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    Peter A Rice MD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-4492
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMasters in Clinical Investigation

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMillennium MD/PhD Program

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic/Clinical Backround

        Education
        B. Engineering, Yale University, 1964
        M.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1969

        Post Graduate Training
        Medical Intern, Jr. Resident, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, 1969-71

        Senior Medical Resident, Peter Bent Brigham (presently Brigham and Women’s)
        Hospital, Boston, MA, 1973-74

        Research Fellow in Medicine, Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School,
        Boston, MA, 1974-76

        Clinical Fellow in Medicine, Boston City Hospital, 1974-75

        Specialty Board Certification
        American Board of Internal Medicine, 1974

        American Board of Internal Medicine (Infectious Diseases), 1976

        Awards and Honors
        Yale University, Ranking Scholar, 1964

        University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Roche Award, 1969

        American Academy of Microbiology, Elected Fellow, 2004

        National Institutes of Health, MERIT Award, 2004-

        Peter Rice, MD

        Host Interactions with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

        1. Complement

        Research in the Rice laboratory involves the identification of unique determinants present on bacterial surfaces that may serve as suitable vaccine candidates to protect against infection in humans. In some cases these determinants may also activate or regulate a series of inflammatory mediators called complement (C), which are made up of a group of proteins that are activated sequentially as part of the innate immune response: (1) to combat invading bacteria that infect humans by killing the bacteria and to also enhance their clearance by phagocytes; (2) to facilitate the development of the adaptive immune response to invading bacteria to protect against future infection caused by these organisms and (3) to amplify this immune response once it has developed. Under certain conditions C works to the disadvantage of the host because it is hijacked by microorganisms to down-regulate the activation and binding of C and to also enhance entry into non-professional phagocytes (epithelial cells) where organisms gain sanctuary; these areas of study are important to consider when vaccines sometimes don’t work. The laboratory examines C interactions with bacteria, particularly the Neisseria species, having been first to report interactions of Neiseria gonorrhoeae with complement down-regulator molecules (factor H; an alternative pathway of C inhibitor) and C4 binding protein (C4BP; a classical pathway of C inhibitor). These are major factors that enable this bacterial species to escape immune surveillance. In particular, the laboratory is also characterizing molecular differences in C down-regulator molecules derived from different mammalian species to understand better the evolutionary aspects of the specificity of Neisseria infections for humans and to also guide the design of experimental models that will be suitable for study of these infections (see below).

        2. Vaccine development

        As a prelude to identifying suitable vaccine candidates to protect against gonococcal infection, the laboratory first identified and characterized blocking (or subverting) antibody targets on Neisseria species that interfere with productive killing (in vitro ) by C dependent bactericidal antibodies. These antibody responses were elicited in a human vaccination trial that used a complex outer membrane structure as an immunogen that had been derived from N. gonorrhoeae. A potentially protective response (C dependent bactericidal antibodies) that was elicited in men by the vaccine was subverted by the accompanying blocking antibody response directed against small amounts of a reduction modifiable protein (Rmp) present in the vaccine, which caused the vaccine to fail when the men who received it were not protected upon subsequent urethral (experimental) challenge with virulentN. gonorrhoeae(experimental urethral gonorrhea in men is safe and an IRB approved method to study this disease). Blocking antibodies are present in normal human serum and are also elicited by gonococcal infection itself. These antibodies may interfere with a protective immune response that is often seen with other bacterial infections and may explain the lack of protective immunity that occurs after gonococcal infection. In efforts to identify suitable subunit vaccine candidates against gonorrhea devoid of blocking activity, the laboratory is recognized for its work in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (or lipooligosaccharide [LOS]) chemistry, having reported the first known conserved gonococcal LOS derived oligosaccharide epitope (called 2C7) that is present on almost all wild-type strains of N. gonorrhoeae. This epitope, located in the core of LOS as lactose substitutions on each of the two core heptose molecules of LOS, elicits complement dependent antibody activity in humans both in natural infection and as a consequence of immunization.

        The Rice laboratory and its collaborators have performed extensive biochemical, structural and genetic analysis of this carbohydrate epitope and the surrounding structure(s) to define their role in C binding. To circumvent inherent disadvantages of carbohydrate antigens as immunogens when they are used as vaccines, the laboratory also “converted” the 2C7 epitope first into an anti-idiotope (protein), and then into a peptide, vaccine candidates; both have been shown to be the immunologic counterparts (surrogates) of the oligosaccharide epitope.These surrogates, when used as immunogens in experimental animals (mice), elicit C dependent bactericidal antibodies directed against the nominal LOS epitopes after immunization. These inventions have been issued U.S. and foreign patents and are being configured with appropriate adjuvants for use in: (1) experimental models in mice adapted to stimulate the human complement down-regulator system by creating human transgenics (human C4BP initially, then human factor H and other human complement regulators if they prove important)—see above and (2) for experimental trials in human subjects.



        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Gulati S, Zheng B, Reed GW, Su X, Cox AD, St Michael F, Stupak J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA. Immunization against a Saccharide Epitope Accelerates Clearance of Experimental Gonococcal Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Aug; 9(8):e1003559.
          View in: PubMed
        2. Lewis LA, Shafer WM, Dutta Ray T, Ram S, Rice PA. Phosphoethanolamine Residues on the Lipid A Moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Modulate Binding of Complement Inhibitors and Resistance to Complement-Killing. Infect Immun. 2012 Oct 15.
          View in: PubMed
        3. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Relative Contributions of Dectin-1 and Complement to Immune Responses to Particulate ß-Glucans. J Immunol. 2012 May 30.
          View in: PubMed
        4. Cherpes TL, Rice PA, Sweet RL. Pelvic inflammatory disease. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 2011:714289.
          View in: PubMed
        5. Gulati S, Agarwal S, Vasudhev S, Rice PA, Ram S. Properdin Is Critical for Antibody-Dependent Bactericidal Activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae That Recruit C4b-Binding Protein. J Immunol. 2012 Apr 1; 188(7):3416-3425.
          View in: PubMed
        6. Vu DM, Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA, Granoff DM. Enhanced Bacteremia in Human Factor H Transgenic Rats Infected by Neisseria meningitidis. Infect Immun. 2011 Nov 21.
          View in: PubMed
        7. Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. MBio. 2011; 2(5).
          View in: PubMed
        8. Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Bhattacharjee A, Pedrosa J, Tran C, Horvath G, Monks B, Visintin A, Jokiranta TS, Rice PA. Molecular Characterization of the Interaction between Sialylated Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Factor H. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24; 286(25):22235-42.
          View in: PubMed
        9. Dutta Ray T, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA, Ram S. Novel Blocking Human IgG Directed against the Pentapeptide Repeat Motifs of Neisseria meningitidis Lip/H.8 and Laz Lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4881-94.
          View in: PubMed
        10. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Braga EM, Liu Q, Rice PA, Ram S, Granoff DM. A meningococcal factor h binding protein mutant that eliminates factor h binding enhances protective antibody responses to vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 15; 186(6):3606-14.
          View in: PubMed
        11. Ram S, Lewis LA, Rice PA. Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Oct; 23(4):740-80.
          View in: PubMed
        12. Agarwal S, Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Zipfel PF, Rice PA. Factor H facilitates adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to complement receptor 3 on eukaryotic cells. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 1; 185(7):4344-53.
          View in: PubMed
        13. Agarwal S, Ferreira VP, Cortes C, Pangburn MK, Rice PA, Ram S. An evaluation of the role of properdin in alternative pathway activation on Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2010 Jul 1; 185(1):507-16.
          View in: PubMed
        14. Shrier LA, Schillinger JA, Aneja P, Rice PA, Batteiger BE, Braslins PG, Orr DP, Fortenberry JD. Depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior in young, chlamydia-infected, heterosexual dyads. J Adolesc Health. 2009 Jul; 45(1):63-9.
          View in: PubMed
        15. Ngampasutadol J, Tran C, Gulati S, Blom AM, Jerse EA, Ram S, Rice PA. Species-specificity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection: do human complement regulators contribute? Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I62-6.
          View in: PubMed
        16. Lewis LA, Choudhury B, Balthazar JT, Martin LE, Ram S, Rice PA, Stephens DS, Carlson R, Shafer WM. Phosphoethanolamine substitution of lipid A and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cationic antimicrobial peptides and complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar; 77(3):1112-20.
          View in: PubMed
        17. Madico GE, Rice PA. 16S-Ribosomal DNA to diagnose culture-negative endocarditis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2008 Jul; 10(4):280-6.
          View in: PubMed
        18. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Gulati S, Agarwal S, Li C, Visintin A, Monks B, Madico G, Rice PA. Human factor H interacts selectively with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific complement evasion. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1; 180(5):3426-35.
          View in: PubMed
        19. Agarwal S, Sebastian S, Szmigielski B, Rice PA, Genco CA. Expression of the gonococcal global regulatory protein Fur and genes encompassing the Fur and iron regulon during in vitro and in vivo infection in women. J Bacteriol. 2008 May; 190(9):3129-39.
          View in: PubMed
        20. Lewis LA, Ram S, Prasad A, Gulati S, Getzlaff S, Blom AM, Vogel U, Rice PA. Defining targets for complement components C4b and C3b on the pathogenic neisseriae. Infect Immun. 2008 Jan; 76(1):339-50.
          View in: PubMed
        21. Jarva H, Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Rice PA, Villoutreix BO, Blom AM. Molecular characterization of the interaction between porins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C4b-binding protein. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 1; 179(1):540-7.
          View in: PubMed
        22. Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Cox AD, Blom AM, Lewis LA, St Michael F, Stupak J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Heptose I glycan substitutions on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide influence C4b-binding protein binding and serum resistance. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4071-81.
          View in: PubMed
        23. Madico G, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Vogel U, Rice PA, Ram S. Factor H binding and function in sialylated pathogenic neisseriae is influenced by gonococcal, but not meningococcal, porin. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 1; 178(7):4489-97.
          View in: PubMed
        24. Ness RB, Kip KE, Soper DE, Stamm CA, Rice P, Richter HE. Variability of bacterial vaginosis over 6- to 12-month intervals. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun; 33(6):381-5.
          View in: PubMed
        25. Attia AS, Ram S, Rice PA, Hansen EJ. Binding of vitronectin by the Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 protein interferes with late stages of the complement cascade. Infect Immun. 2006 Mar; 74(3):1597-611.
          View in: PubMed
        26. Rice PA. Gonococcal arthritis (disseminated gonococcal infection). Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005 Dec; 19(4):853-61.
          View in: PubMed
        27. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Blom AM, Jarva H, Jerse AE, Lien E, Goguen J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Human C4b-binding protein selectively interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 102(47):17142-7.
          View in: PubMed
        28. Gulati S, Cox A, Lewis LA, Michael FS, Li J, Boden R, Ram S, Rice PA. Enhanced factor H binding to sialylated Gonococci is restricted to the sialylated lacto-N-neotetraose lipooligosaccharide species: implications for serum resistance and evidence for a bifunctional lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase in Gonococci. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov; 73(11):7390-7.
          View in: PubMed
        29. Ness RB, Kip KE, Hillier SL, Soper DE, Stamm CA, Sweet RL, Rice P, Richter HE. A cluster analysis of bacterial vaginosis-associated microflora and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Sep 15; 162(6):585-90.
          View in: PubMed
        30. Ngampasutadol J, Rice PA, Walsh MT, Gulati S. Characterization of a peptide vaccine candidate mimicking an oligosaccharide epitope of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and resultant immune responses and function. Vaccine. 2006 Jan 12; 24(2):157-70.
          View in: PubMed
        31. Porter E, Yang H, Yavagal S, Preza GC, Murillo O, Lima H, Greene S, Mahoozi L, Klein-Patel M, Diamond G, Gulati S, Ganz T, Rice PA, Quayle AJ. Distinct defensin profiles in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis reveal novel epithelial cell-neutrophil interactions. Infect Immun. 2005 Aug; 73(8):4823-33.
          View in: PubMed
        32. Agarwal S, King CA, Klein EK, Soper DE, Rice PA, Wetzler LM, Genco CA. The gonococcal Fur-regulated tbpA and tbpB genes are expressed during natural mucosal gonococcal infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Jul; 73(7):4281-7.
          View in: PubMed
        33. Ness RB, Kip KE, Soper DE, Hillier S, Stamm CA, Sweet RL, Rice P, Richter HE. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and the risk of incident gonococcal or chlamydial genital infection in a predominantly black population. Sex Transm Dis. 2005 Jul; 32(7):413-7.
          View in: PubMed
        34. Abdullah M, Nepluev I, Afonina G, Ram S, Rice P, Cade W, Elkins C. Killing of dsrA mutants of Haemophilus ducreyi by normal human serum occurs via the classical complement pathway and is initiated by immunoglobulin M binding. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun; 73(6):3431-9.
          View in: PubMed
        35. Bash MC, Zhu P, Gulati S, McKnew D, Rice PA, Lynn F. por Variable-region typing by DNA probe hybridization is broadly applicable to epidemiologic studies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Apr; 43(4):1522-30.
          View in: PubMed
        36. Rice PA, Madico GE. Polymerase chain reaction to diagnose infective endocarditis: will it replace blood cultures? Circulation. 2005 Mar 22; 111(11):1352-4.
          View in: PubMed
        37. Ness RB, Hillier SL, Kip KE, Richter HE, Soper DE, Stamm CA, McGregor JA, Bass DC, Rice P, Sweet RL. Douching, pelvic inflammatory disease, and incident gonococcal and chlamydial genital infection in a cohort of high-risk women. Am J Epidemiol. 2005 Jan 15; 161(2):186-95.
          View in: PubMed
        38. Ness RB, Hillier SL, Kip KE, Soper DE, Stamm CA, McGregor JA, Bass DC, Sweet RL, Rice P, Richter HE. Bacterial vaginosis and risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Oct; 104(4):761-9.
          View in: PubMed
        39. Mullins C, Eisen G, Popper S, Dieng Sarr A, Sankale JL, Berger JJ, Wright SB, Chang HR, Coste G, Cooley TP, Rice P, Skolnik PR, Sullivan M, Kanki PJ. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and viral response in HIV type 2 infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 15; 38(12):1771-9.
          View in: PubMed
        40. Shrier LA, Dean D, Klein E, Harter K, Rice PA. Limitations of screening tests for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic adolescent and young adult women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Mar; 190(3):654-62.
          View in: PubMed
        41. Ram S, Cox AD, Wright JC, Vogel U, Getzlaff S, Boden R, Li J, Plested JS, Meri S, Gulati S, Stein DC, Richards JC, Moxon ER, Rice PA. Neisserial lipooligosaccharide is a target for complement component C4b. Inner core phosphoethanolamine residues define C4b linkage specificity. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 19; 278(51):50853-62.
          View in: PubMed
        42. Schachter J, McCormack WM, Chernesky MA, Martin DH, Van Der Pol B, Rice PA, Hook EW, Stamm WE, Quinn TC, Chow JM. Vaginal swabs are appropriate specimens for diagnosis of genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 41(8):3784-9.
          View in: PubMed
        43. Ness RB, Hillier S, Richter HE, Soper DE, Stamm C, Bass DC, Sweet RL, Rice P. Can known risk factors explain racial differences in the occurrence of bacterial vaginosis? J Natl Med Assoc. 2003 Mar; 95(3):201-12.
          View in: PubMed
        44. Ness RB, Hillier SL, Richter HE, Soper DE, Stamm C, Bass DC, Sweet RL, Rice P, Downs J, Aral S. Why women douche and why they may or may not stop. Sex Transm Dis. 2003 Jan; 30(1):71-4.
          View in: PubMed
        45. O'Regan AW, Castro C, Lukehart SA, Kasznica JM, Rice PA, Joyce-Brady MF. Barking up the wrong tree? Use of polymerase chain reaction to diagnose syphilitic aortitis. Thorax. 2002 Oct; 57(10):917-8.
          View in: PubMed
        46. Ness RB, Hillier SL, Richter HE, Soper DE, Stamm C, McGregor J, Bass DC, Sweet RL, Rice P. Douching in relation to bacterial vaginosis, lactobacilli, and facultative bacteria in the vagina. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 Oct; 100(4):765.
          View in: PubMed
        47. Banerjee A, Wang R, Supernavage SL, Ghosh SK, Parker J, Ganesh NF, Wang PG, Gulati S, Rice PA. Implications of phase variation of a gene (pgtA) encoding a pilin galactosyl transferase in gonococcal pathogenesis. J Exp Med. 2002 Jul 15; 196(2):147-62.
          View in: PubMed
        48. Gulati S, Sastry K, Jensenius JC, Rice PA, Ram S. Regulation of the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement on Neisseria gonorrhoeae by C1-inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):4078-86.
          View in: PubMed
        49. Ram S, Cullinane M, Blom AM, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Boden R, Monks BG, O'Connell C, Elkins C, Pangburn MK, Dahlbäck B, Rice PA. C4bp binding to porin mediates stable serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Mar; 1(3):423-32.
          View in: PubMed
        50. Ram S, Cullinane M, Blom AM, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Monks BG, O'Connell C, Boden R, Elkins C, Pangburn MK, Dahlbäck B, Rice PA. Binding of C4b-binding protein to porin: a molecular mechanism of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Exp Med. 2001 Feb 5; 193(3):281-95.
          View in: PubMed
        51. Gulati S, Ngampasutadol J, Yamasaki R, McQuillen DP, Rice PA. Strategies for mimicking Neisserial saccharide epitopes as vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 2001; 20(2):229-50.
          View in: PubMed
        52. Bolduc GR, Bouchet V, Jiang RZ, Geisselsoder J, Truong-Bolduc QC, Rice PA, Pelton SI, Goldstein R. Variability of outer membrane protein P1 and its evaluation as a vaccine candidate against experimental otitis media due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae: an unambiguous, multifaceted approach. Infect Immun. 2000 Aug; 68(8):4505-17.
          View in: PubMed
        53. Yamasaki R, Koshino H, Kurono S, Nishinaka Y, McQuillen DP, Kume A, Gulati S, Rice PA. Structural and immunochemical characterization of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae epitope defined by a monoclonal antibody 2C7; the antibody recognizes a conserved epitope on specific lipo-oligosaccharides in spite of the presence of human carbohydrate epitopes. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 17; 274(51):36550-8.
          View in: PubMed
        54. McCormack WM, Dalu ZA, Martin DH, Hook EW, Laisi R, Kell P, Pluck ND, Johnson RB. Double-blind comparison of trovafloxacin and doxycycline in the treatment of uncomplicated Chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis. Trovafloxacin Chlamydial Urethritis/Cervicitis Study Group. Sex Transm Dis. 1999 Oct; 26(9):531-6.
          View in: PubMed
        55. Ram S, Mackinnon FG, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Vogel U, Frosch M, Elkins C, Guttormsen HK, Wetzler LM, Oppermann M, Pangburn MK, Rice PA. The contrasting mechanisms of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B Neisseria meningitidis. Mol Immunol. 1999 Sep-Oct; 36(13-14):915-28.
          View in: PubMed
        56. Simpson SD, Ho Y, Rice PA, Wetzler LM. T lymphocyte response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin in individuals with mucosal gonococcal infections. J Infect Dis. 1999 Sep; 180(3):762-73.
          View in: PubMed
        57. Mühlecker W, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Ram S, Rice PA, Reinhold VN. An essential saccharide binding domain for the mAb 2C7 established for Neisseria gonorrhoeae LOS by ES-MS and MSn. Glycobiology. 1999 Feb; 9(2):157-71.
          View in: PubMed
        58. McQuillen DP, Gulati S, Ram S, Turner AK, Jani DB, Heeren TC, Rice PA. Complement processing and immunoglobulin binding to Neisseria gonorrhoeae determined in vitro simulates in vivo effects. J Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 179(1):124-35.
          View in: PubMed
        59. Lin JS, Donegan SP, Heeren TC, Greenberg M, Flaherty EE, Haivanis R, Su XH, Dean D, Newhall WJ, Knapp JS, Sarafian SK, Rice RJ, Morse SA, Rice PA. Transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men with urethritis and their female sex partners. J Infect Dis. 1998 Dec; 178(6):1707-12.
          View in: PubMed
        60. Nelson DB, Ness RB, Peipert JF, Soper DE, Amortegui AJ, Gluck J, Wiesenfeld H, Rice PA. Factors predicting upper genital tract inflammation among women with lower genital tract infection. J Womens Health. 1998 Oct; 7(8):1033-40.
          View in: PubMed
        61. Banerjee A, Wang R, Uljon SN, Rice PA, Gotschlich EC, Stein DC. Identification of the gene (lgtG) encoding the lipooligosaccharide beta chain synthesizing glucosyl transferase from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Sep 1; 95(18):10872-7.
          View in: PubMed
        62. Ram S, McQuillen DP, Gulati S, Elkins C, Pangburn MK, Rice PA. Binding of complement factor H to loop 5 of porin protein 1A: a molecular mechanism of serum resistance of nonsialylated Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Exp Med. 1998 Aug 17; 188(4):671-80.
          View in: PubMed
        63. Ram S, Sharma AK, Simpson SD, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Pangburn MK, Rice PA. A novel sialic acid binding site on factor H mediates serum resistance of sialylated Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Exp Med. 1998 Mar 2; 187(5):743-52.
          View in: PubMed
        64. Hook EW, McCormack WM, Martin D, Jones RB, Bean K, Maroli AN. Comparison of single-dose oral grepafloxacin with cefixime for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea in men. The STD Study Group. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997 Aug; 41(8):1843-5.
          View in: PubMed
        65. Qureshi N, Kaltashov I, Walker K, Doroshenko V, Cotter RJ, Takayama K, Sievert TR, Rice PA, Lin JS, Golenbock DT. Structure of the monophosphoryl lipid A moiety obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Biol Chem. 1997 Apr 18; 272(16):10594-600.
          View in: PubMed
        66. Ness RB, Keder LM, Soper DE, Amortegui AJ, Gluck J, Wiesenfeld H, Sweet RL, Rice PA, Peipert JF, Donegan SP, Kanbour-Shakir A. Oral contraception and the recognition of endometritis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Mar; 176(3):580-5.
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        67. Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Mandrell RE, Jani DB, Rice PA. Immunogenicity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide epitope 2C7, widely expressed in vivo with no immunochemical similarity to human glycosphingolipids. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec; 174(6):1223-37.
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        68. Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Sharon J, Rice PA. Experimental immunization with a monoclonal anti-idiotope antibody that mimics the Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide epitope 2C7. J Infect Dis. 1996 Dec; 174(6):1238-48.
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        69. Erwin AL, Haynes PA, Rice PA, Gotschlich EC. Conservation of the lipooligosaccharide synthesis locus lgt among strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: requirement for lgtE in synthesis of the 2C7 epitope and of the beta chain of strain 15253. J Exp Med. 1996 Oct 1; 184(4):1233-41.
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        70. Apicella MA, Ketterer M, Lee FK, Zhou D, Rice PA, Blake MS. The pathogenesis of gonococcal urethritis in men: confocal and immunoelectron microscopic analysis of urethral exudates from men infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Infect Dis. 1996 Mar; 173(3):636-46.
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        71. Ingalls RR, Rice PA, Qureshi N, Takayama K, Lin JS, Golenbock DT. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated. Infect Immun. 1995 Aug; 63(8):3125-30.
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        72. Rice PA, McQuillen DP, Gulati S, Jani DB, Wetzler LM, Blake MS, Gotschlich EC. Serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Does it thwart the inflammatory response and facilitate the transmission of infection? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Aug 15; 730:7-14.
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        73. McQuillen DP, Gulati S, Rice PA. Complement-mediated bacterial killing assays. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 236:137-47.
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        74. Steinberg JL, Cibley LJ, Rice PA. Genital warts: diagnosis, treatment, and counseling for the patient. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 1993; 13:99-122.
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        75. Lin JS, Jones WE, Yan L, Wirthwein KA, Flaherty EE, Haivanis RM, Rice PA. Underdiagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Diagnostic limitations in patients with low-level infection. Sex Transm Dis. 1992 Sep-Oct; 19(5):259-65.
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        76. Donegan SP, Steger KA, Recla L, Hoff RS, Werner BG, Rice PA, Craven DE. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus in parturients at Boston City Hospital: implications for public health and obstetric practice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Sep; 167(3):622-9.
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        77. Janssen RS, St Louis ME, Satten GA, Critchley SE, Petersen LR, Stafford RS, Ward JW, Hanson DL, Olivo N, Schable CA, et al. HIV infection among patients in U.S. acute care hospitals. Strategies for the counseling and testing of the hospital patients. The Hospital HIV Surveillance Group. N Engl J Med. 1992 Aug 13; 327(7):445-52.
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        78. Dale PA, McQuillen DP, Gulati S, Rice PA. Human vaccination with Escherichia coli J5 mutant induces cross-reactive bactericidal antibody against Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug; 166(2):316-25.
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        79. Lin JS, Yan LL, Ho Y, Rice PA. Early complement components enhance neutralization of Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity by human sera. Infect Immun. 1992 Jun; 60(6):2547-50.
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        80. Rice PA, Schachter J. Pathogenesis of pelvic inflammatory disease. What are the questions? JAMA. 1991 Nov 13; 266(18):2587-93.
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        81. Apicella MA, Mandrell RE, Shero M, Wilson ME, Griffiss JM, Brooks GF, Lammel C, Breen JF, Rice PA. Modification by sialic acid of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide epitope expression in human urethral exudates: an immunoelectron microscopic analysis. J Infect Dis. 1990 Aug; 162(2):506-12.
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        82. Tauber AI, Pavlotsky N, Lin JS, Rice PA. Inhibition of human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by Chlamydia serovars E, K, and L2. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr; 57(4):1108-12.
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        83. Blake MS, Wetzler LM, Gotschlich EC, Rice PA. Protein III: structure, function, and genetics. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989 Apr; 2 Suppl:S60-3.
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        84. Rice PA. Molecular basis for serum resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1989 Apr; 2 Suppl:S112-7.
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        85. Blake MS, Wetzler LM, Gotschlich EC, Rice PA. Developing a gonococcal protein I vaccine. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1989; 251:315-27.
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        86. Griffiss JM, O'Brien JP, Yamasaki R, Williams GD, Rice PA, Schneider H. Physical heterogeneity of neisserial lipooligosaccharides reflects oligosaccharides that differ in apparent molecular weight, chemical composition, and antigenic expression. Infect Immun. 1987 Aug; 55(8):1792-800.
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        87. Densen P, Gulati S, Rice PA. Specificity of antibodies against Neisseria gonorrhoeae that stimulate neutrophil chemotaxis. Role of antibodies directed against lipooligosaccharides. J Clin Invest. 1987 Jul; 80(1):78-87.
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        88. Rice PA, Blake MS, Joiner KA. Mechanisms of stable serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1987; 53(6):565-74.
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        89. Dale PA, Rice PA, Edelin KC. Pelvic inflammatory disease: current concepts and treatment guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 1986 Nov-Dec; 1(6):412-7.
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        90. Rice PA, Vayo HE, Tam MR, Blake MS. Immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against protein III block killing of serum-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae by immune serum. J Exp Med. 1986 Nov 1; 164(5):1735-48.
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        91. Mandrell R, Schneider H, Apicella M, Zollinger W, Rice PA, Griffiss JM. Antigenic and physical diversity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharides. Infect Immun. 1986 Oct; 54(1):63-9.
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        92. Murphy TF, Bartos LC, Rice PA, Nelson MB, Dudas KC, Apicella MA. Identification of a 16,600-dalton outer membrane protein on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a target for human serum bactericidal antibody. J Clin Invest. 1986 Oct; 78(4):1020-7.
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        93. Apicella MA, Westerink MA, Morse SA, Schneider H, Rice PA, Griffiss JM. Bactericidal antibody response of normal human serum to the lipooligosaccharide of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Infect Dis. 1986 Mar; 153(3):520-6.
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        94. Lammel CJ, Sweet RL, Rice PA, Knapp JS, Schoolnik GK, Heilbron DC, Brooks GF. Antibody-antigen specificity in the immune response to infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Infect Dis. 1985 Nov; 152(5):990-1001.
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        95. Joiner KA, Scales R, Warren KA, Frank MM, Rice PA. Mechanism of action of blocking immunoglobulin G for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Invest. 1985 Nov; 76(5):1765-72.
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        96. Apicella MA, Dudas KC, Campagnari A, Rice P, Mylotte JM, Murphy TF. Antigenic heterogeneity of lipid A of Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun. 1985 Oct; 50(1):9-14.
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        97. Gnehm HE, Pelton SI, Gulati S, Rice PA. Characterization of antigens from nontypable Haemophilus influenzae recognized by human bactericidal antibodies. Role of Haemophilus outer membrane proteins. J Clin Invest. 1985 May; 75(5):1645-58.
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        98. Karasic RB, Trumpp CE, Gnehm HE, Rice PA, Pelton SI. Modification of otitis media in chinchillas rechallenged with nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and serological response to outer membrane antigens. J Infect Dis. 1985 Feb; 151(2):273-9.
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        99. Goldenberg DL, Reed JI, Rice PA. Arthritis in rabbits induced by killed Neisseria gonorrhoeae and gonococcal lipopolysaccharide. J Rheumatol. 1984 Feb; 11(1):3-8.
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        100. Rice PA, Dale PA. Infections of the genitourinary tract in women: selected aspects. Adv Intern Med. 1984; 30:53-78.
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        101. Platt R, Rice PA, McCormack WM. Risk of acquiring gonorrhea and prevalence of abnormal adnexal findings among women recently exposed to gonorrhea. JAMA. 1983 Dec 16; 250(23):3205-9.
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        102. O'Brien JP, Goldenberg DL, Rice PA. Disseminated gonococcal infection: a prospective analysis of 49 patients and a review of pathophysiology and immune mechanisms. Medicine (Baltimore). 1983 Nov; 62(6):395-406.
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        103. Goldenberg DL, Chisholm PL, Rice PA. Experimental models of bacterial arthritis: a microbiologic and histopathologic characterization of the arthritis after the intraarticular injections of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, group A streptococci, and Escherichia coli. J Rheumatol. 1983 Feb; 10(1):5-11.
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        104. Rice PA, Kasper DL. Characterization of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that disseminate. Roles of blocking antibody and gonococcal outer membrane proteins. J Clin Invest. 1982 Jul; 70(1):157-67.
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        105. Rice PA, Goldenberg DL. Clinical manifestations of disseminated infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are linked to differences in bactericidal reactivity of infecting strains. Ann Intern Med. 1981 Aug; 95(2):175-8.
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        106. Berk SL, Rice PA, Reynholds CA, Finland M. Pneumococcal pericarditis: a persisting problem in contemporary diagnosis. Am J Med. 1981 Feb; 70(2):247-51.
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        107. Rice PA, McCormack WM, Kasper DL. Natural serum bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from disseminated, locally invasive, and uncomplicated disease. J Immunol. 1980 May; 124(5):2105-9.
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        108. Rice PA, Baine WB. Prolonged intermittent diarrhea after Shiga dysentery: postdysenteric syndrome. South Med J. 1980 Mar; 73(3):381-3.
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        109. Posner MR, Berk SL, Rice PA. Pneumococcal bacteremia diagnosed by peripheral blood smear in multiple myeloma. Arch Intern Med. 1978 Nov; 138(11):1720-1.
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        110. Rice PA, Kasper DL. Characterization of gonococcal antigens responsible for induction of bactericidal antibody in disseminated infection. J Clin Invest. 1977 Nov; 60(5):1149-58.
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        111. Rice PA, Baine WB, Gangarosa EJ. Salmonella typhi infections in the United States, 1967-1972: increasing importance of international travelers. Am J Epidemiol. 1977 Aug; 106(2):160-6.
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        112. Baine WB, Farmer JJ, Gangarosa EJ, Hermann GT, Thornsberry C, Rice PA. Typhoid fever in the United States associated with the 1972-1973 epidemic in Mexico. J Infect Dis. 1977 Apr; 135(4):649-53.
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        113. Kasper DL, Rice PA, McCormick WM. Bactericidal antibody in genital infection due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Infect Dis. 1977 Feb; 135(2):243-51.
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        114. Rice PA, Craven C, Wells JG. Salmonella heidelberg enteritis and bacteremia. An epidemic on two pediatric wards. Am J Med. 1976 Apr; 60(4):509-16.
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        115. Levine MM, Rice PA, Gangarosa EJ, Morris GK, Snyder MJ, Formal SB, Wells JG, Gemski P, Hammond J. An outbreak of Sonne shigellosis in a population receiving oral attenuated shigella vaccines. Am J Epidemiol. 1974 Jan; 99(1):30-6.
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        116. Weissman JB, Rice PA, Krogstad DJ, Baine WB, Gangarosa EJ. Risk of severe intestinal infection to the traveler in Mexico. J Infect Dis. 1973 Oct; 128(4):574-7.
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        117. Gangarosa EJ, Barker WH, Baine WB, Morris GK, Rice PA. Man v. animal feeds as the source of human salmonellosis. Lancet. 1973 Apr 21; 1(7808):878-9.
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