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Ellen M Gravallese MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMedicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
364 Plantation Street, LRB
Worcester MA 01605
Phone508-856-8730
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    DivisionRheumatology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentCell Biology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United StatesABBiochemical Sciences
    Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Research in my laboratory is devoted to the study of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with particular interest in the fundamental mechanisms of bone and cartilage destruction. Through studies of human tissues using pathologic and molecular techniques, murine models of disease and in-vitro assays, this research has contributed to the development of new clinical interventions. Research areas can be summarized into four major categories: 1) Identification of cell types and pathways that drive osteoclastogenesis.  2) Identification of the effects of synovial inflammation on inhibiting osteoblast function and bone formation, thus inhibiting bone repair.    3) Identification of the role of innate immune pathways, in particular the cytosolic DNA sensor and endosomal TLR pathways, in the regulation of specific manifestations of autoimmunity.  4) Role of microRNAs in the regulation of autoimmune diseases and bone.


    Initial work in my laboratory identified the cells responsible for bone erosion in RA by demonstrating that osteoclasts are the essential cells in articular bone loss in RA. We further identified synovial fibroblasts and activated CD4+ T lymphocytes in RA synovium as sources of RANKL, a cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation and activation. The essential role of RANKL and of osteoclasts in bone erosion in RA was demonstrated in my laboratory through the generation of arthritis (by serum transfer) in RANKL-deficient mice. We have also demonstrated the impact of inflammation in the bone microenvironment on osteoblasts, showing that osteoblast maturation and function is compromised at sites of inflammation in bone, inhibiting bone repair. We showed that inhibitors of the Wnt signaling pathway, including DKK family members, contribute to the inhibition of osteoblast function and bone formation at sites of erosion. We have initiated a clinical trial in RA to assess the efficacy of intermittent PTH, an anabolic agent, in promoting the healing of articular erosions in RA.


    Finally, in a new direction for my laboratory, we are working to understand the contribution of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to the onset, progression, persistence and regulation of systemic autoimmune diseases, with particular attention to RA and systemic lupus erythematosus. The past decade has seen a paradigm shift in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.  We have come to realize that aberrant regulation of innate immune system components has a major impact on disease etiology. Our work has led to insights into specific pathways regulating distinct autoimmune manifestations, providing new targets for intervention in these diseases.



    Collapse Rotation Projects


    Several projects are open to rotating students, including projects in the area of innate immunity and DNase II deficient mice, effects of inflammation on bone in rheumatic diseases, and regulation of arthritis and bone destruction by microRNAs.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Shim JH, Stavre Z, Gravallese EM. Bone Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Calcif Tissue Int. 2017 Dec 04. PMID: 29204672.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gravallese EM, Kay J, Duryea J, Solomon DH. Reply. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Nov 28. PMID: 29193854.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Solomon DH, Kay J, Duryea J, Lu B, Bolster MB, Yood RA, Han R, Ball S, Coleman C, Lo E, Wohlfahrt A, Sury M, Yin M, Yu Z, Zak A, Gravallese EM. Effects of Teriparatide on Joint Erosions in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Sep; 69(9):1741-1750. PMID: 28544807.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Gravallese EM. Bone Wasn't Built in a Day: Destruction and Formation of Bone in the Rheumatic Diseases. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2017; 128:24-43. PMID: 28790485.
      View in: PubMed
    5. O'Brien W, Fissel BM, Maeda Y, Yan J, Ge X, Gravallese EM, Aliprantis AO, Charles JF. RANK-Independent Osteoclast Formation and Bone Erosion in Inflammatory Arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Dec; 68(12):2889-2900. PMID: 27563728.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Stavre Z, Upchurch K, Kay J, Gravallese EM. Differential Effects of Inflammation on Bone and Response to Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2016 Dec; 18(12):72. PMID: 27812955.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Baum R, Sharma S, Organ JM, Jakobs C, Hornung V, Burr DB, Marshak-Rothstein A, Fitzgerald KA, Gravallese EM. STING regulates abnormal bone formation induced by deficiency of DNase II. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Oct 14. PMID: 27740718.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Maeda Y, Farina NH, Matzelle MM, Fanning PJ, Lian JB, Gravallese EM. Synovium-Derived MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Pathways in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Sep 27. PMID: 27676131.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Pawaria S, Sharma S, Baum R, Nündel K, Busto P, Gravallese EM, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A. Taking the STING out of TLR-driven autoimmune diseases: good, bad, or indifferent? J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Jan; 101(1):121-126. PMID: 27531928.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Baum R, Gravallese EM. Bone as a Target Organ in Rheumatic Disease: Impact on Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2016 Aug; 51(1):1-15. PMID: 26411424.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Akula MK, Shi M, Jiang Z, Foster CE, Miao D, Li AS, Zhang X, Gavin RM, Forde SD, Germain G, Carpenter S, Rosadini CV, Gritsman K, Chae JJ, Hampton R, Silverman N, Gravallese EM, Kagan JC, Fitzgerald KA, Kastner DL, Golenbock DT, Bergo MO, Wang D. Control of the innate immune response by the mevalonate pathway. Nat Immunol. 2016 Aug; 17(8):922-9. PMID: 27270400.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Shaw AT, Maeda Y, Gravallese EM. IL-17A deficiency promotes periosteal bone formation in a model of inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016 May 10; 18(1):104. PMID: 27165410.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Matzelle MM, Shaw AT, Baum R, Maeda Y, Li J, Karmakar S, Manning CA, Walsh NC, Rosen V, Gravallese EM. Inflammation in arthritis induces expression of BMP3, an inhibitor of bone formation. Scand J Rheumatol. 2016 Oct; 45(5):379-83. PMID: 26982203.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Duryea J, Russell R, Gravallese EM, Kay J, Han R, Lu B, Solomon DH. Brief Report: Development and Validation of a Semiautomated Method to Measure Erosion Volume in Inflammatory Arthritis by Computed Tomography Scanning. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Feb; 68(2):332-6. PMID: 26473501.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Baum R, Nündel K, Pawaria S, Sharma S, Busto P, Fitzgerald KA, Gravallese EM, Marshak-Rothstein A. Synergy between Hematopoietic and Radioresistant Stromal Cells Is Required for Autoimmune Manifestations of DNase II-/-IFNaR-/- Mice. J Immunol. 2016 Feb 1; 196(3):1348-54. PMID: 26729810.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Duffau P, Menn-Josephy H, Cuda CM, Dominguez S, Aprahamian TR, Watkins AA, Yasuda K, Monach P, Lafyatis R, Rice LM, Kenneth Haines G, Gravallese EM, Baum R, Richez C, Perlman H, Bonegio RG, Rifkin IR. Promotion of Inflammatory Arthritis by Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 in a Mouse Model. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015 Dec; 67(12):3146-57. PMID: 26315890.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Shaw AT, Gravallese EM. Mediators of inflammation and bone remodeling in rheumatic disease. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016 Jan; 49:2-10. PMID: 26481971.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Pawaria S, Moody KL, Busto P, Nündel K, Baum R, Sharma S, Gravallese EM, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A. An unexpected role for RNA-sensing toll-like receptors in a murine model of DNA accrual. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Jul-Aug; 33(4 Suppl 92):S70-3. PMID: 26457825.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Baum R, Sharma S, Carpenter S, Li QZ, Busto P, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A, Gravallese EM. Cutting edge: AIM2 and endosomal TLRs differentially regulate arthritis and autoantibody production in DNase II-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 1; 194(3):873-7. PMID: 25548216.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Kim SJ, Chen Z, Chamberlain ND, Essani AB, Volin MV, Amin MA, Volkov S, Gravallese EM, Arami S, Swedler W, Lane NE, Mehta A, Sweiss N, Shahrara S. Ligation of TLR5 promotes myeloid cell infiltration and differentiation into mature osteoclasts in rheumatoid arthritis and experimental arthritis. J Immunol. 2014 Oct 15; 193(8):3902-13. PMID: 25200955.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Schmidt-Lauber C, Bossaller L, Abujudeh HH, Vladimer GI, Christ A, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Gravallese EM, Marshak-Rothstein A, Kay J. Gadolinium-based compounds induce NLRP3-dependent IL-1ß production and peritoneal inflammation. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Nov; 74(11):2062-9. PMID: 24914072.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Baum R, Gravallese EM. Impact of inflammation on the osteoblast in rheumatic diseases. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2014 Mar; 12(1):9-16. PMID: 24363057.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Kay J, Morgacheva O, Messing SP, Kremer JM, Greenberg JD, Reed GW, Gravallese EM, Furst DE. Clinical disease activity and acute phase reactant levels are discordant among patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: acute phase reactant levels contribute separately to predicting outcome at one year. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014; 16(1):R40. PMID: 24485007.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Dusad A, Duryee MJ, Shaw AT, Klassen LW, Anderson DR, Wang D, Ren K, Gravallese EM, O'Dell JR, Mikuls TR, Thiele GM. Induction of bone loss in DBA/1J mice immunized with citrullinated autologous mouse type II collagen in the absence of adjuvant. Immunol Res. 2014 Jan; 58(1):51-60. PMID: 24371010.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Binks DA, Gravallese EM, Bergin D, Hodgson RJ, Tan AL, Matzelle MM, McGonagle D, Radjenovic A. Role of vascular channels as a novel mechanism for subchondral bone damage at cruciate ligament entheses in osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Jan; 74(1):196-203. PMID: 24095939.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Walsh NC, Alexander KA, Manning CA, Karmakar S, Karmakar SK, Wang JF, Weyand CM, Pettit AR, Gravallese EM. Activated human T cells express alternative mRNA transcripts encoding a secreted form of RANKL. Genes Immun. 2013 Jul-Aug; 14(5):336-45. PMID: 23698708.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Kay J, Gravallese EM. Rheumatoid arthritis: erosion defined: back to basics. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2013 Jun; 9(6):323-4. PMID: 23609778.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Schett G, Gravallese E. Bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis: mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012 Nov; 8(11):656-64. PMID: 23007741.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Matzelle MM, Gallant MA, Condon KW, Walsh NC, Manning CA, Stein GS, Lian JB, Burr DB, Gravallese EM. Resolution of inflammation induces osteoblast function and regulates the Wnt signaling pathway. Arthritis Rheum. 2012 May; 64(5):1540-50. PMID: 22139865.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Gravallese EM, Walsh NC. Rheumatoid arthritis: Repair of erosion in RA--shifting the balance to formation. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011 Sep 20; 7(11):626-8. PMID: 21931342.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Salomon-Escoto KI, Gravallese EM, Kay J. Assessment of control of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011 Aug; 25(4):497-507. PMID: 22137920.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Karmakar S, Kay J, Gravallese EM. Bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis: mechanistic insights and approaches to prevention. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2010 May; 36(2):385-404. PMID: 20510240.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Walsh NC, Gravallese EM. Bone remodeling in rheumatic disease: a question of balance. Immunol Rev. 2010 Jan; 233(1):301-12. PMID: 20193007.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Desai SP, Gravallese EM, Shadick NA, Glass R, Cui J, Frits M, Chibnik LB, Maher N, Weinblatt ME, Solomon DH. Hand bone mineral density is associated with both total hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density in post-menopausal women with RA. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010 Mar; 49(3):513-9. PMID: 20026562.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Walsh NC, Reinwald S, Manning CA, Condon KW, Iwata K, Burr DB, Gravallese EM. Osteoblast function is compromised at sites of focal bone erosion in inflammatory arthritis. J Bone Miner Res. 2009 Sep; 24(9):1572-85. PMID: 19338457.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Colbert RA, Deodhar AA, Fox D, Gravallese EM, Khan MA, McGonagle D, Reveille JD, Schett G, Weisman M, Clegg DO. Entheses and bones in spondyloarthritis: 2008 Annual Research and Education Meeting of the Spondyloarthritis Research and Therapy Network (SPARTAN). J Rheumatol. 2009 Jul; 36(7):1527-31. PMID: 19567633.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Solomon DH, Finkelstein JS, Shadick N, LeBoff MS, Winalski CS, Stedman M, Glass R, Brookhart MA, Weinblatt ME, Gravallese EM. The relationship between focal erosions and generalized osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Jun; 60(6):1624-31. PMID: 19479876.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Shen Z, Crotti TN, McHugh KP, Matsuzaki K, Gravallese EM, Bierbaum BE, Goldring SR. The role played by cell-substrate interactions in the pathogenesis of osteoclast-mediated peri-implant osteolysis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(3):R70. PMID: 16613614.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Pettit AR, Walsh NC, Manning C, Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. RANKL protein is expressed at the pannus-bone interface at sites of articular bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Sep; 45(9):1068-76. PMID: 16490750.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Walsh NC, Crotti TN, Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Rheumatic diseases: the effects of inflammation on bone. Immunol Rev. 2005 Dec; 208:228-51. PMID: 16313352.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ijiri K, Zerbini LF, Peng H, Correa RG, Lu B, Walsh N, Zhao Y, Taniguchi N, Huang XL, Otu H, Wang H, Wang JF, Komiya S, Ducy P, Rahman MU, Flavell RA, Gravallese EM, Oettgen P, Libermann TA, Goldring MB. A novel role for GADD45beta as a mediator of MMP-13 gene expression during chondrocyte terminal differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 18; 280(46):38544-55. PMID: 16144844.
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    42. Grall FT, Prall WC, Wei W, Gu X, Cho JY, Choy BK, Zerbini LF, Inan MS, Goldring SR, Gravallese EM, Goldring MB, Oettgen P, Libermann TA. The Ets transcription factor ESE-1 mediates induction of the COX-2 gene by LPS in monocytes. FEBS J. 2005 Apr; 272(7):1676-87. PMID: 15794755.
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    43. Jacobs JP, Pettit AR, Shinohara ML, Jansson M, Cantor H, Gravallese EM, Mathis D, Benoist C. Lack of requirement of osteopontin for inflammation, bone erosion, and cartilage damage in the K/BxN model of autoantibody-mediated arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Aug; 50(8):2685-94. PMID: 15334485.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Walsh NC, Gravallese EM. Bone loss in inflammatory arthritis: mechanisms and treatment strategies. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 Jul; 16(4):419-27. PMID: 15201606.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Bisphosphonates: environmental protection for the joint? Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Jul; 50(7):2044-7. PMID: 15248201.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Brown C, Gaspar J, Pettit A, Lee R, Gu X, Wang H, Manning C, Voland C, Goldring SR, Goldring MB, Libermann TA, Gravallese EM, Oettgen P. ESE-1 is a novel transcriptional mediator of angiopoietin-1 expression in the setting of inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 26; 279(13):12794-803. PMID: 14715662.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Gravallese EM. Osteopontin: a bridge between bone and the immune system. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jul; 112(2):147-9. PMID: 12865402.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Grall F, Gu X, Tan L, Cho JY, Inan MS, Pettit AR, Thamrongsak U, Choy BK, Manning C, Akbarali Y, Zerbini L, Rudders S, Goldring SR, Gravallese EM, Oettgen P, Goldring MB, Libermann TA. Responses to the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cells derived from rheumatoid synovium and other joint tissues involve nuclear factor kappaB-mediated induction of the Ets transcription factor ESE-1. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 May; 48(5):1249-60. PMID: 12746898.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Pisetsky DS, Hunder GG, Gravallese EM. New policy on disclosure of interest for American College of Rheumatology Journals. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr 15; 49(2):149-50. PMID: 12687503.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Pisetsky DS, Hunder GG, Gravallese EM. New policy on disclosure of interest for American College of Rheumatology journals. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Apr; 48(4):873-5. PMID: 12687527.
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    51. Gravallese EM, Pettit AR, Lee R, Madore R, Manning C, Tsay A, Gaspar J, Goldring MB, Goldring SR, Oettgen P. Angiopoietin-1 is expressed in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and is induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003 Feb; 62(2):100-7. PMID: 12525377.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Lubberts E, Oppers-Walgreen B, Pettit AR, Van Den Bersselaar L, Joosten LA, Goldring SR, Gravallese EM, Van Den Berg WB. Increase in expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB at sites of bone erosion correlates with progression of inflammation in evolving collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov; 46(11):3055-64. PMID: 12428250.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Gravallese EM. Bone destruction in arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002 Nov; 61 Suppl 2:ii84-6. PMID: 12379632.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Ji H, Pettit A, Ohmura K, Ortiz-Lopez A, Duchatelle V, Degott C, Gravallese E, Mathis D, Benoist C. Critical roles for interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in antibody-induced arthritis. J Exp Med. 2002 Jul 1; 196(1):77-85. PMID: 12093872.
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    55. Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Pathogenesis of bone lesions in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002 Jun; 4(3):226-31. PMID: 12010607.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Husni ME, Maier AL, Mease PJ, Overman SS, Fraser P, Gravallese EM, Weinblatt ME. Etanercept in the treatment of adult patients with Still's disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 May; 46(5):1171-6. PMID: 12115220.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Hou WS, Li W, Keyszer G, Weber E, Levy R, Klein MJ, Gravallese EM, Goldring SR, Brömme D. Comparison of cathepsins K and S expression within the rheumatoid and osteoarthritic synovium. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Mar; 46(3):663-74. PMID: 11920402.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Raffel GD, Gravallese EM, Schwab P, Joseph JT, Cannistra SA. Diagnostic dilemmas in oncology: case 2. Dermatomyositis and ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Dec 1; 19(23):4341-3. PMID: 11731518.
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    59. Pettit AR, Ji H, von Stechow D, Müller R, Goldring SR, Choi Y, Benoist C, Gravallese EM. TRANCE/RANKL knockout mice are protected from bone erosion in a serum transfer model of arthritis. Am J Pathol. 2001 Nov; 159(5):1689-99. PMID: 11696430.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Reimold AM, Iwakoshi NN, Manis J, Vallabhajosyula P, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Gravallese EM, Friend D, Grusby MJ, Alt F, Glimcher LH. Plasma cell differentiation requires the transcription factor XBP-1. Nature. 2001 Jul 19; 412(6844):300-7. PMID: 11460154.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Gravallese EM, Galson DL, Goldring SR, Auron PE. The role of TNF-receptor family members and other TRAF-dependent receptors in bone resorption. Arthritis Res. 2001; 3(1):6-12. PMID: 11178122.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Gravallese EM, Goldring SR. Cellular mechanisms and the role of cytokines in bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Oct; 43(10):2143-51. PMID: 11037873.
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    63. Wexler EJ, Gravallese EM, Czerniak PM, Devenny JJ, Longtine J, Wong MK, Slee AM, Kerr JS. Tumor biology: use of tiled images in conjunction with measurements of cellular proliferation and death in response to drug treatments. Clin Cancer Res. 2000 Aug; 6(8):3361-70. PMID: 10955824.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Pathogenesis of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2000 May; 12(3):195-9. PMID: 10803748.
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    65. Mandl LA, Folkerth RD, Pick MA, Weinblatt ME, Gravallese EM. Amyloid myopathy masquerading as polymyositis. J Rheumatol. 2000 Apr; 27(4):949-52. PMID: 10782821.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Gravallese EM, Manning C, Tsay A, Naito A, Pan C, Amento E, Goldring SR. Synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis is a source of osteoclast differentiation factor. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Feb; 43(2):250-8. PMID: 10693863.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Ranger AM, Gerstenfeld LC, Wang J, Kon T, Bae H, Gravallese EM, Glimcher MJ, Glimcher LH. The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor NFATp (NFATc2) is a repressor of chondrogenesis. J Exp Med. 2000 Jan 3; 191(1):9-22. PMID: 10620601.
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    68. Goldring SR, Gravallese EM. Mechanisms of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis: diagnosis and therapeutic implications. Arthritis Res. 2000; 2(1):33-7. PMID: 11094416.
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    69. Gravallese EM, Harada Y, Wang JT, Gorn AH, Thornhill TS, Goldring SR. Identification of cell types responsible for bone resorption in rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Pathol. 1998 Apr; 152(4):943-51. PMID: 9546355.
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    70. Ranger AM, Grusby MJ, Hodge MR, Gravallese EM, de la Brousse FC, Hoey T, Mickanin C, Baldwin HS, Glimcher LH. The transcription factor NF-ATc is essential for cardiac valve formation. Nature. 1998 Mar 12; 392(6672):186-90. PMID: 9515964.
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    71. Kelleher Doyle M, Telford SR, Criscione L, Lin SR, Spielman A, Gravallese EM. Cytokines in murine lyme carditis: Th1 cytokine expression follows expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a susceptible mouse strain. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan; 177(1):242-6. PMID: 9419199.
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    72. Ranger AM, Hodge MR, Gravallese EM, Oukka M, Davidson L, Alt FW, de la Brousse FC, Hoey T, Grusby M, Glimcher LH. Delayed lymphoid repopulation with defects in IL-4-driven responses produced by inactivation of NF-ATc. Immunity. 1998 Jan; 8(1):125-34. PMID: 9462518.
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    73. Darling JM, Goldring SR, Harada Y, Handel ML, Glowacki J, Gravallese EM. Multinucleated cells in pigmented villonodular synovitis and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath express features of osteoclasts. Am J Pathol. 1997 Apr; 150(4):1383-93. PMID: 9094994.
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    74. Ruderman EM, Crawford JM, Maier A, Liu JJ, Gravallese EM, Weinblatt ME. Histologic liver abnormalities in an autopsy series of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol. 1997 Feb; 36(2):210-3. PMID: 9133932.
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    75. Gravallese EM, Handel ML, Coblyn J, Anderson RJ, Sperling RI, Karlson EW, Maier A, Ruderman EM, Formelli F, Weinblatt ME. N-[4-hydroxyphenyl] retinamide in rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Arthritis Rheum. 1996 Jun; 39(6):1021-6. PMID: 8651965.
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    76. Handel ML, McMorrow LB, Gravallese EM. Nuclear factor-kappa B in rheumatoid synovium. Localization of p50 and p65. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Dec; 38(12):1762-70. PMID: 8849348.
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    77. Gravallese EM, Weissman BN, Brodsky G, Maguire J. Loosening of a revision total hip replacement in a 60-year-old woman with longstanding rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Sep; 38(9):1315-24. PMID: 7575727.
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    78. Gravallese EM, Waksmonski C, Winters GL, Simms RW. Fever, arthralgias, skin lesions, and ischemic digits in a 59-year-old man. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Aug; 38(8):1161-8. PMID: 7639815.
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    79. Ruderman EM, Weinblatt ME, Thurmond LM, Pinkus GS, Gravallese EM. Synovial tissue response to treatment with Campath-1H. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Feb; 38(2):254-8. PMID: 7531440.
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    80. Ruderman EM, Kerr JS, Telford SR, Spielman A, Glimcher LH, Gravallese EM. Early murine Lyme carditis has a macrophage predominance and is independent of major histocompatibility complex class II-CD4+ T cell interactions. J Infect Dis. 1995 Feb; 171(2):362-70. PMID: 7844373.
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    81. Darling JM, Glimcher LH, Shortkroff S, Albano B, Gravallese EM. Expression of metalloproteinases in pigmented villonodular synovitis. Hum Pathol. 1994 Aug; 25(8):825-30. PMID: 8056425.
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    82. Gravallese EM, Winalski CS, Longtine J, Helfgott SM. Polyarthritis in a 78-year-old woman. Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Jul; 37(7):1087-95. PMID: 8024617.
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    83. Gravallese EM, Weissman BN, Corson JM, Greene JM. Synovitis of the knee in a 42-year-old man. Arthritis Rheum. 1993 Jun; 36(6):860-70. PMID: 8507229.
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    84. Clauss IM, Gravallese EM, Darling JM, Shapiro F, Glimcher MJ, Glimcher LH. In situ hybridization studies suggest a role for the basic region-leucine zipper protein hXBP-1 in exocrine gland and skeletal development during mouse embryogenesis. Dev Dyn. 1993 Jun; 197(2):146-56. PMID: 7693055.
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    85. Gravallese EM, Baker N, Lester S, Kay J, Owen WF. Musculoskeletal manifestations in beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis. Case discussion. Arthritis Rheum. 1992 May; 35(5):592-602. PMID: 1575795.
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    86. Gravallese EM, Darling JM, Glimcher LH, Boothby M. Role of lipopolysaccharide and IL-4 in control of transcription of the class II A alpha gene. J Immunol. 1991 Oct 1; 147(7):2377-83. PMID: 1918969.
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    87. Gravallese EM, Darling JM, Ladd AL, Katz JN, Glimcher LH. In situ hybridization studies of stromelysin and collagenase messenger RNA expression in rheumatoid synovium. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Sep; 34(9):1076-84. PMID: 1657007.
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    88. Boothby M, Liou HC, Finn PW, Gravallese E, Glimcher LH. Control of transcription at the murine A alpha locus. Immunol Res. 1990; 9(2):77-92. PMID: 2189937.
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    89. Gravallese EM, Boothby MR, Smas CM, Glimcher LH. A lipopolysaccharide-induced DNA-binding protein for a class II gene in B cells is distinct from NF-kappa B. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Aug; 9(8):3184-92. PMID: 2477682.
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    90. Gravallese EM, Corson JM, Coblyn JS, Pinkus GS, Weinblatt ME. Rheumatoid aortitis: a rarely recognized but clinically significant entity. Medicine (Baltimore). 1989 Mar; 68(2):95-106. PMID: 2921941.
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    91. Boothby M, Gravallese E, Liou HC, Glimcher LH. A DNA binding protein regulated by IL-4 and by differentiation in B cells. Science. 1988 Dec 16; 242(4885):1559-62. PMID: 3144043.
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    92. Shmerling RH, Stern SH, Gravallese EM, Kantrowitz FG. Tophaceous deposition in the finger pads without gouty arthritis. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Aug; 148(8):1830-2. PMID: 3401106.
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    93. Gravallese EM, Kantrowitz FG. Arthritic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Jul; 83(7):703-9. PMID: 3289378.
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    94. Merot Y, Gravallese E, Guillén FJ, Murphy GF. Lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans' cells in toxic epidermal necrolysis. Report of a case. Arch Dermatol. 1986 Apr; 122(4):455-8. PMID: 2937370.
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    95. Miller JA, Gravallese E, Bunn HF. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of erythrocyte membrane proteins. Relevance to diabetes. J Clin Invest. 1980 Apr; 65(4):896-901. PMID: 7358849.
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    96. Miszke A. [Our observations on hearing, equilibrium and vision disorders as well as factors predisposing to these disorders following streptomycin treatment]. Pol Tyg Lek. 1973 Oct 15; 28(42):1648-50. PMID: 4761455.
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    97. Nief L, Haustete P. [Antibiotic therapy of alveolar wounds]. Inf Dent. 1968 Jan 11; 50(2):139-45. PMID: 4299698.
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