):845-52.
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        146. Aliberti JC, Machado FS, Gazzinelli RT, Teixeira MM, Silva JS. Platelet-activating factor induces nitric oxide synthesis in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected macrophages and mediates resistance to parasite infection in mice. Infect Immun. 1999 Jun; 67(6):2810-4.
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        147. Cerávolo IP, Chaves AC, Bonjardim CA, Sibley D, Romanha AJ, Gazzinelli RT. Replication of Toxoplasma gondii, but not Trypanosoma cruzi, is regulated in human fibroblasts activated with gamma interferon: requirement of a functional JAK/STAT pathway. Infect Immun. 1999 May; 67(5):2233-40.
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        148. Almeida IC, Gazzinelli R, Ferguson MA, Travassos LR. Trypanosoma cruzi mucins: potential functions of a complex structure. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1999; 94 Suppl 1:173-6.
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        149. Seder RA, Gazzinelli RT. Cytokines are critical in linking the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infection. Adv Intern Med. 1999; 44:353-88.
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        150. Denkers EY, Gazzinelli RT. Regulation and function of T-cell-mediated immunity during Toxoplasma gondii infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 Oct; 11(4):569-88.
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        151. Michailowsky V, Murta SM, Carvalho-Oliveira L, Pereira ME, Ferreira LR, Brener Z, Romanha AJ, Gazzinelli RT. Interleukin-12 enhances in vivo parasiticidal effect of benznidazole during acute experimental infection with a naturally drug-resistant strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Oct; 42(10):2549-56.
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        152. Silva NM, Gazzinelli RT, Silva DA, Ferro EA, Kasper LH, Mineo JR. Expression of Toxoplasma gondii-specific heat shock protein 70 during In vivo conversion of bradyzoites to tachyzoites. Infect Immun. 1998 Aug; 66(8):3959-63.
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        153. Murta SM, Gazzinelli RT, Brener Z, Romanha AJ. Molecular characterization of susceptible and naturally resistant strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to benznidazole and nifurtimox. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998 Jun 1; 93(2):203-14.
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        154. Khatri VP, Fehniger TA, Baiocchi RA, Yu F, Shah MH, Schiller DS, Gould M, Gazzinelli RT, Bernstein ZP, Caligiuri MA. Ultra low dose interleukin-2 therapy promotes a type 1 cytokine profile in vivo in patients with AIDS and AIDS-associated malignancies. J Clin Invest. 1998 Mar 15; 101(6):1373-8.
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        155. Sher A, Gazzinelli RT, Jankovic D, Scharton-Kersten T, Yap G, Doherty TM, Wynn T. Cytokines as determinants of disease and disease interactions. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1998 Jan; 31(1):85-7.
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        156. Gazzinelli RT, Talvani A, Camargo MM, Santiago HC, Oliveira MA, Vieira LQ, Martins GA, Aliberti JC, Silva JS. Induction of cell-mediated immunity during early stages of infection with intracellular protozoa. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1998 Jan; 31(1):89-104.
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        157. Camargo MM, Andrade AC, Almeida IC, Travassos LR, Gazzinelli RT. Glycoconjugates isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi but not from Leishmania species membranes trigger nitric oxide synthesis as well as microbicidal activity in IFN-gamma-primed macrophages. J Immunol. 1997 Dec 15; 159(12):6131-9.
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        158. Brener Z, Gazzinelli RT. Immunological control of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and pathogenesis of Chagas' disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1997 Oct; 114(2):103-10.
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        159. Camargo MM, Almeida IC, Pereira ME, Ferguson MA, Travassos LR, Gazzinelli RT. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like glycoproteins isolated from Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes initiate the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. J Immunol. 1997 Jun 15; 158(12):5890-901.
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        160. Fernandes AP, Herrera EC, Mayrink W, Gazzinelli RT, Liu WY, de Costa CA, Tavares CA, Melo MN, Michalick MS, Gentz R, Nascimento E. Immune responses induced by a Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis recombinant antigen in mice and lymphocytes from vaccinated subjects. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1997 Mar-Apr; 39(2):71-8.
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        161. Gazzinelli RT, Camargo MM, Almeida IC, Morita YS, Giraldo M, Acosta-Serrano A, Hieny S, Englund PT, Ferguson MA, Travassos LR, Sher A. Identification and characterization of protozoan products that trigger the synthesis of IL-12 by inflammatory macrophages. Chem Immunol. 1997; 68:136-52.
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        162. Amichay D, Gazzinelli RT, Karupiah G, Moench TR, Sher A, Farber JM. Genes for chemokines MuMig and Crg-2 are induced in protozoan and viral infections in response to IFN-gamma with patterns of tissue expression that suggest nonredundant roles in vivo. J Immunol. 1996 Nov 15; 157(10):4511-20.
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        163. Scharton-Kersten TM, Wynn TA, Denkers EY, Bala S, Grunvald E, Hieny S, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A. In the absence of endogenous IFN-gamma, mice develop unimpaired IL-12 responses to Toxoplasma gondii while failing to control acute infection. J Immunol. 1996 Nov 1; 157(9):4045-54.
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        164. Dickie P, Gazzinelli R, Chang LJ. Models of HIV type 1 proviral gene expression in wild-type HIV and MLV/HIV transgenic mice. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Aug 10; 12(12):1103-16.
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        165. Gazzinelli RT, Wysocka M, Hieny S, Scharton-Kersten T, Cheever A, Kühn R, Müller W, Trinchieri G, Sher A. In the absence of endogenous IL-10, mice acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii succumb to a lethal immune response dependent on CD4+ T cells and accompanied by overproduction of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. J Immunol. 1996 Jul 15; 157(2):798-805.
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        166. Hayashi S, Chan CC, Gazzinelli RT, Pham NT, Cheung MK, Roberge FG. Protective role of nitric oxide in ocular toxoplasmosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jul; 80(7):644-8.
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        167. Grunvald E, Chiaramonte M, Hieny S, Wysocka M, Trinchieri G, Vogel SN, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A. Biochemical characterization and protein kinase C dependency of monokine-inducing activities of Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun. 1996 Jun; 64(6):2010-8.
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        168. Gazzinelli RT. Molecular and cellular basis of interleukin 12 activity in prophylaxis and therapy against infectious diseases. Mol Med Today. 1996 Jun; 2(6):258-67.
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        169. Aliberti JC, Cardoso MA, Martins GA, Gazzinelli RT, Vieira LQ, Silva JS. Interleukin-12 mediates resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi in mice and is produced by murine macrophages in response to live trypomastigotes. Infect Immun. 1996 Jun; 64(6):1961-7.
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        170. Whitcup SM, Rizzo LV, Lai JC, Hayashi S, Gazzinelli R, Chan CC. IL-12 inhibits endotoxin-induced inflammation in the eye. Eur J Immunol. 1996 May; 26(5):995-9.
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        171. Gazzinelli RT, Sher A, Cheever A, Gerstberger S, Martin MA, Dickie P. Infection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 transgenic mice with Toxoplasma gondii stimulates proviral transcription in macrophages in vivo. J Exp Med. 1996 Apr 1; 183(4):1645-55.
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        172. Giese NA, Gazzinelli RT, Actor JK, Morawetz RA, Sarzotti M, Morse HC. Retrovirus-elicited interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha as inducers of interferon-gamma-mediated pathology in mouse AIDS. Immunology. 1996 Mar; 87(3):467-74.
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        173. Hayashi S, Chan CC, Gazzinelli R, Roberge FG. Contribution of nitric oxide to the host parasite equilibrium in toxoplasmosis. J Immunol. 1996 Feb 15; 156(4):1476-81.
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        174. Rizzo LV, Silver P, Wiggert B, Hakim F, Gazzinelli RT, Chan CC, Caspi RR. Establishment and characterization of a murine CD4+ T cell line and clone that induce experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis in B10.A mice. J Immunol. 1996 Feb 15; 156(4):1654-60.
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        175. Carrera L, Gazzinelli RT, Badolato R, Hieny S, Muller W, Kuhn R, Sacks DL. Leishmania promastigotes selectively inhibit interleukin 12 induction in bone marrow-derived macrophages from susceptible and resistant mice. J Exp Med. 1996 Feb 1; 183(2):515-26.
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        176. Gazzinelli RT, Amichay D, Sharton-Kersten T, Grunwald E, Farber JM, Sher A. Role of macrophage-derived cytokines in the induction and regulation of cell-mediated immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1996; 219:127-39.
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        177. Giese NA, Gazzinelli RT, Morawetz RA, Morse HC. Role of IL12 in MAIDS. Res Immunol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 146(7-8):600-5.
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        178. Scharton-Kersten T, Denkers EY, Gazzinelli R, Sher A. Role of IL12 in induction of cell-mediated immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Res Immunol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 146(7-8):539-45.
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        179. Gazzinelli RT, Bala S, Stevens R, Baseler M, Wahl L, Kovacs J, Sher A. HIV infection suppresses type 1 lymphokine and IL-12 responses to Toxoplasma gondii but fails to inhibit the synthesis of other parasite-induced monokines. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 1; 155(3):1565-74.
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        180. Biron CA, Gazzinelli RT. Effects of IL-12 on immune responses to microbial infections: a key mediator in regulating disease outcome. Curr Opin Immunol. 1995 Aug; 7(4):485-96.
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        181. Zhou P, Sieve MC, Bennett J, Kwon-Chung KJ, Tewari RP, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A, Seder RA. IL-12 prevents mortality in mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum through induction of IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 1995 Jul 15; 155(2):785-95.
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        182. Sher A, Denkers EY, Gazzinelli RT. Induction and regulation of host cell-mediated immunity by Toxoplasma gondii. Ciba Found Symp. 1995; 195:95-104; discussion 104-9.
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        183. Morse HC, Giese N, Morawetz R, Tang Y, Gazzinelli R, Kim WK, Chattopadhyay S, Hartley JW. Cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of MAIDS, a retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome of mice. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 1995; 17(2-3):231-45.
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        184. Gazzinelli RT, Giese NA, Morse HC. In vivo treatment with interleukin 12 protects mice from immune abnormalities observed during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). J Exp Med. 1994 Dec 1; 180(6):2199-208.
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        185. Carrera L, Chiaramonte M, Kuhn R, Muller W, Sacks D, Sher A, Gazzinelli RT. Leishmania major and Toxoplasma gondii have opposite effects on cytokine synthesis by macrophages. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1994 Oct-Dec; 89(4):649-50.
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        186. Gazzinelli RT, Wysocka M, Hayashi S, Denkers EY, Hieny S, Caspar P, Trinchieri G, Sher A. Parasite-induced IL-12 stimulates early IFN-gamma synthesis and resistance during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 1994 Sep 15; 153(6):2533-43.
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        187. Gazzinelli RT, Hayashi S, Wysocka M, Carrera L, Kuhn R, Muller W, Roberge F, Trinchieri G, Sher A. Role of IL-12 in the initiation of cell mediated immunity by Toxoplasma gondii and its regulation by IL-10 and nitric oxide. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1994 Sep-Oct; 41(5):9S.
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        188. Bala S, Englund G, Kovacs J, Wahl L, Martin M, Sher A, Gazzinelli RT. Toxoplasma gondii soluble products induce cytokine secretion by macrophages and potentiate in vitro replication of a monotropic strain of HIV. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 1994 Sep-Oct; 41(5):7S.
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        189. Gazzinelli RT, Brézin A, Li Q, Nussenblatt RB, Chan CC. Toxoplasma gondii: acquired ocular toxoplasmosis in the murine model, protective role of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Exp Parasitol. 1994 Mar; 78(2):217-29.
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        190. Denkers EY, Gazzinelli RT, Martin D, Sher A. Emergence of NK1.1+ cells as effectors of IFN-gamma dependent immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in MHC class I-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1993 Nov 1; 178(5):1465-72.
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        191. Gazzinelli RT, Galvao LM, Krautz G, Lima PC, Cancado JR, Scharfstein J, Krettli AU. Use of Trypanosoma cruzi purified glycoprotein (GP57/51) or trypomastigote-shed antigens to assess cure for human Chagas' disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Nov; 49(5):625-35.
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        192. Seder RA, Gazzinelli R, Sher A, Paul WE. Interleukin 12 acts directly on CD4+ T cells to enhance priming for interferon gamma production and diminishes interleukin 4 inhibition of such priming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 1; 90(21):10188-92.
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        193. Gazzinelli RT, Eltoum I, Wynn TA, Sher A. Acute cerebral toxoplasmosis is induced by in vivo neutralization of TNF-alpha and correlates with the down-regulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and other markers of macrophage activation. J Immunol. 1993 Oct 1; 151(7):3672-81.
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        194. Gazzinelli RT, Hieny S, Wynn TA, Wolf S, Sher A. Interleukin 12 is required for the T-lymphocyte-independent induction of interferon gamma by an intracellular parasite and induces resistance in T-cell-deficient hosts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 1; 90(13):6115-9.
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        195. Gazzinelli RT, Denkers EY, Sher A. Host resistance to Toxoplasma gondii: model for studying the selective induction of cell-mediated immunity by intracellular parasites. Infect Agents Dis. 1993 Jun; 2(3):139-49.
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        196. Sher A, Oswald IP, Hieny S, Gazzinelli RT. Toxoplasma gondii induces a T-independent IFN-gamma response in natural killer cells that requires both adherent accessory cells and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol. 1993 May 1; 150(9):3982-9.
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        197. Brindley PJ, Gazzinelli RT, Denkers EY, Davis SW, Dubey JP, Belfort R, Martins MC, Silveira C, Jamra L, Waters AP, et al. Differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii from closely related coccidia by riboprint analysis and a surface antigen gene polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1993 Mar; 48(3):447-56.
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        198. Reis DD, Gazzinelli RT, Gazzinelli G, Colley DG. Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi express idiotypic patterns that can differentiate between patients with asymptomatic or severe Chagas' disease. J Immunol. 1993 Feb 15; 150(4):1611-8.
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        199. Denkers EY, Gazzinelli RT, Hieny S, Caspar P, Sher A. Bone marrow macrophages process exogenous Toxoplasma gondii polypeptides for recognition by parasite-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1993 Jan 15; 150(2):517-26.
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        200. Denkers EY, Sher A, Gazzinelli RT. CD8+ T-cell interactions with Toxoplasma gondii: implications for processing of antigen for class-I-restricted recognition. Res Immunol. 1993 Jan; 144(1):51-7.
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        201. Gazzinelli RT, Oswald IP, Hieny S, James SL, Sher A. The microbicidal activity of interferon-gamma-treated macrophages against Trypanosoma cruzi involves an L-arginine-dependent, nitrogen oxide-mediated mechanism inhibitable by interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta. Eur J Immunol. 1992 Oct; 22(10):2501-6.
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        202. Gazzinelli RT, Hartley JW, Fredrickson TN, Chattopadhyay SK, Sher A, Morse HC. Opportunistic infections and retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency: studies of acute and chronic infections with Toxoplasma gondii in mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses. Infect Immun. 1992 Oct; 60(10):4394-401.
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        203. Gazzinelli R, Xu Y, Hieny S, Cheever A, Sher A. Simultaneous depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes is required to reactivate chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 1992 Jul 1; 149(1):175-80.
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        204. Oswald IP, Gazzinelli RT, Sher A, James SL. IL-10 synergizes with IL-4 and transforming growth factor-beta to inhibit macrophage cytotoxic activity. J Immunol. 1992 Jun 1; 148(11):3578-82.
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        205. Sher A, Gazzinelli RT, Oswald IP, Clerici M, Kullberg M, Pearce EJ, Berzofsky JA, Mosmann TR, James SL, Morse HC. Role of T-cell derived cytokines in the downregulation of immune responses in parasitic and retroviral infection. Immunol Rev. 1992 Jun; 127:183-204.
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        206. Gazzinelli RT, Oswald IP, James SL, Sher A. IL-10 inhibits parasite killing and nitrogen oxide production by IFN-gamma-activated macrophages. J Immunol. 1992 Mar 15; 148(6):1792-6.
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        207. Gazzinelli RT, Makino M, Chattopadhyay SK, Snapper CM, Sher A, Hügin AW, Morse HC. CD4+ subset regulation in viral infection. Preferential activation of Th2 cells during progression of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency in mice. J Immunol. 1992 Jan 1; 148(1):182-8.
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        208. Gazzinelli RT, Silva ME, Moraes-Santos T, Nicoli JR, Vieira EC. Effect of high sucrose diets on carcass composition in conventional and germ-free mice. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1991 Dec; 41(4):539-45.
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        209. Hakim FT, Gazzinelli RT, Denkers E, Hieny S, Shearer GM, Sher A. CD8+ T cells from mice vaccinated against Toxoplasma gondii are cytotoxic for parasite-infected or antigen-pulsed host cells. J Immunol. 1991 Oct 1; 147(7):2310-6.
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        210. Gazzinelli RT, Romanha AJ, Fontes G, Chiari E, Gazzinelli G, Brenner Z. Distribution of carbohydrates recognized by the lectins Euonymus europaeus and concanavalin A in monoxenic and heteroxenic trypanosomatids. J Protozool. 1991 Jul-Aug; 38(4):320-5.
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        211. Gazzinelli RT, Pereira ME, Romanha A, Gazzinelli G, Brener Z. Direct lysis of Trypanosoma cruzi: a novel effector mechanism of protection mediated by human anti-gal antibodies. Parasite Immunol. 1991 Jul; 13(4):345-56.
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        212. Sher A, Gazzinelli R, Hakim F, de la Cruz VF, Stover CK, James SL, Pearce E. Immunization against parasites: bridging the gap between attenuated and non-living vaccines. Behring Inst Mitt. 1991 Feb; (88):244-8.
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        213. Gazzinelli RT. Natural anti-Gal antibodies prevent, rather than cause, autoimmunity in human Chagas' disease. Res Immunol. 1991 Feb; 142(2):164-7.
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        214. Gazzinelli RT, Hakim FT, Hieny S, Shearer GM, Sher A. Synergistic role of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in IFN-gamma production and protective immunity induced by an attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine. J Immunol. 1991 Jan 1; 146(1):286-92.
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        215. Barbosa AJ, da Costa CA, Michalick MS, Mayrink W, Gazzinelli RT, Tafuri WL. Immunocytochemical identification of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in situ with homologous and heterologous polyclonal antibodies. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1991 Jan-Mar; 24(1):5-11.
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        216. Brézin AP, Egwuagu CE, Burnier M, Silveira C, Mahdi RM, Gazzinelli RT, Belfort R, Nussenblatt RB. Identification of Toxoplasma gondii in paraffin-embedded sections by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990 Dec 15; 110(6):599-604.
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        217. Gazzinelli RT, Gazzinelli G, Cançado JR, Cardoso JE, Brener Z, Colley DG. Two modes of idiotypic stimulation of T lymphocytes from patients with Chagas' disease: correlations with clinical forms of infection. Res Immunol. 1990 Oct; 141(8):757-70.
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        218. Gazzinelli RT, Leme VM, Cancado JR, Gazzinelli G, Scharfstein J. Identification and partial characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens recognized by T cells and immune sera from patients with Chagas' disease. Infect Immun. 1990 May; 58(5):1437-44.
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        219. Gazzinelli RT, Leme VM, Cançado JR, Gazzinelli G, Scharfstein J. Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens recognized by T cells and immune sera from chagasic patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1988 Nov; 83 Suppl 1:272-9.
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        220. Gazzinelli RT, Galvão LM, Cardoso JE, Cançado JR, Krettli AU, Brener Z, Gazzinelli G. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi and anti-laminin antibodies in chagasic patients after specific treatment. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Sep; 26(9):1795-800.
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        221. Gazzinelli RT, Parra JF, Correa-Oliveira R, Cançado JR, Rocha RS, Gazzinelli G, Colley DG. Idiotypic/anti-idiotypic interactions in schistosomiasis and Chagas' disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Sep; 39(3):288-94.
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        222. Gazzinelli RT, Morato MJ, Nunes RM, Cançado JR, Brener Z, Gazzinelli G. Idiotype stimulation of T lymphocytes from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients. J Immunol. 1988 May 1; 140(9):3167-72.
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        223. Gazzinelli R, Galvão LM, Dias JC, Gazzinelli G, Brener Z. Anti-laminin and specific antibodies in acute Chagas disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988; 82(4):574-6.
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