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Stuart M Levitz MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMedicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
364 Plantation Street, LRB 317
Worcester MA 01605
Phone508-856-1525
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases And Immunology

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    New York University, New York, NY, United StatesBAMedicine
    New York University, New York, NY, United StatesMD

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Guerra ES, Lee CK, Specht CA, Yadav B, Huang H, Akalin A, Huh JR, Mueller C, Levitz SM. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Jan 17; 13(1):e1006175. PMID: 28095479.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kwon-Chung KJ, Bennett JE, Wickes BL, Meyer W, Cuomo CA, Wollenburg KR, Bicanic TA, Castañeda E, Chang YC, Chen J, Cogliati M, Dromer F, Ellis D, Filler SG, Fisher MC, Harrison TS, Holland SM, Kohno S, Kronstad JW, Lazera M, Levitz SM, Lionakis MS, May RC, Ngamskulrongroj P, Pappas PG, Perfect JR, Rickerts V, Sorrell TC, Walsh TJ, Williamson PR, Xu J, Zelazny AM, Casadevall A. The Case for Adopting the "Species Complex" Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis. mSphere. 2017 Jan-Feb; 2(1). PMID: 28101535.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Mirza Z, Soto ER, Dikengil F, Levitz SM, Ostroff GR. Beta-Glucan Particles as Vaccine Adjuvant Carriers. Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1625:143-157. PMID: 28584989.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Tsyrkunou A, Agarwal S, Koirala B, Finberg RW, Nath R, Barton B, Levitz SM, Wang JP, Ram S. Properdin Levels in Individuals with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1):ofw250. PMID: 28480246.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Levitz SM. Aspergillus vaccines: Hardly worth studying or worthy of hard study? Med Mycol. 2017 Jan 01; 55(1):103-108. PMID: 27639242.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Upadhya R, Lam WC, Maybruck B, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. Induction of Protective Immunity to Cryptococcal Infection in Mice by a Heat-Killed, Chitosan-Deficient Strain of Cryptococcus neoformans. MBio. 2016 May 10; 7(3). PMID: 27165801.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Specht CA, Lee CK, Huang H, Tipper DJ, Shen ZT, Lodge JK, Leszyk J, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts. MBio. 2015 Dec 22; 6(6):e01905-15. PMID: 26695631.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Loures FV, Levitz SM. XTT Assay of Antifungal Activity. Bio Protoc. 2015 Aug 5; 5(15). PMID: 27453914.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Panackal AA, Wuest SC, Lin YC, Wu T, Zhang N, Kosa P, Komori M, Blake A, Browne SK, Rosen LB, Hagen F, Meis J, Levitz SM, Quezado M, Hammoud D, Bennett JE, Bielekova B, Williamson PR. Paradoxical Immune Responses in Non-HIV Cryptococcal Meningitis. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004884. PMID: 26020932.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Wiesner DL, Specht CA, Lee CK, Smith KD, Mukaremera L, Lee ST, Lee CG, Elias JA, Nielsen JN, Boulware DR, Bohjanen PR, Jenkins MK, Levitz SM, Nielsen K. Chitin recognition via chitotriosidase promotes pathologic type-2 helper T cell responses to cryptococcal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Mar; 11(3):e1004701. PMID: 25764512.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Loures FV, Röhm M, Lee CK, Santos E, Wang JP, Specht CA, Calich VL, Urban CF, Levitz SM. Recognition of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells is mediated by dectin-2 and results in formation of extracellular traps. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Feb; 11(2):e1004643. PMID: 25659141.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Levitz SM, Huang H, Ostroff GR, Specht CA. Exploiting fungal cell wall components in vaccines. Semin Immunopathol. 2015 Mar; 37(2):199-207. PMID: 25404118.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Santos E, Levitz SM. Fungal vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Nov 03; 4(11):a019711. PMID: 25368016.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Tsyrkunou AV, Ellison RT, Akalin A, Wiederhold N, Sutton DA, Lindner J, Fan H, Levitz SM, Zivna I. Multifocal Rhizopus microsporus lung infection following brush clearing. Med Mycol Case Rep. 2014 Oct; 6:14-7. PMID: 25379391.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ganesan S, Rathinam VA, Bossaller L, Army K, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Dillon CP, Green DR, Mayadas TN, Levitz SM, Hise AG, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA. Caspase-8 modulates dectin-1 and complement receptor 3-driven IL-1ß production in response to ß-glucans and the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2014 Sep 01; 193(5):2519-30. PMID: 25063877.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bueter CL, Lee CK, Wang JP, Ostroff GR, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Spectrum and mechanisms of inflammasome activation by chitosan. J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15; 192(12):5943-51. PMID: 24829412.
      View in: PubMed
    17. De Jesus M, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Bartling TR, Mantis NJ. A population of Langerin-positive dendritic cells in murine Peyer's patches involved in sampling ß-glucan microparticles. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91002. PMID: 24632738.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Brown GD, Meintjes G, Kolls JK, Gray C, Horsnell W. AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward. Trends Microbiol. 2014 Mar; 22(3):107-9. PMID: 24581941.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Cole GT, Hung CY, Sanderson SD, Hurtgen BJ, Wüthrich M, Klein BS, Deepe GS, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM. Novel strategies to enhance vaccine immunity against coccidioidomycosis. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(12):e1003768. PMID: 24367252.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Quintin J, Levitz SM. NKp30 enables NK cells to act naturally with fungi. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Oct 16; 14(4):369-71. PMID: 24139394.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Characterization and optimization of the glucan particle-based vaccine platform. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Oct; 20(10):1585-91. PMID: 23945157.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Chang CC, Lim A, Omarjee S, Levitz SM, Gosnell BI, Spelman T, Elliott JH, Carr WH, Moosa MY, Ndung'u T, Lewin SR, French MA. Cryptococcosis-IRIS is associated with lower cryptococcus-specific IFN-? responses before antiretroviral therapy but not higher T-cell responses during therapy. J Infect Dis. 2013 Sep; 208(6):898-906. PMID: 23766525.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Jarvis JN, Casazza JP, Stone HH, Meintjes G, Lawn SD, Levitz SM, Harrison TS, Koup RA. The phenotype of the Cryptococcus-specific CD4+ memory T-cell response is associated with disease severity and outcome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun 15; 207(12):1817-28. PMID: 23493728.
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    24. Bueter CL, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Innate sensing of chitin and chitosan. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jan; 9(1):e1003080. PMID: 23326227.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Brown GD, Denning DW, Gow NA, Levitz SM, Netea MG, White TC. Hidden killers: human fungal infections. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Dec 19; 4(165):165rv13. PMID: 23253612.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Cariello PF, Wickes BL, Sutton DA, Castlebury LA, Levitz SM, Finberg RW, Thompson EH, Daly JS. Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Feb; 51(2):692-5. PMID: 23196359.
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    27. Levitz SM. Compounding drugs contaminated with fungi: a recipe for disaster. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2012 Nov; 1(11):e41. PMID: 26038409.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hurtgen BJ, Hung CY, Ostroff GR, Levitz SM, Cole GT. Construction and evaluation of a novel recombinant T cell epitope-based vaccine against Coccidioidomycosis. Infect Immun. 2012 Nov; 80(11):3960-74. PMID: 22949556.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate ß-glucans. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 1; 189(1):312-7. PMID: 22649195.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Brown GD, Denning DW, Levitz SM. Tackling human fungal infections. Science. 2012 May 11; 336(6082):647. PMID: 22582229.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Levitz SM, Golenbock DT. Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research. Cell. 2012 Mar 16; 148(6):1284-92. PMID: 22424235.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Cohen NR, Tatituri RV, Rivera A, Watts GF, Kim EY, Chiba A, Fuchs BB, Mylonakis E, Besra GS, Levitz SM, Brigl M, Brenner MB. Innate recognition of cell wall ß-glucans drives invariant natural killer T cell responses against fungi. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 Nov 17; 10(5):437-50. PMID: 22100160.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kwon-Chung KJ, Perfect JR, Levitz SM. A chronological history of the International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC), an invaluable forum for growth of the cryptococcal research field and clinical practice. Mycopathologia. 2012 Jun; 173(5-6):287-93. PMID: 22038679.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Wang JP, Lee CK, Akalin A, Finberg RW, Levitz SM. Contributions of the MyD88-dependent receptors IL-18R, IL-1R, and TLR9 to host defenses following pulmonary challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26232. PMID: 22039448.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Mansour MK, Vyas JM, Levitz SM. Dynamic virulence: real-time assessment of intracellular pathogenesis links Cryptococcus neoformans phenotype with clinical outcome. MBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21954307.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. MBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21878570.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Bueter CL, Lee CK, Rathinam VA, Healy GJ, Taron CH, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Chitosan but not chitin activates the inflammasome by a mechanism dependent upon phagocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2011 Oct 14; 286(41):35447-55. PMID: 21862582.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Lee CK, Wang JP, Boon L, Specht CA, Levitz SM. A nonredundant role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Cell Host Microbe. 2011 May 19; 9(5):415-24. PMID: 21575912.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Jesus MD, Nicola AM, Chow SK, Lee IR, Nong S, Specht CA, Levitz SM, Casadevall A. Glucuronoxylomannan, galactoxylomannan, and mannoprotein occupy spatially separate and discrete regions in the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Virulence. 2010 Nov-Dec; 1(6):500-8. PMID: 21178496.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles. MBio. 2010 Jul 20; 1(3). PMID: 20802824.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Levitz SM. Innate recognition of fungal cell walls. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Apr 22; 6(4):e1000758. PMID: 20421940.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Levitz SM. Th17 cells bounce off the fungal wall. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Apr 23; 5(4):311-3. PMID: 19380108.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Wang JP, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Distinct patterns of dendritic cell cytokine release stimulated by fungal beta-glucans and toll-like receptor agonists. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):1774-81. PMID: 19273561.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Levitz SM, Shoham S, Cleary JD. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 5; 360(6):634; author reply 635-6. PMID: 19196681.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Wozniak KL, Levitz SM. Isolation and purification of antigenic components of Cryptococcus. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 470:71-83. PMID: 19089377.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Wozniak KL, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans enters the endolysosomal pathway of dendritic cells and is killed by lysosomal components. Infect Immun. 2008 Oct; 76(10):4764-71. PMID: 18678670.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Dan JM, Wang JP, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Cooperative stimulation of dendritic cells by Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. PLoS One. 2008 Apr 30; 3(4):e2046. PMID: 18446192.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Dan JM, Kelly RM, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Role of the mannose receptor in a murine model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Infect Immun. 2008 Jun; 76(6):2362-7. PMID: 18391001.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Ramirez-Ortiz ZG, Specht CA, Wang JP, Lee CK, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent immune activation by unmethylated CpG motifs in Aspergillus fumigatus DNA. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2123-9. PMID: 18332208.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Lam JS, Huang H, Levitz SM. Effect of differential N-linked and O-linked mannosylation on recognition of fungal antigens by dendritic cells. PLoS One. 2007 Oct 10; 2(10):e1009. PMID: 17925857.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Specht CA, Nong S, Dan JM, Lee CK, Levitz SM. Contribution of glycosylation to T cell responses stimulated by recombinant Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein. J Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1; 196(5):796-800. PMID: 17674324.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Luong M, Lam JS, Chen J, Levitz SM. Effects of fungal N- and O-linked mannosylation on the immunogenicity of model vaccines. Vaccine. 2007 May 30; 25(22):4340-4. PMID: 17412460.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Yauch LE, Lam JS, Levitz SM. Direct inhibition of T-cell responses by the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan. PLoS Pathog. 2006 Nov; 2(11):e120. PMID: 17096589.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Dan JM, Levitz SM. Prospects for development of vaccines against fungal diseases. Drug Resist Updat. 2006 Jun; 9(3):105-10. PMID: 16820318.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Wozniak KL, Vyas JM, Levitz SM. In vivo role of dendritic cells in a murine model of pulmonary cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2006 Jul; 74(7):3817-24. PMID: 16790753.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Levitz SM, Boekhout T. Cryptococcus: the once-sleeping giant is fully awake. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Jun; 6(4):461-2. PMID: 16696641.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Levitz SM, Specht CA. The molecular basis for the immunogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans mannoproteins. FEMS Yeast Res. 2006 Jun; 6(4):513-24. PMID: 16696647.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Mansour MK, Latz E, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans glycoantigens are captured by multiple lectin receptors and presented by dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):3053-61. PMID: 16493064.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lam JS, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. A model vaccine exploiting fungal mannosylation to increase antigen immunogenicity. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 1; 175(11):7496-503. PMID: 16301657.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Yauch LE, Mansour MK, Levitz SM. Receptor-mediated clearance of Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharide in vivo. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec; 73(12):8429-32. PMID: 16299344.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Banks IR, Specht CA, Donlin MJ, Gerik KJ, Levitz SM, Lodge JK. A chitin synthase and its regulator protein are critical for chitosan production and growth of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot Cell. 2005 Nov; 4(11):1902-12. PMID: 16278457.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Shoham S, Levitz SM. The immune response to fungal infections. Br J Haematol. 2005 Jun; 129(5):569-82. PMID: 15916679.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Kelly RM, Chen J, Yauch LE, Levitz SM. Opsonic requirements for dendritic cell-mediated responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 2005 Jan; 73(1):592-8. PMID: 15618199.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Herrero AB, Magnelli P, Mansour MK, Levitz SM, Bussey H, Abeijon C. KRE5 gene null mutant strains of Candida albicans are avirulent and have altered cell wall composition and hypha formation properties. Eukaryot Cell. 2004 Dec; 3(6):1423-32. PMID: 15590817.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Levitz SM. Interactions of Toll-like receptors with fungi. Microbes Infect. 2004 Dec; 6(15):1351-5. PMID: 15596119.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Yauch LE, Mansour MK, Shoham S, Rottman JB, Levitz SM. Involvement of CD14, toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and MyD88 in the host response to the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vivo. Infect Immun. 2004 Sep; 72(9):5373-82. PMID: 15322035.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Mansour MK, Yauch LE, Rottman JB, Levitz SM. Protective efficacy of antigenic fractions in mouse models of cryptococcosis. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1746-54. PMID: 14977983.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Bellocchio S, Montagnoli C, Bozza S, Gaziano R, Rossi G, Mambula SS, Vecchi A, Mantovani A, Levitz SM, Romani L. The contribution of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily to innate and adaptive immunity to fungal pathogens in vivo. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 1; 172(5):3059-69. PMID: 14978111.
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    69. Sau K, Mambula SS, Latz E, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. The antifungal drug amphotericin B promotes inflammatory cytokine release by a Toll-like receptor- and CD14-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 26; 278(39):37561-8. PMID: 12860979.
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    70. Kozel TR, Levitz SM, Dromer F, Gates MA, Thorkildson P, Janbon G. Antigenic and biological characteristics of mutant strains of Cryptococcus neoformans lacking capsular O acetylation or xylosyl side chains. Infect Immun. 2003 May; 71(5):2868-75. PMID: 12704160.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Huang C, Nong SH, Mansour MK, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Purification and characterization of a second immunoreactive mannoprotein from Cryptococcus neoformans that stimulates T-Cell responses. Infect Immun. 2002 Oct; 70(10):5485-93. PMID: 12228274.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Mambula SS, Sau K, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in response to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18; 277(42):39320-6. PMID: 12171914.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Mansour MK, Levitz SM. Interactions of fungi with phagocytes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2002 Aug; 5(4):359-65. PMID: 12160853.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Harrison TS, Chen J, Simons E, Levitz SM. Determination of the pH of the Cryptococcus neoformans vacuole. Med Mycol. 2002 Jun; 40(3):329-32. PMID: 12146766.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Weber SM, Chen JM, Levitz SM. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling by chloroquine. J Immunol. 2002 May 15; 168(10):5303-9. PMID: 11994488.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Mansour MK, Schlesinger LS, Levitz SM. Optimal T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans mannoprotein are dependent on recognition of conjugated carbohydrates by mannose receptors. J Immunol. 2002 Mar 15; 168(6):2872-9. PMID: 11884457.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Levitz SM. Receptor-mediated recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2002; 43(3):133-6. PMID: 12145626.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Levitz SM. Does amoeboid reasoning explain the evolution and maintenance of virulence factors in Cryptococcus neoformans? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18; 98(26):14760-2. PMID: 11752420.
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    79. Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans: intracellular or extracellular? Trends Microbiol. 2001 Sep; 9(9):417-8. PMID: 11565559.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Levitz SM, Nong S, Mansour MK, Huang C, Specht CA. Molecular characterization of a mannoprotein with homology to chitin deacetylases that stimulates T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Aug 28; 98(18):10422-7. PMID: 11504924.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Shoham S, Huang C, Chen JM, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule. J Immunol. 2001 Apr 1; 166(7):4620-6. PMID: 11254720.
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    82. Weber SM, Levitz SM. Chloroquine antagonizes the proinflammatory cytokine response to opportunistic fungi by alkalizing the fungal phagolysosome. J Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 15; 183(6):935-42. PMID: 11237811.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Mambula SS, Simons ER, Hastey R, Selsted ME, Levitz SM. Human neutrophil-mediated nonoxidative antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 2000 Nov; 68(11):6257-64. PMID: 11035733.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Ieong MH, Reardon CC, Levitz SM, Kornfeld H. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of alveolar macrophages impairs their innate fungicidal activity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Sep; 162(3 Pt 1):966-70. PMID: 10988114.
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    85. Weber SM, Levitz SM. Chloroquine interferes with lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha gene expression by a nonlysosomotropic mechanism. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 1; 165(3):1534-40. PMID: 10903761.
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    86. Weber SM, Levitz SM, Harrison TS. Chloroquine and the fungal phagosome. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2000 Aug; 3(4):349-53. PMID: 10972492.
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    87. Harrison TS, Griffin GE, Levitz SM. Conditional lethality of the diprotic weak bases chloroquine and quinacrine against Cryptococcus neoformans. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jul; 182(1):283-9. PMID: 10882608.
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    88. Shafman TD, Levitz S, Nixon AJ, Gibans LA, Nichols KE, Bell DW, Ishioka C, Isselbacher KJ, Gelman R, Garber J, Harris JR, Haber DA. Prevalence of germline truncating mutations in ATM in women with a second breast cancer after radiation therapy for a contralateral tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Feb; 27(2):124-9. PMID: 10612799.
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    89. Parayath KE, Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Effect of interleukin (IL)-15 priming on IL-12 and interferon-gamma production by pathogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative donors. J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb; 181(2):733-6. PMID: 10669365.
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    90. Nosanchuk JD, Shoham S, Fries BC, Shapiro DS, Levitz SM, Casadevall A. Evidence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient. Ann Intern Med. 2000 Feb 1; 132(3):205-8. PMID: 10651601.
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    91. Huang C, Levitz SM. Stimulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and RANTES by Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from persons with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb; 181(2):791-4. PMID: 10669379.
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    92. Kwon-Chung KJ, Sorrell TC, Dromer F, Fung E, Levitz SM. Cryptococcosis: clinical and biological aspects. Med Mycol. 2000; 38 Suppl 1:205-13. PMID: 11204147.
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    93. Rongrungruang Y, Levitz SM. Interactions of Penicillium marneffei with human leukocytes in vitro. Infect Immun. 1999 Sep; 67(9):4732-6. PMID: 10456924.
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    94. Nichols KE, Levitz S, Shannon KE, Wahrer DC, Bell DW, Chang G, Hegde S, Neuberg D, Shafman T, Tarbell NJ, Mauch P, Ishioka C, Haber DA, Diller L. Heterozygous germline ATM mutations do not contribute to radiation-associated malignancies after Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Apr; 17(4):1259. PMID: 10561187.
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    95. Levitz SM, Nong SH, Seetoo KF, Harrison TS, Speizer RA, Simons ER. Cryptococcus neoformans resides in an acidic phagolysosome of human macrophages. Infect Immun. 1999 Feb; 67(2):885-90. PMID: 9916104.
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    96. Nichols KE, Harkin DP, Levitz S, Krainer M, Kolquist KA, Genovese C, Bernard A, Ferguson M, Zuo L, Snyder E, Buckler AJ, Wise C, Ashley J, Lovett M, Valentine MB, Look AT, Gerald W, Housman DE, Haber DA. Inactivating mutations in an SH2 domain-encoding gene in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 10; 95(23):13765-70. PMID: 9811875.
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    97. Levitz SM. Host-fungal interactions in HIV infection. Res Immunol. 1998 May-Jun; 149(4-5):489-93; discussion 516-7. PMID: 9720966.
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    98. Levitz SM. Improvement in CD4+ cell counts despite persistently detectable HIV load. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 9; 338(15):1074-5. PMID: 9537882.
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    99. Kappe R, Levitz S, Harrison TS, Ruhnke M, Ampel NM, Just-Nübling G. Recent advances in cryptococcosis, candidiasis and coccidioidomycosis complicating HIV infection. Med Mycol. 1998; 36 Suppl 1:207-15. PMID: 9988509.
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    100. Levitz SM, Harrison TS, Tabuni A, Liu X. Chloroquine induces human mononuclear phagocytes to inhibit and kill Cryptococcus neoformans by a mechanism independent of iron deprivation. J Clin Invest. 1997 Sep 15; 100(6):1640-6. PMID: 9294133.
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    101. Harrison TS, Nong S, Levitz SM. Induction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression in monocytic cells by Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):485-91. PMID: 9237716.
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    102. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Mechanisms of impaired anticryptococcal activity of monocytes from donors infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176(2):537-40. PMID: 9237727.
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    103. Levitz SM, North EA. Lymphoproliferation and cytokine profiles in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. J Med Vet Mycol. 1997 Jul-Aug; 35(4):229-36. PMID: 9292418.
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    104. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kozel TR, MacGill RS, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans to heterologously expressed human complement receptors. Infect Immun. 1997 Mar; 65(3):931-5. PMID: 9038299.
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    105. Levitz SM, North EA, Jiang Y, Nong SH, Kornfeld H, Harrison TS. Variables affecting production of monocyte chemotactic factor 1 from human leukocytes stimulated with Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1997 Mar; 65(3):903-8. PMID: 9038295.
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    106. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Priming with IFN-gamma restores deficient IL-12 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive donors. J Immunol. 1997 Jan 1; 158(1):459-63. PMID: 8977223.
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    107. Jiang Y, Russell TR, Graves DT, Cheng H, Nong SH, Levitz SM. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin-8 production in mononuclear cells stimulated by oral microorganisms. Infect Immun. 1996 Nov; 64(11):4450-5. PMID: 8890191.
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    108. Hogan LH, Klein BS, Levitz SM. Virulence factors of medically important fungi. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996 Oct; 9(4):469-88. PMID: 8894347.
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    109. Kozel TR, Tabuni A, Young BJ, Levitz SM. Influence of opsonization conditions on C3 deposition and phagocyte binding of large- and small-capsule Cryptococcus neoformans cells. Infect Immun. 1996 Jun; 64(6):2336-8. PMID: 8675346.
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    110. Harrison TS, Levitz SM. Role of IL-12 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to fungi in persons with and without HIV infection. J Immunol. 1996 Jun 1; 156(11):4492-7. PMID: 8666825.
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    111. Levitz SM, North EA. gamma Interferon gene expression and release in human lymphocytes directly activated by Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 1996 May; 64(5):1595-9. PMID: 8613366.
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    112. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Nong SH, Golenbock DT. Effects of interleukin-10 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1996 Mar; 64(3):945-51. PMID: 8641805.
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    113. Meshulam T, Levitz SM, Christin L, Diamond RD. A simplified new assay for assessment of fungal cell damage with the tetrazolium dye, (2,3)-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphenyl)-(2H)-tetrazolium-5-carboxanil ide (XTT). J Infect Dis. 1995 Oct; 172(4):1153-6. PMID: 7561202.
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    114. Harrison TS, Kornfeld H, Levitz SM. The effect of infection with human immunodeficiency virus on the anticryptococcal activity of lymphocytes and monocytes. J Infect Dis. 1995 Sep; 172(3):665-71. PMID: 7658057.
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    115. Levitz SM, North EA, Dupont MP, Harrison TS. Mechanisms of inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by human lymphocytes. Infect Immun. 1995 Sep; 63(9):3550-4. PMID: 7642290.
      View in: PubMed
    116. Levitz SM, Mathews HL, Murphy JW. Direct antimicrobial activity of T cells. Immunol Today. 1995 Aug; 16(8):387-91. PMID: 7546195.
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    117. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H, Reardon CC, Golenbock DT. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1994 May; 62(5):1975-81. PMID: 8168965.
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    118. Levitz SM, Dupont MP, Smail EH. Direct activity of human T lymphocytes and natural killer cells against Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1994 Jan; 62(1):194-202. PMID: 8262627.
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    119. Levitz SM. Macrophage-Cryptococcus interactions. Immunol Ser. 1994; 60:533-43. PMID: 8251592.
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    120. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Treseler C. Effect of mannose-binding protein on binding of Cryptococcus neoformans to human phagocytes. Infect Immun. 1993 Nov; 61(11):4891-3. PMID: 8406891.
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    121. Roseff SA, Levitz SM. Effect of endothelial cells on phagocyte-mediated anticryptococcal activity. Infect Immun. 1993 Sep; 61(9):3818-24. PMID: 8359903.
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    122. Levitz SM, Dupont MP. Phenotypic and functional characterization of human lymphocytes activated by interleukin-2 to directly inhibit growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1993 Apr; 91(4):1490-8. PMID: 7682573.
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    123. Duncan RA, von Reyn CF, Alliegro GM, Toossi Z, Sugar AM, Levitz SM. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia--four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 11; 328(6):393-8. PMID: 8093636.
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    124. Wagner RP, Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H. HIV-1 envelope protein (gp120) inhibits the activity of human bronchoalveolar macrophages against Cryptococcus neoformans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Dec; 146(6):1434-8. PMID: 1456558.
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    125. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Wagner R, Kornfeld H, Smail EH. Binding of unopsonized Cryptococcus neoformans by human bronchoalveolar macrophages: inhibition by a large-molecular-size serum component. J Infect Dis. 1992 Oct; 166(4):866-73. PMID: 1527424.
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    126. Levitz SM. Overview of host defenses in fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Mar; 14 Suppl 1:S37-42. PMID: 1562693.
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    127. McQuillen DP, Zingman BS, Meunier F, Levitz SM. Invasive infections due to Candida krusei: report of ten cases of fungemia that include three cases of endophthalmitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Feb; 14(2):472-8. PMID: 1554833.
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    128. Kappe R, Levitz SM, Cassone A, Washburn RG. Mechanisms of host defence against fungal infection. J Med Vet Mycol. 1992; 30 Suppl 1:167-77. PMID: 1474441.
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    129. Treseler CB, Maziarz RT, Levitz SM. Biological activity of interleukin-2 bound to Candida albicans. Infect Immun. 1992 Jan; 60(1):183-8. PMID: 1729181.
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    130. Levitz SM. The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans and the epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Nov-Dec; 13(6):1163-9. PMID: 1775849.
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    131. Levitz SM. Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interleukin-2 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1991 Oct; 59(10):3393-7. PMID: 1894353.
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    132. Xu T, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Oppenheim FG. Anticandidal activity of major human salivary histatins. Infect Immun. 1991 Aug; 59(8):2549-54. PMID: 1855975.
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    133. Levitz SM, Farrell TP, Maziarz RT. Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in culture. J Infect Dis. 1991 May; 163(5):1108-13. PMID: 2019758.
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    134. Levitz SM, Tabuni A. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans by human cultured macrophages. Requirements for multiple complement receptors and actin. J Clin Invest. 1991 Feb; 87(2):528-35. PMID: 1991837.
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    135. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ, Diamond RD. Inhibition and killing of fungi by the polyamine oxidase-polyamine system. Antifungal activity of the PAO-polyamine system. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1990 Aug; 58(2):107-14. PMID: 2264722.
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    136. Levitz SM, Farrell TP. Growth inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans by cultured human monocytes: role of the capsule, opsonins, the culture surface, and cytokines. Infect Immun. 1990 May; 58(5):1201-9. PMID: 2182538.
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    137. Levitz SM, Farrell TP. Human neutrophil degranulation stimulated by Aspergillus fumigatus. J Leukoc Biol. 1990 Feb; 47(2):170-5. PMID: 2406356.
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    138. Kozel TR, Wilson MA, Farrell TP, Levitz SM. Activation of C3 and binding to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and hyphae. Infect Immun. 1989 Nov; 57(11):3412-7. PMID: 2680973.
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    139. Meshulam T, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Sugar AM. Effect of cilofungin (LY121019), a fungal cell wall synthesis inhibitor, on interactions of Candida albicans with human neutrophils. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989 Nov; 24(5):741-5. PMID: 2689424.
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    140. Levitz SM. Aspergillosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1989 Mar; 3(1):1-18. PMID: 2647828.
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    141. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ. Paradoxical role of capsule in murine bronchoalveolar macrophage-mediated killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. J Immunol. 1989 Jan 15; 142(2):659-65. PMID: 2521352.
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    142. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ. Differential stimulation of murine resident peritoneal cells by selectively opsonized encapsulated and acapsular Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1988 Oct; 56(10):2544-51. PMID: 3138176.
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    143. Seibel J, Levitz SM. Minorities in the Journal's advertisements. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jul 7; 319(1):57-8. PMID: 3380120.
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    144. Oppenheim FG, Xu T, McMillian FM, Levitz SM, Diamond RD, Offner GD, Troxler RF. Histatins, a novel family of histidine-rich proteins in human parotid secretion. Isolation, characterization, primary structure, and fungistatic effects on Candida albicans. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 5; 263(16):7472-7. PMID: 3286634.
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    145. Levitz SM, Tan OT. Factitious dermatosis masquerading as recurrent herpes zoster. Am J Med. 1988 Apr; 84(4):781-3. PMID: 3041813.
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    146. Levitz SM, Lyman CA, Murata T, Sullivan JA, Mandell GL, Diamond RD. Cytosolic calcium changes in individual neutrophils stimulated by opsonized and unopsonized Candida albicans hyphae. Infect Immun. 1987 Nov; 55(11):2783-8. PMID: 3312012.
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    147. Levitz SM, DiBenedetto DJ, Diamond RD. A rapid fluorescent assay to distinguish attached from phagocytized yeast particles. J Immunol Methods. 1987 Jul 16; 101(1):37-42. PMID: 3112238.
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    148. Levitz SM, Selsted ME, Ganz T, Lehrer RI, Diamond RD. In vitro killing of spores and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae by rabbit neutrophil cationic peptides and bronchoalveolar macrophages. J Infect Dis. 1986 Sep; 154(3):483-9. PMID: 3525696.
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    149. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. A rapid colorimetric assay of fungal viability with the tetrazolium salt MTT. J Infect Dis. 1985 Nov; 152(5):938-45. PMID: 2413145.
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    150. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Mechanisms of resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia to killing by neutrophils in vitro. J Infect Dis. 1985 Jul; 152(1):33-42. PMID: 2989387.
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    151. Waldorf AR, Levitz SM, Diamond RD. In vivo bronchoalveolar macrophage defense against Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus. J Infect Dis. 1984 Nov; 150(5):752-60. PMID: 6387001.
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    152. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus spores and Candida albicans yeast phase by the iron-hydrogen peroxide-iodide cytotoxic system: comparison with the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. Infect Immun. 1984 Mar; 43(3):1100-2. PMID: 6321349.
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    153. Levitz SM, Diamond RD. Changing patterns of aspergillosis infections. Adv Intern Med. 1984; 30:153-74. PMID: 6397035.
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    154. Brovall C, Levitz SM, Ellner JJ, Schacter B. Radioresistance of culture-induced augmented natural killer-like activity. Hum Immunol. 1983 Jul; 7(3):151-62. PMID: 6192119.
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