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    Manuel Garber PhD

    TitleAssociate Professor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentProgram in Molecular Medicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentBioinformatics and Computational Biology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentCancer Biology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentTranslational Science

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentBioinformatics and Integrative Biology

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Narrative


        Manuel Garber received his Ph.D. in Mathematics at Brandeis University in 1999. From 1999 to 2004 Dr. Garber worked on applications of incipient web technologies to telecommunications, financial services and distribution channels. In 2004 Dr. Garber joined the Broad Institute as a computational biologist. At the Broad Institute, he focused on analyzing the human genome sequence and led studies of the evolution of segmental duplications. He developed comparative sequence analysis methods to detect regions undergoing natural selection using the growing number of sequenced genomes of related mammalian species. Dr. Garber’s focus shifted to functional characterization of genomic elements using genome-wide functional assays such as RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq. Dr. Garber’s methods have been critical to the discovery and characterization of a novel set of large intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and to our understanding of the immune transcriptional response to pathogens. In September 2012, Dr. Garber moved to the University of Massachusetts Medical School to establish his laboratory and direct the Bioinformatics core. He is an associated professor in the Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology. Dr. Garber continues to study lincRNAs and in particular their evolutionary history, as well as the systematic dissection of the transcriptional regulation of the immune response.
        1. The Functional Genome
        2. Of the 3 billion bases of the human genome, only ~1.2% encodes genes that are translated into proteins. Yet, a much larger percentage encodes functional genetic elements. Many of these functional elements control how genes are regulated to produce specific patterns of expression in different tissues and cell types. Precisely how these elements work remains an open question in biology.We collaborate closely with experimental labs to develop algorithms and design experiments for analyzing and integrating genome-wide experiments with the goal of mapping and characterizing the functional genome and how it orchestrates gene expression across development and in response to environmental stimulus. Current advances in sequencing technologies have enabled systematic, genome-wide readouts of cell function. Bioinformatics approaches are critical to fully take advantage of these new approaches. Dr Garber’s group strives to develop the tools to analyze, integrate and fully leverage the advancements in genome wide experimental technologies. We have developed and continue to enhance the Scripture toolkit for short read analysis (ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq) and the SiPhy suite for comparative sequence analysis. Both tools have been critical in our exploration of the functional landscape of the human genome.
        3. Evolution of non-coding genes
        4. Large intergenic non-coding RNAs are spliced, polyadenylated and capped transcripts that do not overlap annotated protein coding genes and have little to no protein coding potential. We recently identified about 1500 lincRNAs using both epigenetic signatures of expression and transcriptional profiling by RNA-Seq. LincRNAs are an integral part of the cell’s transcriptional network. Interestingly, while lincRNAs display clear signatures of selection, their conservation profiles are markedly different from those of protein coding genes. Our lab aims to integrate functional data such us protein-RNA, RNA-DNA and RNA-RNA interactions with comparative analysis to understand the evolution of these interactions and how they have changed the molecular circuitry of the cell.
        5. Gene regulation
        6. It is now clear that most phenotypic changes observed across vertebrates are not due to changes in protein coding genes, but are due to changes in gene regulation. However, how gene regulation is encoded in the genome is only now beginning to be understood. How the binding of a transcription factor to a promoter or enhancer affects target gene expression is still unclear. Only by studying the interplay between regulatory elements and their targets can we evaluate the functional role of cis-regulatory elements. Sequencing assays now allow us to monitor transcription factor binding (ChIP-Seq) and cellular output (RNA-Seq) at an unprecedented scale. We are currently studying this interplay by using the response of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to pathogen stimuli as our biological system. Up to this point, our integrated analysis of temporal datasets of transcription binding and gene expression showed that binding of different factors is responsible for subtle expression patterns that control specific pathways. These pathways have very distinct forms of regulation: a minority of pathways are regulated by few transcription factors (e.g. Stat1 and Stat2) whose targets are very responsive to knock down of these factors and have very conserved binding sites. In contrast, most pathways are controlled by a larger set of redundant transcription factors, whose binding has an additive effect and expression where the number rather than the type of factors bound gives rise to different expression levels. Our group continues to work closely with experimental groups to further enhance and characterize these datasets in order to crack the regulatory code of mammalian immune cells.


        Rotation Projects

        If you are interesting in applying computational methods to biological problems please contact me. 

        Potential projects in my lab are

        1. Modeling of transcription factor gene expression control in innate immune cells 
        2. Evolutionary analysis of gene transcription factor networks in mammals
        3. Epigenetics inheritance in mice: From male sperm to phenotypic effect in grandchildren
        4. Application of genome and exome sequencing to newborn screening
        5. Development of computational methods for analysis of RNA-protein interactions



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Renzette N, Somasundaran M, Brewster F, Coderre J, Weiss ER, McManus M, Greenough T, Tabak B, Garber M, Kowalik TF, Luzuriaga K. EBV Latent Membrane Protein 1 genetic variability in peripheral blood B cells and oropharyngeal fluids. J Virol. 2014 Jan 15.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Washietl S, Kellis M, Garber M. Evolutionary dynamics and tissue specificity of human long noncoding RNAs in six mammals. Genome Res. 2014 Apr; 24(4):616-28.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Kearns NA, Genga RM, Enuameh MS, Garber M, Wolfe SA, Maehr R. Cas9 effector-mediated regulation of transcription and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. Development. 2014 Jan; 141(1):219-23.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Haimovich G, Medina DA, Causse SZ, Garber M, Millán-Zambrano G, Barkai O, Chávez S, Pérez-Ortín JE, Darzacq X, Choder M. Gene expression is circular: factors for mRNA degradation also foster mRNA synthesis. Cell. 2013 May 23; 153(5):1000-11.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Cheng CS, Rai K, Garber M, Hollinger A, Robbins D, Anderson S, Macbeth A, Tzou A, Carneiro MO, Raychowdhury R, Russ C, Hacohen N, Gershenwald JE, Lennon N, Nusbaum C, Chin L, Regev A, Amit I. Semiconductor-based DNA sequencing of histone modification states. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2672.
          View in: PubMed
        6. Garber M, Yosef N, Goren A, Raychowdhury R, Thielke A, Guttman M, Robinson J, Minie B, Chevrier N, Itzhaki Z, Blecher-Gonen R, Bornstein C, Amann-Zalcenstein D, Weiner A, Friedrich D, Meldrim J, Ram O, Cheng C, Gnirke A, Fisher S, Friedman N, Wong B, Bernstein BE, Nusbaum C, Hacohen N, Regev A, Amit I. A high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation approach reveals principles of dynamic gene regulation in mammals. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 14; 47(5):810-22.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Pauli A, Valen E, Lin MF, Garber M, Vastenhouw NL, Levin JZ, Fan L, Sandelin A, Rinn JL, Regev A, Schier AF. Systematic identification of long noncoding RNAs expressed during zebrafish embryogenesis. Genome Res. 2012 Mar; 22(3):577-91.
          View in: PubMed
        8. Chevrier N, Mertins P, Artyomov MN, Shalek AK, Iannacone M, Ciaccio MF, Gat-Viks I, Tonti E, DeGrace MM, Clauser KR, Garber M, Eisenhaure TM, Yosef N, Robinson J, Sutton A, Andersen MS, Root DE, von Andrian U, Jones RB, Park H, Carr SA, Regev A, Amit I, Hacohen N. Systematic discovery of TLR signaling components delineates viral-sensing circuits. Cell. 2011 Nov 11; 147(4):853-67.
          View in: PubMed
        9. Lindblad-Toh K, Garber M, Zuk O, Lin MF, Parker BJ, Washietl S, Kheradpour P, Ernst J, Jordan G, Mauceli E, Ward LD, Lowe CB, Holloway AK, Clamp M, Gnerre S, Alföldi J, Beal K, Chang J, Clawson H, Cuff J, Di Palma F, Fitzgerald S, Flicek P, Guttman M, Hubisz MJ, Jaffe DB, Jungreis I, Kent WJ, Kostka D, Lara M, Martins AL, Massingham T, Moltke I, Raney BJ, Rasmussen MD, Robinson J, Stark A, Vilella AJ, Wen J, Xie X, Zody MC. A high-resolution map of human evolutionary constraint using 29 mammals. Nature. 2011 Oct 27; 478(7370):476-82.
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        10. Guttman M, Donaghey J, Carey BW, Garber M, Grenier JK, Munson G, Young G, Lucas AB, Ach R, Bruhn L, Yang X, Amit I, Meissner A, Regev A, Rinn JL, Root DE, Lander ES. lincRNAs act in the circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation. Nature. 2011 Sep 15; 477(7364):295-300.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Garber M, Grabherr MG, Guttman M, Trapnell C. Computational methods for transcriptome annotation and quantification using RNA-seq. Nat Methods. 2011 Jun; 8(6):469-77.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Rabani M, Levin JZ, Fan L, Adiconis X, Raychowdhury R, Garber M, Gnirke A, Nusbaum C, Hacohen N, Friedman N, Amit I, Regev A. Metabolic labeling of RNA uncovers principles of RNA production and degradation dynamics in mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2011 May; 29(5):436-42.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Loewer S, Cabili MN, Guttman M, Loh YH, Thomas K, Park IH, Garber M, Curran M, Onder T, Agarwal S, Manos PD, Datta S, Lander ES, Schlaeger TM, Daley GQ, Rinn JL. Large intergenic non-coding RNA-RoR modulates reprogramming of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Genet. 2010 Dec; 42(12):1113-7.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Huarte M, Guttman M, Feldser D, Garber M, Koziol MJ, Kenzelmann-Broz D, Khalil AM, Zuk O, Amit I, Rabani M, Attardi LD, Regev A, Lander ES, Jacks T, Rinn JL. A large intergenic noncoding RNA induced by p53 mediates global gene repression in the p53 response. Cell. 2010 Aug 6; 142(3):409-19.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Guttman M, Garber M, Levin JZ, Donaghey J, Robinson J, Adiconis X, Fan L, Koziol MJ, Gnirke A, Nusbaum C, Rinn JL, Lander ES, Regev A. Ab initio reconstruction of cell type-specific transcriptomes in mouse reveals the conserved multi-exonic structure of lincRNAs. Nat Biotechnol. 2010 May; 28(5):503-10.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Grossman SR, Shylakhter I, Karlsson EK, Byrne EH, Morales S, Frieden G, Hostetter E, Angelino E, Garber M, Zuk O, Lander ES, Schaffner SF, Sabeti PC. A composite of multiple signals distinguishes causal variants in regions of positive selection. Science. 2010 Feb 12; 327(5967):883-6.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Wade CM, Giulotto E, Sigurdsson S, Zoli M, Gnerre S, Imsland F, Lear TL, Adelson DL, Bailey E, Bellone RR, Blöcker H, Distl O, Edgar RC, Garber M, Leeb T, Mauceli E, MacLeod JN, Penedo MC, Raison JM, Sharpe T, Vogel J, Andersson L, Antczak DF, Biagi T, Binns MM, Chowdhary BP, Coleman SJ, Della Valle G, Fryc S, Guérin G, Hasegawa T, Hill EW, Jurka J, Kiialainen A, Lindgren G, Liu J, Magnani E, Mickelson JR, Murray J, Nergadze SG, Onofrio R, Pedroni S, Piras MF, Raudsepp T, Rocchi M, Røed KH, Ryder OA, Searle S, Skow L, Swinburne JE, Syvänen AC, Tozaki T, Valberg SJ, Vaudin M, White JR, Zody MC. Genome sequence, comparative analysis, and population genetics of the domestic horse. Science. 2009 Nov 6; 326(5954):865-7.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Amit I, Garber M, Chevrier N, Leite AP, Donner Y, Eisenhaure T, Guttman M, Grenier JK, Li W, Zuk O, Schubert LA, Birditt B, Shay T, Goren A, Zhang X, Smith Z, Deering R, McDonald RC, Cabili M, Bernstein BE, Rinn JL, Meissner A, Root DE, Hacohen N, Regev A. Unbiased reconstruction of a mammalian transcriptional network mediating pathogen responses. Science. 2009 Oct 9; 326(5950):257-63.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Broom WJ, Johnson DV, Garber M, Andersen PM, Lennon N, Landers J, Nusbaum C, Russ C, Brown RH. DNA sequence analysis of the conserved region around the SOD1 gene locus in recessively inherited ALS. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Sep 29; 463(1):64-9.
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        20. Khalil AM, Guttman M, Huarte M, Garber M, Raj A, Rivea Morales D, Thomas K, Presser A, Bernstein BE, van Oudenaarden A, Regev A, Lander ES, Rinn JL. Many human large intergenic noncoding RNAs associate with chromatin-modifying complexes and affect gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 14; 106(28):11667-72.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Garber M, Guttman M, Clamp M, Zody MC, Friedman N, Xie X. Identifying novel constrained elements by exploiting biased substitution patterns. Bioinformatics. 2009 Jun 15; 25(12):i54-62.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Garber M, Zody MC, Arachchi HM, Berlin A, Gnerre S, Green LM, Lennon N, Nusbaum C. Closing gaps in the human genome using sequencing by synthesis. Genome Biol. 2009; 10(6):R60.
          View in: PubMed
        23. Guttman M, Amit I, Garber M, French C, Lin MF, Feldser D, Huarte M, Zuk O, Carey BW, Cassady JP, Cabili MN, Jaenisch R, Mikkelsen TS, Jacks T, Hacohen N, Bernstein BE, Kellis M, Regev A, Rinn JL, Lander ES. Chromatin signature reveals over a thousand highly conserved large non-coding RNAs in mammals. Nature. 2009 Mar 12; 458(7235):223-7.
          View in: PubMed
        24. Brockman W, Alvarez P, Young S, Garber M, Giannoukos G, Lee WL, Russ C, Lander ES, Nusbaum C, Jaffe DB. Quality scores and SNP detection in sequencing-by-synthesis systems. Genome Res. 2008 May; 18(5):763-70.
          View in: PubMed
        25. Mikkelsen TS, Wakefield MJ, Aken B, Amemiya CT, Chang JL, Duke S, Garber M, Gentles AJ, Goodstadt L, Heger A, Jurka J, Kamal M, Mauceli E, Searle SM, Sharpe T, Baker ML, Batzer MA, Benos PV, Belov K, Clamp M, Cook A, Cuff J, Das R, Davidow L, Deakin JE, Fazzari MJ, Glass JL, Grabherr M, Greally JM, Gu W, Hore TA, Huttley GA, Kleber M, Jirtle RL, Koina E, Lee JT, Mahony S, Marra MA, Miller RD, Nicholls RD, Oda M, Papenfuss AT, Parra ZE, Pollock DD, Ray DA, Schein JE, Speed TP, Thompson K, VandeBerg JL, Wade CM, Walker JA, Waters PD, Webber C, Weidman JR, Xie X, Zody MC. Genome of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica reveals innovation in non-coding sequences. Nature. 2007 May 10; 447(7141):167-77.
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        26. Zody MC, Garber M, Adams DJ, Sharpe T, Harrow J, Lupski JR, Nicholson C, Searle SM, Wilming L, Young SK, Abouelleil A, Allen NR, Bi W, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Bugalter BE, Butler J, Chang JL, Chen CK, Cook A, Corum B, Cuomo CA, de Jong PJ, DeCaprio D, Dewar K, FitzGerald M, Gilbert J, Gibson R, Gnerre S, Goldstein S, Grafham DV, Grocock R, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hart E, Norman CH, Humphray S, Jaffe DB, Jones M, Kamal M, Khodiyar VK, LaButti K, Laird G, Lehoczky J, Liu X, Lokyitsang T, Loveland J, Lui A, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews L, Mauceli E, McCarroll SA, Mihalev AH, Mudge J, Nguyen C, Nicol R, O'Leary SB, Osoegawa K, Schwartz DC, Shaw-Smith C, Stankiewicz P, Steward C, Swarbreck D, Venkataraman V, Whittaker CA, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Bradley A, Hubbard T, Birren BW, Rogers J, Lander ES, Nusbaum C. DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage. Nature. 2006 Apr 20; 440(7087):1045-9.
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        27. Zody MC, Garber M, Sharpe T, Young SK, Rowen L, O'Neill K, Whittaker CA, Kamal M, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Kodira CD, Madan A, Qin S, Yang X, Abbasi N, Abouelleil A, Arachchi HM, Baradarani L, Birditt B, Bloom S, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Burke J, Butler J, Cook A, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dorris L, Dors M, Eichler EE, Engels R, Fahey J, Fleetwood P, Friedman C, Gearin G, Hall JL, Hensley G, Johnson E, Jones C, Kamat A, Kaur A, Locke DP, Madan A, Munson G, Jaffe DB, Lui A, Macdonald P, Mauceli E, Naylor JW, Nesbitt R, Nicol R, O'Leary SB, Ratcliffe A, Rounsley S, She X, Sneddon KM, Stewart S, Sougnez C, Stone SM, Topham K, Vincent D, Wang S, Zimmer AR, Birren BW, Hood L, Lander ES, Nusbaum C. Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15. Nature. 2006 Mar 30; 440(7084):671-5.
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        28. Nusbaum C, Mikkelsen TS, Zody MC, Asakawa S, Taudien S, Garber M, Kodira CD, Schueler MG, Shimizu A, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Allen NR, Anderson S, Asakawa T, Blechschmidt K, Bloom T, Borowsky ML, Butler J, Cook A, Corum B, DeArellano K, DeCaprio D, Dooley KT, Dorris L, Engels R, Glöckner G, Hafez N, Hagopian DS, Hall JL, Ishikawa SK, Jaffe DB, Kamat A, Kudoh J, Lehmann R, Lokitsang T, Macdonald P, Major JE, Matthews CD, Mauceli E, Menzel U, Mihalev AH, Minoshima S, Murayama Y, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Parker SC, Polley A, Raymond CK, Reichwald K, Rodriguez J, Sasaki T, Schilhabel M, Siddiqui R, Smith CL, Sneddon TP, Talamas JA, Tenzin P, Topham K, Venkataraman V, Wen G, Yamazaki S, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Rosenthal A, Birren BW, Platzer M, Shimizu N, Lander ES. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8. Nature. 2006 Jan 19; 439(7074):331-5.
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        29. Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS, Karlsson EK, Jaffe DB, Kamal M, Clamp M, Chang JL, Kulbokas EJ, Zody MC, Mauceli E, Xie X, Breen M, Wayne RK, Ostrander EA, Ponting CP, Galibert F, Smith DR, DeJong PJ, Kirkness E, Alvarez P, Biagi T, Brockman W, Butler J, Chin CW, Cook A, Cuff J, Daly MJ, DeCaprio D, Gnerre S, Grabherr M, Kellis M, Kleber M, Bardeleben C, Goodstadt L, Heger A, Hitte C, Kim L, Koepfli KP, Parker HG, Pollinger JP, Searle SM, Sutter NB, Thomas R, Webber C, Baldwin J, Abebe A, Abouelleil A, Aftuck L, Ait-Zahra M, Aldredge T, Allen N, An P, Anderson S, Antoine C, Arachchi H, Aslam A, Ayotte L, Bachantsang P, Barry A, Bayul T, Benamara M, Berlin A, Bessette D, Blitshteyn B, Bloom T, Blye J, Boguslavskiy L, Bonnet C, Boukhgalter B, Brown A, Cahill P, Calixte N, Camarata J, Cheshatsang Y, Chu J, Citroen M, Collymore A, Cooke P, Dawoe T, Daza R, Decktor K, DeGray S, Dhargay N, Dooley K, Dooley K, Dorje P, Dorjee K, Dorris L, Duffey N, Dupes A, Egbiremolen O, Elong R, Falk J, Farina A, Faro S, Ferguson D, Ferreira P, Fisher S, FitzGerald M, Foley K, Foley C, Franke A, Friedrich D, Gage D, Garber M, Gearin G, Giannoukos G, Goode T, Goyette A, Graham J, Grandbois E, Gyaltsen K, Hafez N, Hagopian D, Hagos B, Hall J, Healy C, Hegarty R, Honan T, Horn A, Houde N, Hughes L, Hunnicutt L, Husby M, Jester B, Jones C, Kamat A, Kanga B, Kells C, Khazanovich D, Kieu AC, Kisner P, Kumar M, Lance K, Landers T, Lara M, Lee W, Leger JP, Lennon N, Leuper L, LeVine S, Liu J, Liu X, Lokyitsang Y, Lokyitsang T, Lui A, Macdonald J, Major J, Marabella R, Maru K, Matthews C, McDonough S, Mehta T, Meldrim J, Melnikov A, Meneus L, Mihalev A, Mihova T, Miller K, Mittelman R, Mlenga V, Mulrain L, Munson G, Navidi A, Naylor J, Nguyen T, Nguyen N, Nguyen C, Nguyen T, Nicol R, Norbu N, Norbu C, Novod N, Nyima T, Olandt P, O'Neill B, O'Neill K, Osman S, Oyono L, Patti C, Perrin D, Phunkhang P, Pierre F, Priest M, Rachupka A, Raghuraman S, Rameau R, Ray V, Raymond C, Rege F, Rise C, Rogers J, Rogov P, Sahalie J, Settipalli S, Sharpe T, Shea T, Sheehan M, Sherpa N, Shi J, Shih D, Sloan J, Smith C, Sparrow T, Stalker J, Stange-Thomann N, Stavropoulos S, Stone C, Stone S, Sykes S, Tchuinga P, Tenzing P, Tesfaye S, Thoulutsang D, Thoulutsang Y, Topham K, Topping I, Tsamla T, Vassiliev H, Venkataraman V, Vo A, Wangchuk T, Wangdi T, Weiand M, Wilkinson J, Wilson A, Yadav S, Yang S, Yang X, Young G, Yu Q, Zainoun J, Zembek L, Zimmer A, Lander ES. Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog. Nature. 2005 Dec 8; 438(7069):803-19.
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        30. Nusbaum C, Zody MC, Borowsky ML, Kamal M, Kodira CD, Taylor TD, Whittaker CA, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Dewar K, FitzGerald MG, Yang X, Abouelleil A, Allen NR, Anderson S, Bloom T, Bugalter B, Butler J, Cook A, DeCaprio D, Engels R, Garber M, Gnirke A, Hafez N, Hall JL, Norman CH, Itoh T, Jaffe DB, Kuroki Y, Lehoczky J, Lui A, Macdonald P, Mauceli E, Mikkelsen TS, Naylor JW, Nicol R, Nguyen C, Noguchi H, O'Leary SB, O'Neill K, Piqani B, Smith CL, Talamas JA, Topham K, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Wain HM, Young SK, Zeng Q, Zimmer AR, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Birren BW, Sakaki Y, Lander ES. DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 18. Nature. 2005 Sep 22; 437(7058):551-5.
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