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    Last Name
    Institution

    Shan Lu MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-6791
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
      DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMD/PhD Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentCenter for AIDS Research

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic Background

        MD, 1982, Nanjing Medical College
        PhD, 1991, UMass Worcester

        Immunogenicity of Protein Antigens

        Photo: 
Shan LuOur main interest is to understand the immunogenicity of proteinantigens. The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelopeproteins (Env) is used as a model system in our lab. Env, a two-subunitprotein, is generated during the posttranslational cleavage processfrom a single precursor polyprotein. Env heterodimers are furtherorganized into an oligomeric complex. Env conformation is criticalfor the interaction of HIV-1 with a number of viral receptors. Our work is to understand the immunogenicity of various Env subunitsfrom different HIV-1 strains and to find the Env structures thatHIV-1 uses to escape from host immune surveillance. Such informationwill be used to design noval HIV-1 vaccines. Direct DNA immunizationusing eukaryotic expression vectors to make proteins in vivo isa unique approach we have been using to study the immunogenicityof protein antigens. We are also working to further improve thisevolving technology by studying the roles of cytokines and adjuvantsin inducing the desired immune responses by direct DNA immunization.



        Rotation Projects

        Additional information about lab rotations within the CPHR program can be found athttp://www.umassmed.edu/cphr/program/rotations.aspx



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, West K, Wang S, Lien E, Lu S. Serum cytokine profiles associated with specific adjuvants used in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74820.
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        2. Pan R, Sampson JM, Chen Y, Vaine M, Wang S, Lu S, Kong XP. Rabbit Anti-HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies Raised by Immunization Can Mimic the Antigen-Binding Modes of Antibodies Derived from HIV-1-Infected Humans. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10221-31.
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        3. Chen Y, Vaine M, Wallace A, Han D, Wan S, Seaman MS, Montefiori D, Wang S, Lu S. A Novel Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody Platform To Dissect the Diverse Repertoire of Antibody Epitopes for HIV-1 Env Immunogen Design. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10232-43.
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        4. Wang L, Lu S, Liu X, Niu X, Wang C, Ni Y, Zhao M, Feng C, Zhang M, Fan Y. Biomechanism of impact resistance in the woodpecker's head and its application. Sci China Life Sci. 2013 Aug; 56(8):715-9.
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        5. Bai X, Zhao A, Lan R, Xin Y, Xie H, Meng Q, Jin D, Yu B, Sun H, Lu S, Xu J, Xiong Y. Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Yaks (Bos grunniens) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65537.
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        6. Haran JP, Buglione-Corbett R, Lu S. Cytokine markers as predictors of type of respiratory infection in patients during the influenza season. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 31(5):816-21.
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        7. Jin K, Wang S, Zhang C, Xiao Y, Lu S, Huang Z. Protective antibody responses against Clostridium difficile elicited by a DNA vaccine expressing the enzymatic domain of toxin B. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jan 1; 9(1):63-73.
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        8. Wang S, Kishko M, Wan S, Wang Y, Brewster F, Gray GE, Violari A, Sullivan JL, Somasundaran M, Luzuriaga K, Lu S. Pilot study on the immunogenicity of paired Env immunogens from mother-to-child transmitted HIV-1 isolates. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1; 8(11):1638-47.
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        9. Zhang M, Zhang L, Zhang C, Hong K, Shao Y, Huang Z, Wang S, Lu S. DNA prime-protein boost using subtype consensus Env was effective in eliciting neutralizing antibody responses against subtype BC HIV-1 viruses circulating in China. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1; 8(11):1630-7.
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        10. Hellerstein M, Xu Y, Marino T, Lu S, Yi H, Wright ER, Robinson HL. Co-expression of HIV-1 virus-like particles and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by GEO-D03 DNA vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1; 8(11):1654-8.
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        11. O'Connell O, Repik A, Reeves JD, Gonzalez-Perez MP, Quitadamo B, Anton ED, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Lin R, Zolla-Pazner S, Corti D, Wallace A, Wu S, Kong XP, Lu S, Clapham PR. The efficiency of bridging sheet recruitment explains HIV-1 R5 envelope glycoprotein sensitivity to soluble CD4 and macrophage tropism. J Virol. 2012 Oct 10.
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        12. Yao Y, Lu S, Li H, Lu G, Zhou J. Low Doses of Exogenous Interferon-? Attenuated Airway Inflammation Through Enhancing Fas/FasL-Induced CD4(+) T Cell Apoptosis in a Mouse Asthma Model. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012 Nov; 32(11):534-41.
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        13. Zhu Y, Hua W, Xu M, He W, Wang X, Dai Y, Zhao S, Tang J, Wang S, Lu S. A Novel Immunodiagnostic Assay to Detect Serum Antibody Response against Selected Soluble Egg Antigen Fractions from Schistosoma japonicum. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e44032.
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        14. Haran JP, Beaudoin FL, Suner S, Lu S. C-reactive protein as predictor of bacterial infection among patients with an influenza-like illness. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan; 31(1):137-44.
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        15. Ge G, Wang S, Han Y, Zhang C, Lu S, Huang Z. Removing N-terminal sequences in pre-s1 domain enhanced antibody and B-cell responses by an HBV large surface antigen DNA vaccine. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41573.
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        16. Nie J, Wang W, Wen Z, Song A, Hong K, Lu S, Zhong P, Xu J, Kong W, Li J, Shang H, Ling H, Ruan L, Wang Y. Optimization and proficiency testing of a pseudovirus-based assay for detection of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody in China. J Virol Methods. 2012 Nov; 185(2):267-75.
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        17. Wong VC, Cash HL, Morse JL, Lu S, Zhitkovich A. S-phase sensing of DNA-protein crosslinks triggers TopBP1-independent ATR activation and p53-mediated cell death by formaldehyde. Cell Cycle. 2012 Jul 1; 11(13):2526-37.
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        18. E X, Stadler BM, Debatis M, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(10):5660-73.
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        19. Xu J, Wang S, Gan W, Zhang W, Ju L, Huang Z, Lu S. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Apr 20; 420(4):755-61.
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        20. Pan S, Xia W, Ding Q, Shu Y, Xu T, Geng Y, Lu Y, Chen D, Xu J, Wang F, Zhao C, Huang P, Huang P, Shen H, Hu Z, Lu S. Can plasma DNA monitoring be employed in personalized chemotherapy for patients with advanced lung cancer? Biomed Pharmacother. 2012 Mar; 66(2):131-7.
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        21. Montero M, Gulzar N, Klaric KA, Donald JE, Lepik C, Wu S, Tsai S, Julien JP, Hessell AJ, Wang S, Lu S, Burton DR, Pai EF, Degrado WF, Scott JK. Neutralizing Epitopes in the Membrane-Proximal External Region of HIV-1 gp41 Are Influenced by the Transmembrane Domain and the Plasma Membrane. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(6):2930-41.
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        22. Wang S, Hackett A, Jia N, Zhang C, Zhang L, Parker C, Zhou A, Li J, Cao WC, Huang Z, Li Y, Lu S. Polyvalent DNA Vaccines Expressing HA Antigens of H5N1 Influenza Viruses with an Optimized Leader Sequence Elicit Cross-Protective Antibody Responses. PLoS One. 2011; 6(12):e28757.
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        23. Li L, Yang Y, Xu Q, Owsiany K, Welsch R, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Lu S, Van Eck J, Deng XX, Failla M, Thannhauser TW. The or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers. Mol Plant. 2012 Mar; 5(2):339-52.
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        24. Lu S, Sun P, Li T, Kurtán T, Mándi A, Antus S, Krohn K, Draeger S, Schulz B, Yi Y, Li L, Zhang W. Bioactive Nonanolide Derivatives Isolated from the Endophytic Fungus Cytospora sp. J Org Chem. 2011 Dec 2; 76(23):9699-710.
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        25. Wen JG, Chang QL, Lou AF, Li ZZ, Lu S, Wang Y, Wang YL, Hu JH, Mao SP, Zhang Y, Xue R, Ren C, Xing L, Zhang GX, Zhang S, Djurhuus JC, Frøkiaer J. Melamine-Related Urinary Stones in 195 Infants and Young Children: Clinical Features within 2 Years of Follow-Up. Urol Int. 2011; 87(4):429-33.
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        26. Lu S. Two is better than one. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 11(12):889-91.
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        27. Clapham PR, Lu S. Vaccinology: precisely tuned antibodies nab HIV. Nature. 2011; 477(7365):416-7.
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        28. Zolla-Pazner S, Kong XP, Jiang X, Cardozo T, Nádas A, Cohen S, Totrov M, Seaman MS, Wang S, Lu S. Cross-clade HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced with V3-scaffold protein immunogens following priming with gp120 DNA. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(19):9887-98.
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        29. Suguitan AL, Cheng X, Wang W, Wang S, Jin H, Lu S. Influenza H5 hemagglutinin DNA primes the antibody response elicited by the live attenuated influenza A/Vietnam/1203/2004 vaccine in ferrets. PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21942.
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        30. E X, Pickering MT, Debatis M, Castillo J, Lagadinos A, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. An E2F1-Mediated DNA Damage Response Contributes to the Replication of Human Cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001342.
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        31. Li J, Han Y, Jin K, Wan Y, Wang S, Liu B, Liu Y, Lu S, Huang Z. Dynamic changes of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer (NK) cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in patients with acute hepatitis B infection. Virol J. 2011; 8:199.
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        32. Lu S, Draeger S, Schulz B, Krohn K, Ahmed I, Hussain H, Yi Y, Li L, Zhang W. Bioactive aromatic derivatives from endophytic fungus, Cytospora sp. Nat Prod Commun. 2011 May; 6(5):661-6.
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        33. Vaine M, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Liu Q, Arthos J, Wang S, Clapham P, Lu S. Two Closely Related Env Antigens from the Same Patient Elicited Different Spectra of Neutralizing Antibodies against Heterologous HIV-1 Isolates. J Virol. 2011 May; 85(10):4927-36.
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        34. Lu C, Lu S, Liang W, Li J, Dou X, Bian C, Shi D, Liao L, Zhao RC. TAp63a mediates chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Aug; 20(8):1319-26.
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        35. Wang S, Goguen JD, Li F, Lu S. Involvement of CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses in LcrV DNA vaccine induced protection against lethal Yersinia pestis challenge. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9; 29(39):6802-9.
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        36. Lu S, Wang S, Grimes Serrano JM. Polyvalent AIDS vaccines. Curr HIV Res. 2010 Dec 1; 8(8):622-9.
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        37. Vaine M, Wang S, Liu Q, Arthos J, Montefiori D, Goepfert P, McElrath MJ, Lu S. Profiles of human serum antibody responses elicited by three leading HIV vaccines focusing on the induction of Env-specific antibodies. PLoS One. 2010; 5(11):e13916.
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        38. Meng X, Zhong Y, Embry A, Yan B, Lu S, Zhong G, Xiang Y. Generation and characterization of a large panel of murine monoclonal antibodies against vaccinia virus. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):271-9.
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        39. Jin K, Wang S, Huang Z, Lu S. Clostridium difficile infections in China. J Biomed Res. 2010 Nov; 24(6):411-6.
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        40. Lu S, Lu C, Han Q, Li J, Du Z, Liao L, Zhao RC. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect PC12 cells from glutamate excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis by upregulation of XIAP through PI3-K/Akt activation. Toxicology. 2011 Jan 11; 279(1-3):189-95.
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        41. Wang Z, Zhang M, Wang Y, Jiao Y, Zhang L, Li L, Huang Z, Wu H, Li J, Lu S, Wang S. A versatile vector for the production of pseudotyped viruses expressing gp120 antigens from different clades of primary HIV-1 isolates. J Virol Methods. 2011 Jan; 171(1):183-9.
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        42. Jiao Y, Zhang T, Wang S, Liu Q, Zhou H, Lu S, Wu H. Profile of HIV-1 infected patients from an AIDS clinic in Beijing from 2007-2008. Curr HIV Res. 2010 Oct 1; 8(7):515-20.
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        43. Shen M, Wang S, Ge G, Xing Y, Ma X, Huang Z, Lu S. Profiles of B and T cell immune responses elicited by different forms of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Vaccine. 2010 Oct 21; 28(45):7288-96.
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        44. Pan S, Xu J, Shu Y, Wang F, Xia W, Ding Q, Xu T, Zhao C, Zhang M, Huang P, Lu S. Double recognition of oligonucleotide and protein in the detection of DNA methylation with surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010 Oct 15; 26(2):850-3.
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        45. Totrov M, Jiang X, Kong XP, Cohen S, Krachmarov C, Salomon A, Williams C, Seaman MS, Abagyan R, Cardozo T, Gorny MK, Wang S, Lu S, Pinter A, Zolla-Pazner S. Structure-guided design and immunological characterization of immunogens presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop on a CTB scaffold. Virology. 2010 Sep 30; 405(2):513-23.
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        46. Li JM, Zhu H, Lu S, Liu Y, Li Q, Ravenscroft P, Xu YF, Huang L, Ma CM, Bezard E, Zhao RC, Wang RZ, Qin C. Migration and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in the normal rat brain. Neurol Res. 2011 Jan; 33(1):84-92.
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        47. Zhu Y, Lu F, Dai Y, Wang X, Tang J, Zhao S, Zhang C, Zhang H, Lu S, Wang S. Synergistic enhancement of immunogenicity and protection in mice against Schistosoma japonicum with codon optimization and electroporation delivery of SjTPI DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 19; 28(32):5347-55.
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        48. Xu J, Qian Y, Wang S, Serrano JM, Li W, Huang Z, Lu S. EV71: an emerging infectious disease vaccine target in the Far East? Vaccine. 2010 Apr 30; 28(20):3516-21.
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        49. Bardag-Gorce F, Li J, Oliva J, Lu SC, French BA, French SW. The cyclic pattern of blood alcohol levels during continuous ethanol feeding in rats: the effect of feeding S-adenosylmethionine. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010 Jun; 88(3):380-7.
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        50. Wang S, Mboudjeka I, Goguen JD, Lu S. Antigen engineering can play a critical role in the protective immunity elicited by Yersinia pestis DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 23; 28(8):2011-9.
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        51. Vaine M, Wang S, Hackett A, Arthos J, Lu S. Antibody responses elicited through homologous or heterologous prime-boost DNA and protein vaccinations differ in functional activity and avidity. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 9; 28(17):2999-3007.
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        52. Van Eck J, Zhou X, Lu S, Li L. Modulation of carotenoid accumulation in transgenic potato by inducing chromoplast formation with enhanced sink strength. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 643:77-93.
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        53. Abdel-Motal UM, Wang S, Awad A, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of HIV-1 p24 and gp120 following immunization with gp120/p24 fusion protein vaccine expressing alpha-gal epitopes. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 17; 28(7):1758-65.
          View in: PubMed
        54. Barrett AD, Lu S, Poland GA. Introduction to this supplement. Vaccine. 2009 Nov 5; 27 Suppl 4:D1.
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        55. Lu S, Wang S. Technical transformation of biodefense vaccines. Vaccine. 2009 Nov 5; 27 Suppl 4:D8-D15.
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        56. Wang Z, Wang SX, Liu SY, Bao ZY, Zhuang DM, Li L, Zhang CH, Zhang L, Li JY, Lu S. Immunogenicities of Env glycoproteins from circulating HIV-1 isolates in China focusing on the strategy of "DNA prime plus protein boost". Chin Med J (Engl). 2009 Oct 5; 122(19):2339-45.
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        57. Lu S. Gene-based adjuvants: a new meaning. Hum Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 20(10):1101-2.
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        58. Tsai C, Caillet C, Hu H, Zhou F, Ding H, Zhang G, Zhou B, Wang S, Lu S, Buchy P, Deubel V, Vogel FR, Zhou P. Measurement of neutralizing antibody responses against H5N1 clades in immunized mice and ferrets using pseudotypes expressing influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Vaccine. 2009 Nov 12; 27(48):6777-90.
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        59. Zolla-Pazner S, Cohen S, Pinter A, Krachmarov C, Wrin T, Wang S, Lu S. Cross-clade neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 induced in rabbits by focusing the immune response on a neutralizing epitope. Virology. 2009 Sep 15; 392(1):82-93.
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        60. Zhang P, Tang Y, Liu X, Liu W, Zhang X, Liu H, Peng D, Gao S, Wu Y, Zhang L, Lu S, Liu X. A novel genotype H9N2 influenza virus possessing human H5N1 internal genomes has been circulating in poultry in eastern China since 1998. J Virol. 2009 Sep; 83(17):8428-38.
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        61. Lu S. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 21(3):346-51.
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        62. Xu G, Wang S, Zhuang L, Hackett A, Gu L, Zhang L, Zhang C, Wang H, Huang Z, Lu S. Intramuscular delivery of a cholera DNA vaccine primes both systemic and mucosal protective antibody responses against cholera. Vaccine. 2009 Jun 12; 27(29):3821-30.
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        63. Jia N, de Vlas SJ, Liu YX, Zhang JS, Zhan L, Dang RL, Ma YH, Wang XJ, Liu T, Yang GP, Wen QL, Richardus JH, Lu S, Cao WC. Serological reports of human infections of H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in northern China. J Clin Virol. 2009 Mar; 44(3):225-9.
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        64. Vaine M, Lu S, Wang S. Progress on the induction of neutralizing antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). BioDrugs. 2009; 23(3):137-53.
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        65. Zhang P, Tang Y, Liu X, Peng D, Liu W, Liu H, Lu S, Liu X. Characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation in eastern China during a 5 year period (1998-2002). J Gen Virol. 2008 Dec; 89(Pt 12):3102-12.
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        66. Lu S. Immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans: it takes two to tango. Hum Vaccin. 2008 Nov-Dec; 4(6):449-52.
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        67. Jia N, Wang SX, Liu YX, Zhang PH, Zuo SQ, Lin-Zhan , Dang RL, Ma YH, Zhang C, Zhang L, Lu S, Cao WC. Increased sensitivity for detecting avian influenza-specific antibodies by a modified hemagglutination inhibition assay using horse erythrocytes. J Virol Methods. 2008 Oct; 153(1):43-8.
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        68. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 23; 26(31):3947-57.
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        69. Lu S, Li L. Carotenoid metabolism: biosynthesis, regulation, and beyond. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008 Jul; 50(7):778-85.
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        70. Kennedy JS, Co M, Green S, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill MA, Adams JP, Rothman AL, Yu Q, Johnson-Leva R, Pal R, Wang S, Lu S, Markham P. The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Aug 18; 26(35):4420-4.
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        71. Huang Z, Chou A, Tanguay J, Shen S, Mboudjeka I, Chou TH, Lu S, Wang S. Levels of N-linked glycosylation on the V1 loop of HIV-1 Env proteins and their relationship to the antigenicity of Env from primary viral isolates. Curr HIV Res. 2008 Jun; 6(4):296-305.
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        72. Vaine M, Wang S, Crooks ET, Jiang P, Montefiori DC, Binley J, Lu S. Improved induction of antibodies against key neutralizing epitopes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 DNA prime-protein boost vaccination compared to gp120 protein-only vaccination. J Virol. 2008 Aug; 82(15):7369-78.
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        73. Wang S, Parker C, Taaffe J, Solórzano A, García-Sastre A, Lu S. Heterologous HA DNA vaccine prime--inactivated influenza vaccine boost is more effective than using DNA or inactivated vaccine alone in eliciting antibody responses against H1 or H3 serotype influenza viruses. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 4; 26(29-30):3626-33.
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        74. Bansal A, Jackson B, West K, Wang S, Lu S, Kennedy JS, Goepfert PA. Multifunctional T-cell characteristics induced by a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine regimen given to healthy adults are dependent on the route and dose of administration. J Virol. 2008 Jul; 82(13):6458-69.
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        75. Xing Y, Huang Z, Lin Y, Li J, Chou TH, Lu S, Wang S. The ability of Hepatitis B surface antigen DNA vaccine to elicit cell-mediated immune responses, but not antibody responses, was affected by the deglysosylation of S antigen. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 19; 26(40):5145-52.
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        76. Wang S, Zhang C, Zhang L, Li J, Huang Z, Lu S. The relative immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered by the intramuscular needle injection, electroporation and gene gun methods. Vaccine. 2008 Apr 16; 26(17):2100-10.
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        77. Lu S, Wang S, Grimes-Serrano JM. Current progress of DNA vaccine studies in humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Mar; 7(2):175-91.
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        78. Lu S. Human versus HIV: round 2 defeat in AIDS vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Mar; 7(2):151-3.
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        79. Wang S, Joshi S, Mboudjeka I, Liu F, Ling T, Goguen JD, Lu S. Relative immunogenicity and protection potential of candidate Yersinia Pestis antigens against lethal mucosal plague challenge in Balb/C mice. Vaccine. 2008 Mar 20; 26(13):1664-74.
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        80. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Feb 20; 26(8):1098-110.
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        81. Zolla-Pazner S, Cohen SS, Krachmarov C, Wang S, Pinter A, Lu S. Focusing the immune response on the V3 loop, a neutralizing epitope of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope. Virology. 2008 Mar 15; 372(2):233-46.
          View in: PubMed
        82. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Zhang C, Chou TH, Kishko M, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigens. Virology. 2008 Feb 5; 371(1):98-107.
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        83. Vlasova AN, Zhang X, Hasoksuz M, Nagesha HS, Haynes LM, Fang Y, Lu S, Saif LJ. Two-way antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and group 1 animal CoVs is mediated through an antigenic site in the N-terminal region of the SARS-CoV nucleoprotein. J Virol. 2007 Dec; 81(24):13365-77.
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        84. Pouliot K, Pan N, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E, Goguen JD. Evaluation of the role of LcrV-Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immunomodulation in the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 2007 Jul; 75(7):3571-80.
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        85. Shen S, Wang S, Britt WJ, Lu S. DNA vaccines expressing glycoprotein complex II antigens gM and gN elicited neutralizing antibodies against multiple human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) isolates. Vaccine. 2007 Apr 30; 25(17):3319-27.
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        86. Lu S, Van Eck J, Zhou X, Lopez AB, O'Halloran DM, Cosman KM, Conlin BJ, Paolillo DJ, Garvin DF, Vrebalov J, Kochian LV, Küpper H, Earle ED, Cao J, Li L. The cauliflower Or gene encodes a DnaJ cysteine-rich domain-containing protein that mediates high levels of beta-carotene accumulation. Plant Cell. 2006 Dec; 18(12):3594-605.
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        87. Lu S. Combination DNA plus protein HIV vaccines. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2006 Nov; 28(3):255-65.
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        88. Wang S, Taaffe J, Parker C, Solórzano A, Cao H, García-Sastre A, Lu S. Hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from H1 and H3 serotypes of influenza A viruses require different antigen designs for the induction of optimal protective antibody responses as studied by codon-optimized HA DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2006 Dec; 80(23):11628-37.
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        89. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Chou TH, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent poxvirus vaccines that include the D8 antigen. Virology. 2006 Nov 25; 355(2):164-74.
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        90. Biswas S, Langeveld JP, Tipper D, Lu S. Intracellular accumulation of a 46 kDa species of mouse prion protein as a result of loss of glycosylation in cultured mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 13; 349(1):153-61.
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        91. Abdel-Motal U, Wang S, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus gp120 engineered to express Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R epitopes. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):6943-51.
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        92. Li L, Lu S, Cosman KM, Earle ED, Garvin DF, O'Neill J. beta-Carotene accumulation induced by the cauliflower Or gene is not due to an increased capacity of biosynthesis. Phytochemistry. 2006 Jun; 67(12):1177-84.
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        93. Herrmann JE, Wang S, Zhang C, Panchal RG, Bavari S, Lyons CR, Lovchik JA, Golding B, Shiloach J, Lu S. Passive immunotherapy of Bacillus anthracis pulmonary infection in mice with antisera produced by DNA immunization. Vaccine. 2006 Jul 26; 24(31-32):5872-80.
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        94. Pal R, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair BC, Whitney S, Keen T, Hocker L, Hudacik L, Rose N, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Wu-Chou TH, Montefiori D, Mascola J, Markham P, Lu S. Immunization of rhesus macaques with a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine elicits protective antibody response against simian human immunodeficiency virus of R5 phenotype. Virology. 2006 May 10; 348(2):341-53.
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        95. Wang S, Pal R, Mascola JR, Chou TH, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Liu Q, Whitney S, Keen T, Nair BC, Kalyanaraman VS, Markham P, Lu S. Polyvalent HIV-1 Env vaccine formulations delivered by the DNA priming plus protein boosting approach are effective in generating neutralizing antibodies against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from subtypes A, B, C, D and E. Virology. 2006 Jun 20; 350(1):34-47.
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        96. Cristillo AD, Wang S, Caskey MS, Unangst T, Hocker L, He L, Hudacik L, Whitney S, Keen T, Chou TH, Shen S, Joshi S, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair B, Markham P, Lu S, Pal R. Preclinical evaluation of cellular immune responses elicited by a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost HIV-1 vaccine. Virology. 2006 Mar 1; 346(1):151-68.
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        97. Pal R, Yu Q, Wang S, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair BC, Hudacik L, Whitney S, Keen T, Hung CL, Hocker L, Kennedy JS, Markham P, Lu S. Definitive toxicology and biodistribution study of a polyvalent DNA prime/protein boost human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in rabbits. Vaccine. 2006 Feb 20; 24(8):1225-34.
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        98. Pal R, Wang S, Kalyanaraman VS, Nair BC, Whitney S, Keen T, Hocker L, Hudacik L, Rose N, Cristillo A, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Wu-Chou TH, Montefiori D, Mascola J, Lu S, Markham P. Polyvalent DNA prime and envelope protein boost HIV-1 vaccine elicits humoral and cellular responses and controls plasma viremia in rhesus macaques following rectal challenge with an R5 SHIV isolate. J Med Primatol. 2005 Oct; 34(5-6):226-36.
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        99. Spaderna S, Kropff B, Ködel Y, Shen S, Coley S, Lu S, Britt W, Mach M. Deletion of gpUL132, a structural component of human cytomegalovirus, results in impaired virus replication in fibroblasts. J Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(18):11837-47.
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        100. Wang S, Farfan-Arribas DJ, Shen S, Chou TH, Hirsch A, He F, Lu S. Relative contributions of codon usage, promoter efficiency and leader sequence to the antigen expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2006 May 22; 24(21):4531-40.
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        101. Xing YP, Huang ZH, Wang SX, Cai J, Li J, Chou TH, Lu S. Novel DNA vaccine based on hepatitis B virus core gene induces specific immune responses in Balb/c mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Aug 7; 11(29):4583-6.
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        102. Wang S, Arthos J, Lawrence JM, Van Ryk D, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Montefiori DC, Lu S. Enhanced immunogenicity of gp120 protein when combined with recombinant DNA priming to generate antibodies that neutralize the JR-FL primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2005 Jun; 79(12):7933-7.
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        103. Hurwitz JL, Slobod KS, Lockey TD, Wang S, Chou TH, Lu S. Application of the polyvalent approach to HIV-1 vaccine development. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005 Jun; 5(2):143-56.
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        104. Wang S, Sakhatskyy P, Chou TH, Lu S. Assays for the assessment of neutralizing antibody activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SCV). J Immunol Methods. 2005 Jun; 301(1-2):21-30.
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        105. Chou TH, Wang S, Sakhatskyy PV, Mboudjeka I, Mboudoudjeck I, Lawrence JM, Huang S, Coley S, Yang B, Li J, Zhu Q, Lu S. Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Virology. 2005 Mar 30; 334(1):134-43.
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        106. Wang S, Chou TH, Sakhatskyy PV, Huang S, Lawrence JM, Cao H, Huang X, Lu S. Identification of two neutralizing regions on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein produced from the mammalian expression system. J Virol. 2005 Feb; 79(3):1906-10.
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        107. Wang S, Heilman D, Liu F, Giehl T, Joshi S, Huang X, Chou TH, Goguen J, Lu S. A DNA vaccine producing LcrV antigen in oligomers is effective in protecting mice from lethal mucosal challenge of plague. Vaccine. 2004 Sep 3; 22(25-26):3348-57.
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        108. Xing YP, Huang ZH, Wang SX, Cai J, Li J, Lu S. [Immunogenicity of new DNA vaccine encoding for hepatitis B virus core antigen]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2004 Jun; 12(6):338-40.
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        109. Liu F, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Wang S, Ross TM, Lu S. Independent but not synergistic enhancement to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein by codon optimization and C3d fusion in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2004 Apr 16; 22(13-14):1764-72.
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        110. Chou TH, Biswas S, Lu S. Gene delivery using physical methods: an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:147-66.
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        111. Wang S, Joshi S, Lu S. Delivery of DNA to skin by particle bombardment. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:185-96.
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        112. Yang H, Wang J, Huang ZZ, Ou X, Lu SC. Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Biochem J. 2001 Jul 15; 357(Pt 2):447-55.
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        113. Yang H, Wang J, Ou X, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Cloning and analysis of the rat glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 13; 285(2):476-82.
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        114. Yang H, Huang ZZ, Wang J, Lu SC. The role of c-Myb and Sp1 in the up-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma. FASEB J. 2001 Jul; 15(9):1507-16.
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        115. Lu SC, Alvarez L, Huang ZZ, Chen L, An W, Corrales FJ, Avila MA, Kanel G, Mato JM. Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice are predisposed to liver injury and exhibit increased expression of genes involved in proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10):5560-5.
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        116. Yang H, Huang ZZ, Zeng Z, Chen C, Selby RR, Lu SC. Role of promoter methylation in increased methionine adenosyltransferase 2A expression in human liver cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Feb; 280(2):G184-90.
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        117. Zeng Z, Yang H, Huang ZZ, Chen C, Wang J, Lu SC. The role of c-Myb in the up-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A expression in activated Jurkat cells. Biochem J. 2001 Jan 1; 353(Pt 1):163-168.
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        118. Huang ZZ, Chen C, Zeng Z, Yang H, Oh J, Chen L, Lu SC. Mechanism and significance of increased glutathione level in human hepatocellular carcinoma and liver regeneration. FASEB J. 2001 Jan; 15(1):19-21.
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        119. Huang ZA, Yang H, Chen C, Zeng Z, Lu SC. Inducers of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and their effects on glutathione synthetase expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Sep 7; 1493(1-2):48-55.
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        120. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang H, Mato JM, Avila MA, Tsukamoto H. Changes in methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine homeostasis in alcoholic rat liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Jul; 279(1):G178-85.
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        121. Cheng PN, Chang TT, Yang MH, Hu SC, Young KC, Wu HL, Jen CM, Ko AW, Lu SC. GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus infection in a hepatitis C virus endemic village: prevalence in residents with low educational attainment and frequent recovery in females. Liver. 2000 Jun; 20(3):222-7.
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        122. Zeng Z, Huang ZZ, Chen C, Yang H, Mao Z, Lu SC. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of human methionine adenosyltransferase 1A gene. Biochem J. 2000 Mar 1; 346 Pt 2:475-82.
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        123. Chu CY, Yang CY, Huang SF, Lu SC, Wang LF. Lichen planus with xanthomatous change in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Feb; 142(2):377-8.
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        124. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang H, Tsukamoto H. Effect of thioacetamide on the hepatic expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunits in the Rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 15; 159(3):161-8.
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        125. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang JM, Tsukamoto H. Effect of ethanol and high-fat feeding on hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit expression in the rat. Hepatology. 1999 Jul; 30(1):209-14.
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        126. Lu SC, Bao Y, Huang ZZ, Sarthy VP, Kannan R. Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene expression in retinal Müller cells by oxidative stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jul; 40(8):1776-82.
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        127. Huang ZZ, Mato JM, Kanel G, Lu SC. Differential effect of thioacetamide on hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase expression in the rat. Hepatology. 1999 May; 29(5):1471-8.
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        128. Mao Z, Liu S, Cai J, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of human methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jul 30; 248(3):479-84.
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        129. Huang ZZ, Mao Z, Cai J, Lu SC. Changes in methionine adenosyltransferase during liver regeneration in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 1):G14-21.
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        130. Huang HC, Wang SC, Leu YJ, Lu SC, Liao YD. The Rana catesbeiana rcr gene encoding a cytotoxic ribonuclease. Tissue distribution, cloning, purification, cytotoxicity, and active residues for RNase activity. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 13; 273(11):6395-401.
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        131. Huang ZZ, Li H, Cai J, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N, Lu SC. Changes in glutathione homeostasis during liver regeneration in the rat. Hepatology. 1998 Jan; 27(1):147-53.
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        132. Cai J, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Differential regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy and light subunit gene expression. Biochem J. 1997 Aug 15; 326 ( Pt 1):167-72.
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        133. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Wu H, Sun WM, Stone L, Kaplowitz N. Progressive defect in biliary GSH secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Feb; 272(2 Pt 1):G374-82.
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        134. Sun WM, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by protein phosphorylation. Biochem J. 1996 Nov 15; 320 ( Pt 1):321-8.
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