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Kristen L Billiar PhD

TitleAdjunct Professor
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressWorcester Polytechnic Institute
100 Institute Road
Worcester MA 01609
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionPlastic Surgery

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United StatesBSMechanical Engineering
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United StatesMSBioengineering
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United StatesPHDBioengineering

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Samolyk BL, Pace ZY, Li J, Billiar KL, Coburn JM, Whittington CF, Pins GD. Developing Porous Fibrin Scaffolds with Tunable Anisotropic Features to Direct Myoblast Orientation. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2024 May; 30(5):217-228. PMID: 38562112.
    2. Coutts CW, Baldwin AM, Jebeli M, Jolin GE, Mungai RW, Billiar KL. The Role of Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress in a Cell Spheroid Model of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease. Cells. 2023 12 25; 13(1). PMID: 38201249.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Lei Y, Mungai R, Li J, Billiar K. Reducing retraction in engineered tissues through design of sequential growth factor treatment. Biofabrication. 2023 05 31; 15(3). PMID: 37059087.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    4. Jebeli M, Lopez SK, Goldblatt ZE, McCollum D, Mana-Capelli S, Wen Q, Billiar K. Multicellular aligned bands disrupt global collective cell behavior. Acta Biomater. 2023 06; 163:117-130. PMID: 36306982.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Wang L, Maehara A, Zhang X, Lv R, Qu Y, Guo X, Zhu J, Wu Z, Billiar KL, Zheng J, Chen L, Ma G, Mintz GS, Tang D. Quantification of patient-specific coronary material properties and their correlations with plaque morphological characteristics: An in vivo IVUS study. Int J Cardiol. 2023 Jan 15; 371:21-27. PMID: 36174818.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    6. Ashouri Choshali H, Billiar KL, Rahbar N. Anisotropy profoundly alters stress fields within contractile cells and cell aggregates. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2022 Oct; 21(5):1357-1370. PMID: 35829977.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    7. Billiar K, Gaver DP, Barbee K, Singh A, DesJardins JD, Pruitt B, Tranquillo J, Gaudette G, Winkelstein B, Makowski L, Amos JR, Saterbak A, LeDoux J, Helmke B, Grimm M, Benkeser P, Segan LD, Pfister B, Meaney D, Arinzeh T, Margulies S. Learning Environments and Evidence-Based Practices in Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering. Biomed Eng Educ. 2022 Jan; 2(1):1-16. PMID: 35599985.
    8. Wang L, Zhu J, Maehara A, Lv R, Qu Y, Zhang X, Guo X, Billiar KL, Chen L, Ma G, Mintz GS, Tang D. Quantifying Patient-Specific in vivo Coronary Plaque Material Properties for Accurate Stress/Strain Calculations: An IVUS-Based Multi-Patient Study. Front Physiol. 2021; 12:721195. PMID: 34759832.
    9. Lei Y, Bortolin L, Benesch-Lee F, Oguntolu T, Dong Z, Bondah N, Billiar K. Hyaluronic acid regulates heart valve interstitial cell contraction in fibrin-based scaffolds. Acta Biomater. 2021 12; 136:124-136. PMID: 34592445.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    10. Yu H, Del Nido PJ, Geva T, Yang C, Wu Z, Rathod RH, Huang X, Billiar KL, Tang D. A Novel Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgery Strategy Using Contracting Band for Patients With Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: An MRI-Based Multipatient Modeling Study. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2021; 9:638934. PMID: 34095094.
    11. Goldblatt ZE, Cirka HA, Billiar KL. Mechanical Regulation of Apoptosis in the Cardiovascular System. Ann Biomed Eng. 2021 Jan; 49(1):75-97. PMID: 33169343.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    12. Wang L, Tang D, Maehara A, Wu Z, Yang C, Muccigrosso D, Matsumura M, Zheng J, Bach R, Billiar KL, Stone GW, Mintz GS. Using intravascular ultrasound image-based fluid-structure interaction models and machine learning methods to predict human coronary plaque vulnerability change. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2020 Nov; 23(15):1267-1276. PMID: 32696674.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Yu H, Del Nido PJ, Geva T, Yang C, Wu Z, Rathod RH, Huang X, Billiar KL, Tang D. Multi-Band Surgery for Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Patients With Reduced Right Ventricle Ejection Fraction: A Pilot Study. Front Physiol. 2020; 11:198. PMID: 32265727.
    14. Goldblatt ZE, Ashouri Choshali H, Cirka HA, Liang V, Wen Q, McCollum D, Rahbar N, Billiar KL. Heterogeneity Profoundly Alters Emergent Stress Fields in Constrained Multicellular Systems. Biophys J. 2020 01 07; 118(1):15-25. PMID: 31812354.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    15. Yu H, Del Nido PJ, Geva T, Yang C, Tang A, Wu Z, Rathod RH, Huang X, Billiar KL, Tang D. Corrigendum to "Patient-specific in?vivo right ventricle material parameter estimation for patients with tetralogy of fallot using MRI-Based models with different zero-load diastole and systole morphologies" [Int. J. Cardiol. 276 (2019) 93-99]. Int J Cardiol. 2020 Mar 15; 303:87. PMID: 31623875.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    16. Yu H, Tang D, Geva T, Yang C, Wu Z, Rathod RH, Huang X, Billiar KL, Del Nido PJ. Ventricle stress/strain comparisons between Tetralogy of Fallot patients and healthy using models with different zero-load diastole and systole morphologies. PLoS One. 2019; 14(8):e0220328. PMID: 31412062.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Wang Q, Tang D, Wang L, Canton G, Wu Z, Hatsukami TS, Billiar KL, Yuan C. Combining morphological and biomechanical factors for optimal carotid plaque progression prediction: An MRI-based follow-up study using 3D thin-layer models. Int J Cardiol. 2019 10 15; 293:266-271. PMID: 31301863.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Yu H, Del Nido PJ, Geva T, Yang C, Tang A, Wu Z, Rathod RH, Huang X, Billiar KL, Tang D. Patient-specific in vivo right ventricle material parameter estimation for patients with tetralogy of Fallot using MRI-based models with different zero-load diastole and systole morphologies. Int J Cardiol. 2019 Feb 01; 276:93-99. PMID: 30217422.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Wang L, Tang D, Maehara A, Wu Z, Yang C, Muccigrosso D, Zheng J, Bach R, Billiar KL, Mintz GS. Fluid-structure interaction models based on patient-specific IVUS at baseline and follow-up for prediction of coronary plaque progression by morphological and biomechanical factors: A preliminary study. J Biomech. 2018 02 08; 68:43-50. PMID: 29274686.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Dutta S, Mana-Capelli S, Paramasivam M, Dasgupta I, Cirka H, Billiar K, McCollum D. TRIP6 inhibits Hippo signaling in response to tension at adherens junctions. EMBO Rep. 2018 02; 19(2):337-350. PMID: 29222344.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    21. Hoffman AH, Teng Z, Zheng J, Wu Z, Woodard PK, Billiar KL, Wang L, Tang D. Stiffness Properties of Adventitia, Media, and Full Thickness Human Atherosclerotic Carotid Arteries in the Axial and Circumferential Directions. J Biomech Eng. 2017 Dec 01; 139(12). PMID: 28857112.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Wang Q, Canton G, Guo J, Guo X, Hatsukami TS, Billiar KL, Yuan C, Wu Z, Tang D. MRI-based patient-specific human carotid atherosclerotic vessel material property variations in patients, vessel location and long-term follow up. PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0180829. PMID: 28715441.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Billiar KL, Kennedy E. Biomechanics Education Redux. J Biomech Eng. 2017 07 01; 139(7). PMID: 28494057.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    24. Due?as-Garcia OF, Sullivan GM, Leung K, Billiar KL, Flynn MK. Knot integrity using different suture types and different knot-tying techniques for reconstructive pelvic floor procedures. Int Urogynecol J. 2018 07; 29(7):979-985. PMID: 28634623.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Cirka HA, Uribe J, Liang V, Schoen FJ, Billiar KL. Reproducible in vitro model for dystrophic calcification of cardiac valvular interstitial cells: insights into the mechanisms of calcific aortic valvular disease. Lab Chip. 2017 02 28; 17(5):814-829. PMID: 28128382.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Tang D, Zuo H, Yang C, Wu Z, Huang X, Rathod RH, Tang A, Billiar KL, Geva T. Comparison of Right Ventricle Morphological and Mechanical Characteristics for Healthy and Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot: An In Vivo MRI-Based Modeling Study. Mol Cell Biomech. 2017; 14(3):137-151. PMID: 30147632.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    
    27. Aghvami M, Billiar KL, Sander EA. Fiber Network Models Predict Enhanced Cell Mechanosensing on Fibrous Gels. J Biomech Eng. 2016 10 01; 138(10). PMID: 27548709.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    28. Tang D, Del Nido PJ, Yang C, Zuo H, Huang X, Rathod RH, Gooty V, Tang A, Wu Z, Billiar KL, Geva T. Patient-Specific MRI-Based Right Ventricle Models Using Different Zero-Load Diastole and Systole Geometries for Better Cardiac Stress and Strain Calculations and Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgical Outcome Predictions. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0162986. PMID: 27627806.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Guo X, Zhu J, Maehara A, Monoly D, Samady H, Wang L, Billiar KL, Zheng J, Yang C, Mintz GS, Giddens DP, Tang D. Quantify patient-specific coronary material property and its impact on stress/strain calculations using in vivo IVUS data and 3D FSI models: a pilot study. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017 02; 16(1):333-344. PMID: 27561649.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Billiar K. Special Section: Annual Education Issue: Let the Wild Rumpus of Education Start! J Biomech Eng. 2016 07 01; 138(7). PMID: 27165159.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    31. Clyne AM, Billiar KL. Problem-Based Learning in Biomechanics: Advantages, Challenges, and Implementation Strategies. J Biomech Eng. 2016 07 01; 138(7). PMID: 27210616.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    32. Cirka H, Monterosso M, Diamantides N, Favreau J, Wen Q, Billiar K. Active Traction Force Response to Long-Term Cyclic Stretch Is Dependent on Cell Pre-stress. Biophys J. 2016 04 26; 110(8):1845-1857. PMID: 27119644.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Kural MH, Billiar KL. Myofibroblast persistence with real-time changes in boundary stiffness. Acta Biomater. 2016 Mar 01; 32:223-230. PMID: 26712600.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Wang L, Zheng J, Maehara A, Yang C, Billiar KL, Wu Z, Bach R, Muccigrosso D, Mintz GS, Tang D. Morphological and Stress Vulnerability Indices for Human Coronary Plaques and Their Correlations with Cap Thickness and Lipid Percent: An IVUS-Based Fluid-Structure Interaction Multi-patient Study. PLoS Comput Biol. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1004652. PMID: 26650721.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    
    35. Tang D, Yang C, Del Nido PJ, Zuo H, Rathod RH, Huang X, Gooty V, Tang A, Billiar KL, Wu Z, Geva T. Mechanical stress is associated with right ventricular response to pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Mar; 151(3):687-694.e3. PMID: 26548998.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Zhang W, Feng Y, Lee CH, Billiar KL, Sacks MS. A generalized method for the analysis of planar biaxial mechanical data using tethered testing configurations. J Biomech Eng. 2015 Jun; 137(6):064501. PMID: 25429606.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    37. Mullen CA, Vaughan TJ, Billiar KL, McNamara LM. The effect of substrate stiffness, thickness, and cross-linking density on osteogenic cell behavior. Biophys J. 2015 Apr 07; 108(7):1604-1612. PMID: 25863052.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Cirka HA, Kural MH, Billiar KL. Mechanoregulation of aortic valvular interstitial cell life and death. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2015; 25(1-2):3-16. PMID: 25955003.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Wang L, Wu Z, Yang C, Zheng J, Bach R, Muccigrosso D, Billiar K, Maehara A, Mintz GS, Tang D. IVUS-based FSI models for human coronary plaque progression study: components, correlation and predictive analysis. Ann Biomed Eng. 2015 Jan; 43(1):107-21. PMID: 25245219.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Fan R, Tang D, Yang C, Zheng J, Bach R, Wang L, Muccigrosso D, Billiar K, Zhu J, Ma G, Maehara A, Mintz GS. Human coronary plaque wall thickness correlated positively with flow shear stress and negatively with plaque wall stress: an IVUS-based fluid-structure interaction multi-patient study. Biomed Eng Online. 2014 Mar 26; 13(1):32. PMID: 24669780.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Kural MH, Billiar KL. Mechanoregulation of valvular interstitial cell phenotype in the third dimension. Biomaterials. 2014 Jan; 35(4):1128-37. PMID: 24210873.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Kural MH, Billiar KL. Regulating tension in three-dimensional culture environments. Exp Cell Res. 2013 Oct 01; 319(16):2447-59. PMID: 23850829.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Rudnicki MS, Cirka HA, Aghvami M, Sander EA, Wen Q, Billiar KL. Nonlinear strain stiffening is not sufficient to explain how far cells can feel on fibrous protein gels. Biophys J. 2013 Jul 02; 105(1):11-20. PMID: 23823219.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    44. Tang D, Yang C, Geva T, Rathod R, Yamauchi H, Gooty V, Tang A, Kural MH, Billiar KL, Gaudette G, Del Nido PJ. A Multiphysics Modeling Approach to Develop Right Ventricle Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgical Procedures with a Contracting Band to Improve Ventricle Ejection Fraction. Comput Struct. 2013 Jun 01; 122:78-87. PMID: 23667272.
    45. Tang D, Yang C, Zheng J, Canton G, Bach RG, Hatsukami TS, Wang L, Yang D, Billiar KL, Yuan C. Image-based modeling and precision medicine: patient-specific carotid and coronary plaque assessment and predictions. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2013 Mar; 60(3):643-51. PMID: 23362245.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Adebayo O, Hookway TA, Hu JZ, Billiar KL, Rolle MW. Self-assembled smooth muscle cell tissue rings exhibit greater tensile strength than cell-seeded fibrin or collagen gel rings. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2013 Feb; 101(2):428-37. PMID: 22865465.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Quinlan AM, Billiar KL. Investigating the role of substrate stiffness in the persistence of valvular interstitial cell activation. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012 Sep; 100(9):2474-82. PMID: 22581728.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Yang C, Tang D, Geva T, Rathod R, Yamauchi H, Gooty V, Tang A, Gaudette G, Billiar KL, Kural MH, del Nido PJ. Using contracting band to improve right ventricle ejection fraction for patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot: a modeling study using patient-specific CMR-based 2-layer anisotropic models of human right and left ventricles. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013 Jan; 145(1):285-93, 293.e1-2. PMID: 22487437.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Liu H, Cai M, Yang C, Zheng J, Bach R, Kural MH, Billiar KL, Muccigrosso D, Lu D, Tang D. IVUS-based computational modeling and planar biaxial artery material properties for human coronary plaque vulnerability assessment. Mol Cell Biomech. 2012 Mar; 9(1):77-93. PMID: 22428362.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Cirka HA, Koehler SA, Farr WW, Billiar KL. Eccentric rheometry for viscoelastic characterization of small, soft, anisotropic, and irregularly shaped biopolymer gels and tissue biopsies. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 Aug; 40(8):1654-65. PMID: 22361829.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    51. Kural MH, Cai M, Tang D, Gwyther T, Zheng J, Billiar KL. Planar biaxial characterization of diseased human coronary and carotid arteries for computational modeling. J Biomech. 2012 Mar 15; 45(5):790-8. PMID: 22236530.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    52. Liu H, Canton G, Yuan C, Yang C, Billiar K, Teng Z, Hoffman AH, Tang D. Using in vivo Cine and 3D multi-contrast MRI to determine human atherosclerotic carotid artery material properties and circumferential shrinkage rate and their impact on stress/strain predictions. J Biomech Eng. 2012 Jan; 134(1):011008. PMID: 22482663.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Gwyther TA, Hu JZ, Billiar KL, Rolle MW. Directed cellular self-assembly to fabricate cell-derived tissue rings for biomechanical analysis and tissue engineering. J Vis Exp. 2011 Nov 25; (57):e3366. PMID: 22143346.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    54. Throm Quinlan AM, Sierad LN, Capulli AK, Firstenberg LE, Billiar KL. Combining dynamic stretch and tunable stiffness to probe cell mechanobiology in vitro. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23272. PMID: 21858051.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. Gwyther TA, Hu JZ, Christakis AG, Skorinko JK, Shaw SM, Billiar KL, Rolle MW. Engineered vascular tissue fabricated from aggregated smooth muscle cells. Cells Tissues Organs. 2011; 194(1):13-24. PMID: 21252472.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Silva JA, McCormick JJ, Reed MA, Morse AS, Heffernan MJ, Lavado RD, Billiar K, Wixted JJ. Biomechanical effects of harvesting bone graft with the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator on the adult femur: a cadaver study. Injury. 2010 Nov; 41 Suppl 2:S85-9. PMID: 21144935.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. McCormick JJ, Li X, Weiss DR, Billiar KL, Wixted JJ. Biomechanical investigation of a novel ratcheting arthrodesis nail. J Orthop Surg Res. 2010 Oct 14; 5:74. PMID: 20942976.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    
    58. Yao L, Billiar KL, Windebank AJ, Pandit A. Multichanneled collagen conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration: design, fabrication, and characterization. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2010 Dec; 16(6):1585-96. PMID: 20528663.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Broderick G, Lalikos J, Chowaniec M, Collins M, Wilson E, Babbitt R, O'Brien J, Billiar K, Dunn RM. Femur flap for tibial reconstruction: percent circumference required to convey a mechanical advantage over the fibula. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2010 Sep; 26(7):481-6. PMID: 20593345.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Peck L, Billiar K, Ray M. Dynamic failure properties of the porcine medial collateral ligament-bone complex for predicting injury in automotive collisions. Open Biomed Eng J. 2010 Mar 09; 4:77-84. PMID: 20461229.
    61. Balestrini JL, Skorinko JK, Hera A, Gaudette GR, Billiar KL. Applying controlled non-uniform deformation for in vitro studies of cell mechanobiology. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2010 Jun; 9(3):329-44. PMID: 20169395.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    62. Throm AM, Liu WC, Lock CH, Billiar KL. Development of a cell-derived matrix: effects of epidermal growth factor in chemically defined culture. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Feb; 92(2):533-41. PMID: 19235212.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    63. John J, Quinlan AT, Silvestri C, Billiar K. Boundary stiffness regulates fibroblast behavior in collagen gels. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 Mar; 38(3):658-73. PMID: 20012205.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    64. Yang C, Bach RG, Zheng J, Naqa IE, Woodard PK, Teng Z, Billiar K, Tang D. In vivo IVUS-based 3-D fluid-structure interaction models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for human atherosclerotic coronary plaque mechanical analysis. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2009 Oct; 56(10):2420-8. PMID: 19567341.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Tang D, Yang C, Kobayashi S, Zheng J, Woodard PK, Teng Z, Billiar K, Bach R, Ku DN. 3D MRI-based anisotropic FSI models with cyclic bending for human coronary atherosclerotic plaque mechanical analysis. J Biomech Eng. 2009 Jun; 131(6):061010. PMID: 19449964.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Balestrini JL, Billiar KL. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling. J Biomech Eng. 2009 May; 131(5):051005. PMID: 19388775.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    67. Pai S, Dunn RM, Babbitt R, Strom HM, Lalikos JF, Pins GD, Billiar KL. Characterization of forces on the sternal midline following median sternotomy in a porcine model. J Biomech Eng. 2008 Oct; 130(5):051004. PMID: 19045511.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    68. Marturano JE, Cleveland BC, Byrne MA, O'Connell SL, Wixted JJ, Billiar KL. An improved murine femur fracture device for bone healing studies. J Biomech. 2008; 41(6):1222-8. PMID: 18384794.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    69. Coburn JC, Brody S, Billiar KL, Pandit A. Biaxial mechanical evaluation of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix: a weakly anisotropic potential tissue engineered biomaterial. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007 Apr; 81(1):250-6. PMID: 17269134.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Grouf JL, Throm AM, Balestrini JL, Bush KA, Billiar KL. Differential effects of EGF and TGF-beta1 on fibroblast activity in fibrin-based tissue equivalents. Tissue Eng. 2007 Apr; 13(4):799-807. PMID: 17346099.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    71. Pai S, Gunja NJ, Dupak EL, McMahon NL, Coburn JC, Lalikos JF, Dunn RM, Francalancia N, Pins GD, Billiar KL. A mechanical study of rigid plate configurations for sternal fixation. Ann Biomed Eng. 2007 May; 35(5):808-16. PMID: 17377844.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    72. Ahlfors JE, Billiar KL. Biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of a human fibroblast-produced and remodeled matrix. Biomaterials. 2007 Apr; 28(13):2183-91. PMID: 17280714.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    73. Balestrini JL, Billiar KL. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin. J Biomech. 2006; 39(16):2983-90. PMID: 16386746.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    74. Pai S, Gunja NJ, Dupak EL, McMahon NL, Roth TP, Lalikos JF, Dunn RM, Francalancia N, Pins GD, Billiar KL. In vitro comparison of wire and plate fixation for midline sternotomies. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Sep; 80(3):962-8. PMID: 16122464.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    
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