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    Michael A King PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentRadiology
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    55 Lake Avenue North
    Worcester MA 01655
    Phone774-442-4255
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic Background

        University of Rochester, PhD, 1978
        University of Alabama Birmingham, Post-Doc

        Clinical/Research Interests

        Nuclear Medicine

        • Correction for causes of image degradation in nuclear medicine such as attenuation, distance-dependent spatial-resolution, and scatter.
        • Tomographic image reconstruction for SPECT and PET.
        • Assessment of image quality by task performance studies using human and numerical observers.
        • Quantitation of activity and assessement of function.
        • Image segmentation and computer vision applications in nuclear medicine.

        Figure A

         Figure illustrates the degradation of a SPECT transverse slice.

        Above figure illustrates the degradation of a SPECT transverse slice through the chest by photon attenuation, the acquisition of scattered photons, and the finite imaging system spatial resolution.

        At left side is the true source distribution in this simulated image. Note the shape edges and uniform intensity through the soft tissues, lungs, liver, and heart.

        Reconstruction of simulated projections from this distribution look exactly like the source distribution in the absence of attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution illustrating the success of reconstruction methods with ideal data.

        At the left is the slice reconstructed from data which has included the impact of attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution. Note the variation in intensity in regions of uniform source distribution, and distortation in shape.

        Bringing compensation strategies for such degradations into the clinical use is the MAJOR GOAL of our research efforts.

        To learn more about SPECT compensation strategies for these degradations you can read a PDF file with our review chapter on this topic.

        Attenuation, Scatter, and Spatial Resolution Compensation in SPECT, to appear in forth coming book EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT, M. N. Wernick and J. N. Aarsvold, eds., Academic Press.

        Current Teaching
        Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation I Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation 

I: A 4 credit hour course covering radiological physics and instrumentation for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

        Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation II Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation 

II: A 4 credit hour course covering planar and tomographic nuclear medicine imaging, and computer applications.

        Medical Imaging Systems (BE 581) Medical Imaging Systems 

(BE 581): A 3 credit hour graduate course joint with BME at WPI.

        Nuclear Medical Physics for Cardiologists Nuclear Medical Physics 

for Cardiologists: Series of evening lectures for cardiology fellows.

        List of Graduate Students List of Graduate 

Students

        Current Grants
        NIH R01-CA42165: Digital Restoration of SPECT Images for Tumor Detection, NIH R01-CA42165: Digital Restoration of SPECT Images for Tumor Detection M.A. King, Ph.D. PI, 2/1/97-1/31/01.

        NIH R01-HL50349: Improved accuracy for SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging, NIH R01-HL50349: Improved accuracy for SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging M.A. King, Ph.D. PI, 1/1/99- 12/31/03.

        Picker International, Grant for joint research on attenuation correction and reconstruction of positron coincidence images. M.A. King, PI, 4/1/97-3/31/00.



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Jin M, Niu X, Qi W, Yang Y, Dey J, King MA, Dahlberg S, Wernick MN. 4D reconstruction for low-dose cardiac gated SPECT. Med Phys. 2013 Feb; 40(2):022501.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Niu X, Yang Y, King MA. Comparison study of temporal regularization methods for fully 5D reconstruction of cardiac gated dynamic SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Sep 7; 57(17):5523-42.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Qi W, Yang Y, Niu X, King MA. A quantitative study of motion estimation methods on 4D cardiac gated SPECT reconstruction. Med Phys. 2012 Aug; 39(8):5182-93.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Niu X, Yang Y, Jin M, Wernick MN, King MA. Effects of motion, attenuation, and scatter corrections on gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction. Med Phys. 2011 Dec; 38(12):6571.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Dey J, Segars WP, Pretorius PH, Walvick RP, Bruyant PP, Dahlberg S, King MA. Estimation and correction of cardiac respiratory motion in SPECT in the presence of limited-angle effects due to irregular respiration. Med Phys. 2010 Dec; 37(12):6453-65.
          View in: PubMed
        6. Niu X, Yang Y, King MA, Wernick MN. Detectability of perfusion defect in five-dimensional gated-dynamic cardiac SPECT images. Med Phys. 2010 Sep; 37(9):5102-12.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Jin M, Yang Y, Niu X, Marin T, Brankov JG, Feng B, Pretorius PH, King MA, Wernick MN. A quantitative evaluation study of four-dimensional gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Sep 21; 54(18):5643-59.
          View in: PubMed
        8. King MA, Covassin L, Brehm MA, Racki W, Pearson T, Leif J, Laning J, Fodor W, Foreman O, Burzenski L, Chase TH, Gott B, Rossini AA, Bortell R, Shultz LD, Greiner DL. Human peripheral blood leucocyte non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene mouse model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease and the role of host major histocompatibility complex. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Jul; 157(1):104-18.
          View in: PubMed
        9. McNamara JE, Pretorius PH, Johnson K, Mukherjee JM, Dey J, Gennert MA, King MA. A flexible multicamera visual-tracking system for detecting and correcting motion-induced artifacts in cardiac SPECT slices. Med Phys. 2009 May; 36(5):1913-23.
          View in: PubMed
        10. Lehovich A, Bruyant PP, Gifford HS, Schneider PB, Squires S, Licho R, Gindi G, King MA. Impact on reader performance for lesion-detection/ localization tasks of anatomical priors in SPECT reconstruction. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009 Sep; 28(9):1459-67.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Pretorius PH, King MA. Diminishing the impact of the partial volume effect in cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging. Med Phys. 2009 Jan; 36(1):105-15.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Pereira NF, Gifford HC, Pretorius PH, Smyczynski M, Licho R, Schneider P, Farncombe T, King MA. An evaluation of iterative reconstruction strategies based on mediastinal lesion detection using hybrid Ga-67 SPECT images. Med Phys. 2008 Nov; 35(11):4808-15.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Jin M, Yang Y, King MA. Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT. Med Phys. 2006 Nov; 33(11):4384-94.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Gravier E, Yang Y, King MA, Jin M. Fully 4D motion-compensated reconstruction of cardiac SPECT images. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Sep 21; 51(18):4603-19.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Feng B, Gifford HC, Beach RD, Boening G, Gennert MA, King MA. Use of three-dimensional Gaussian interpolation in the projector/backprojector pair of iterative reconstruction for compensation of known rigid-body motion in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2006 Jul; 25(7):838-44.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Feng B, Fessler JA, King MA. Incorporation of system resolution compensation (RC) in the ordered-subset transmission (OSTR) algorithm for transmission imaging in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2006 Jul; 25(7):941-9.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Feng B, Pretorius PH, Farncombe TH, Dahlberg ST, Narayanan MV, Wernick MN, Celler AM, Leppo JA, King MA. Simultaneous assessment of cardiac perfusion and function using 5-dimensional imaging with Tc-99m teboroxime. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006 May-Jun; 13(3):354-61.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Kupinski MA, Hoppin JW, Krasnow J, Dahlberg S, Leppo JA, King MA, Clarkson E, Barrett HH. Comparing cardiac ejection fraction estimation algorithms without a gold standard. Acad Radiol. 2006 Mar; 13(3):329-37.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Lee TK, Atkins MS, King MA, Lau S, McLean DI. Counting moles automatically from back images. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005 Nov; 52(11):1966-9.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Pretorius PH, King MA, Gifford HC, Dahlberg ST, Spencer F, Simon E, Rashkin J, Botkin N, Berndt W, Narayanan MV, Leppo JA. Myocardial perfusion SPECT reconstruction: receiver operating characteristic comparison of CAD detection accuracy of filtered backprojection reconstruction with all of the clinical imaging information available to readers and solely stress slices iteratively reconstructed with combined compensation. J Nucl Cardiol. 2005 May-Jun; 12(3):284-93.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Gifford HC, King MA, Pretorius PH, Wells RG. A comparison of human and model observers in multislice LROC studies. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Feb; 24(2):160-9.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Farncombe TH, Gifford HC, Narayanan MV, Pretorius PH, Frey EC, King MA. Assessment of scatter compensation strategies for (67)Ga SPECT using numerical observers and human LROC studies. J Nucl Med. 2004 May; 45(5):802-12.
          View in: PubMed
        23. Narayanan MV, King MA, Pretorius PH, Dahlberg ST, Spencer F, Simon E, Ewald E, Healy E, MacNaught K, Leppo JA. Human-observer receiver-operating-characteristic evaluation of attenuation, scatter, and resolution compensation strategies for (99m)Tc myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 2003 Nov; 44(11):1725-34.
          View in: PubMed
        24. King MA, Yeadon MR. Coping with perturbations to a layout somersault in tumbling. J Biomech. 2003 Jul; 36(7):921-7.
          View in: PubMed
        25. King M, Farncombe T. An overview of attenuation and scatter correction of planar and SPECT data for dosimetry studies. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2003 Apr; 18(2):181-90.
          View in: PubMed
        26. Narayanan MV, King MA, Byrne CL. An iterative transmission algorithm incorporating cross-talk correction for SPECT. Med Phys. 2002 May; 29(5):694-700.
          View in: PubMed
        27. King MA, Pretorius PH, Farncombe T, Beekman FJ. Introduction to the physics of molecular imaging with radioactive tracers in small animals. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2002; 39:221-30.
          View in: PubMed
        28. Bouwens LR, Gifford H, Van de Walle R, King MA, Lemahieu I, Dierckx RA. Resolution recovery for list-mode reconstruction in SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2001 Aug; 46(8):2239-53.
          View in: PubMed
        29. Pretorius PH, Narayanan MV, Dahlberg ST, Leppo JA, King MA. The influence of attenuation and scatter compensation on the apparent distribution of Tc-99m sestamibi in cardiac slices. J Nucl Cardiol. 2001 May-Jun; 8(3):356-64.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Narayanan MV, Byrne CL, King MA. An interior point iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm incorporating upper and lower bounds with application to SPECT transmission imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Apr; 20(4):342-53.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Beekman FJ, Kamphuis C, King MA, van Rijk PP, Viergever MA. Improvement of image resolution and quantitative accuracy in clinical Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2001 Mar-Apr; 25(2):135-46.
          View in: PubMed
        32. Wells RG, King MA, Simkin PH, Judy PF, Brill AB, Gifford HC, Licho R, Pretorius PH, Schneider PB, Seldin DW. Comparing filtered backprojection and ordered-subsets expectation maximization for small-lesion detection and localization in 67Ga SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2000 Aug; 41(8):1391-9.
          View in: PubMed
        33. Gifford HC, King MA, Wells RG, Hawkins WG, Narayanan MV, Pretorius PH. LROC analysis of detector-response compensation in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000 May; 19(5):463-73.
          View in: PubMed
        34. Narayanan MV, King MA, Wernick MN, Byrne CL, Soares EJ, Pretorius PH. Improved image quality and computation reduction in 4-D reconstruction of cardiac-gated SPECT images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000 May; 19(5):423-33.
          View in: PubMed
        35. Gifford HC, King MA, de Vries DJ, Soares EJ. Channelized hotelling and human observer correlation for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging. J Nucl Med. 2000 Mar; 41(3):514-21.
          View in: PubMed
        36. Pretorius PH, King MA, Tsui BM, LaCroix KJ, Xia W. A mathematical model of motion of the heart for use in generating source and attenuation maps for simulating emission imaging. Med Phys. 1999 Nov; 26(11):2323-32.
          View in: PubMed
        37. Wells RG, Simkin PH, Judy PF, King MA, Pretorius H, Gifford HC. Effect of filtering on the detection and localization of small Ga-67 lesions in thoracic single photon emission computed tomography images. Med Phys. 1999 Jul; 26(7):1382-8.
          View in: PubMed
        38. de Vries DJ, King MA, Soares EJ, Tsui BM, Metz CE. Effects of scatter substraction on detection and quantitation in hepatic SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1999 Jun; 40(6):1011-23.
          View in: PubMed
        39. Case JA, Licho R, King MA, Weaver JP. Bone SPECT of the spine: a comparison of attenuation correction techniques. J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr; 40(4):604-13.
          View in: PubMed
        40. Licho R, Glick SJ, Xia W, Pan TS, Penney BC, King MA. Attenuation compensation in 99mTc SPECT brain imaging: a comparison of the use of attenuation maps derived from transmission versus emission data in normal scans. J Nucl Med. 1999 Mar; 40(3):456-63.
          View in: PubMed
        41. Tsui BM, Frey EC, LaCroix KJ, Lalush DS, McCartney WH, King MA, Gullberg GT. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 1998 Sep-Oct; 5(5):507-22.
          View in: PubMed
        42. Kohli V, King MA, Glick SJ, Pan TS. Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Apr; 43(4):1025-37.
          View in: PubMed
        43. Achtert AD, King MA, Dahlberg ST, Pretorius PH, LaCroix KJ, Tsui BM. An investigation of the estimation of ejection fractions and cardiac volumes by a quantitative gated SPECT software package in simulated gated SPECT images. J Nucl Cardiol. 1998 Mar-Apr; 5(2):144-52.
          View in: PubMed
        44. Pretorius PH, King MA, Pan TS, de Vries DJ, Glick SJ, Byrne CL. Reducing the influence of the partial volume effect on SPECT activity quantitation with 3D modelling of spatial resolution in iterative reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Feb; 43(2):407-20.
          View in: PubMed
        45. Pan TS, Luo DS, Kohli V, King MA. Influence of OSEM, elliptical orbits and background activity on SPECT 3D resolution recovery. Phys Med Biol. 1997 Dec; 42(12):2517-29.
          View in: PubMed
        46. Pretorius PH, Xia W, King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS, Villegas BJ. Evaluation of right and left ventricular volume and ejection fraction using a mathematical cardiac torso phantom. J Nucl Med. 1997 Oct; 38(10):1528-35.
          View in: PubMed
        47. Pan TS, King MA, Luo DS, Dahlberg ST, Villegas BJ. Estimation of attenuation maps from scatter and photopeak window single photon-emission computed tomographic images of technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi. J Nucl Cardiol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 4(1 Pt 1):42-51.
          View in: PubMed
        48. King MA, Luo D, Dahlberg ST, Villegas BJ, Penney BC, Morgan HT. Transmission imaging of large attenuators using a slant hole collimator on a three-headed SPECT system. Med Phys. 1996 Feb; 23(2):263-72.
          View in: PubMed
        49. Pan TS, King MA, Devries DJ, Ljungberg M. Correction to "segmentation of the body and lungs from compton scatter and photopeak window data in. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1996; 15(3):394.
          View in: PubMed
        50. Pan TS, King MA, de Vries DJ, Ljungberg M. Segmentation of the body and lungs from Compton scatter and photopeak window data in SPECT: a Monte-Carlo investigation. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1996; 15(1):13-24.
          View in: PubMed
        51. King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS, Glick SJ, Soares EJ. Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 2. Attenuation compensation algorithms. J Nucl Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 3(1):55-64.
          View in: PubMed
        52. King MA, Xia W, deVries DJ, Pan TS, Villegas BJ, Dahlberg S, Tsui BM, Ljungberg MH, Morgan HT. A Monte Carlo investigation of artifacts caused by liver uptake in single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled agents. J Nucl Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 3(1):18-29.
          View in: PubMed
        53. King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS. Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 1. Impact of attenuation and methods of estimating attenuation maps. J Nucl Cardiol. 1995 Nov-Dec; 2(6):513-24.
          View in: PubMed
        54. Glick SJ, King MA, Pan TS, Soares EJ. An analytical approach for compensation of non-uniform attenuation in cardiac SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1995 Oct; 40(10):1677-93.
          View in: PubMed
        55. Weinstein H, King MA, Reinhardt CP, McSherry BA, Leppo JA. A method of simultaneous dual-radionuclide cardiac imaging with technetium 99m and thallium 201. I: Analysis of interradionuclide crossover and validation in phantoms. J Nucl Cardiol. 1994 Jan-Feb; 1(1):39-51.
          View in: PubMed
        56. Ljungberg M, King MA, Hademenos GJ, Strand SE. Comparison of four scatter correction methods using Monte Carlo simulated source distributions. J Nucl Med. 1994 Jan; 35(1):143-51.
          View in: PubMed
        57. Glick SJ, Penney BC, King MA, Byrne CL. Noniterative compensation for the distance-dependent detector response and photon attenuation in SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1994; 13(2):363-74.
          View in: PubMed
        58. Glick SJ, Hawkins WG, King MA, Penney BC, Soares EJ, Byrne CL. The effect of intrinsic attenuation correction methods on the stationarity of the 3-D modulation transfer function of SPECT. Med Phys. 1992 Jul-Aug; 19(4):1105-12.
          View in: PubMed
        59. King MA, Hademenos GJ, Glick SJ. A dual-photopeak window method for scatter correction. J Nucl Med. 1992 Apr; 33(4):605-12.
          View in: PubMed
        60. Long DT, King MA, Sheehan J. Comparative evaluation of image segmentation methods for volume quantitation in SPECT. Med Phys. 1992 Mar-Apr; 19(2):483-9.
          View in: PubMed
        61. King MA, Long DT, Brill AB. SPECT volume quantitation: influence of spatial resolution, source size and shape, and voxel size. Med Phys. 1991 Sep-Oct; 18(5):1016-24.
          View in: PubMed
        62. King MA, Coleman M, Penney BC, Glick SJ. Activity quantitation in SPECT: a study of prereconstruction Metz filtering and use of the scatter degradation factor. Med Phys. 1991 Mar-Apr; 18(2):184-9.
          View in: PubMed
        63. Glick SJ, King MA, Knesaurek K. An investigation of the 3D modulation transfer function used in 3D post-reconstruction restoration filtering of SPECT imaging. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991; 363:107-22.
          View in: PubMed
        64. Long DT, King MA, Penney BC. 2D vs. 3D edge detection as a basis for volume quantitation in SPECT. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991; 363:457-71.
          View in: PubMed
        65. Cohen MB, Lake RR, Graham LS, King MA, Kling AS, Fitten LJ, O'Rear J, Bronca GA, Gan M, Servrin R, et al. Quantitative iodine-123 IMP imaging of brain perfusion in schizophrenia. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct; 30(10):1616-20.
          View in: PubMed
        66. Knesaurek K, King MA, Glick SJ, Penney BC. Investigation of causes of geometric distortion in 180 degrees and 360 degrees angular sampling in SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct; 30(10):1666-75.
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        67. Glick SJ, King MA, Penney BC. Characterization of the modulation transfer function of discrete filtered backprojection. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1989; 8(2):203-13.
          View in: PubMed
        68. King MA, Penney BC, Glick SJ. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images. J Nucl Med. 1988 Dec; 29(12):1980-9.
          View in: PubMed
        69. Penney BC, King MA, Schwinger RB, Baker SP, Doherty PW. Modifying constrained least-squares restoration for application to single photon emission computed tomography projection images. Med Phys. 1988 May-Jun; 15(3):334-42.
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        70. King MA, Miller TR, Doherty PW, Schwinger RB. Stationary and nonstationary spatial domain Metz filtering. Nucl Med Commun. 1988 Jan; 9(1):3-13.
          View in: PubMed
        71. Penney BC, King MA, Schwinger RB, Baker SP, Stritzke P, Doherty PW. Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function. Med Phys. 1987 Sep-Oct; 14(5):849-58.
          View in: PubMed
        72. Bianco JA, Elmaleh DR, Leppo JA, King MA, Moring A, Livni E, Espinoza E, Alpert JS, Strauss HW. Effect of glucose and insulin infusion on the myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated methyl-substituted fatty acid. Eur J Nucl Med. 1986; 12(3):120-4.
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        73. King MA, Schwinger RB, Doherty PW, Penney BC. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters. J Nucl Med. 1984 Nov; 25(11):1234-40.
          View in: PubMed
        74. Raptopoulos V, Doherty PW, Goss TP, King MA, Johnson K, Gantz NM. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Dec; 139(6):1077-82.
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        75. King MA, Weber DA, Casarett GW, Burgener FA, Corriveau O. A study of irradiated bone. Part II. changes in Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging. J Nucl Med. 1980 Jan; 21(1):22-30.
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