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Robert J Wellman PhD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
DepartmentPopulation and Quantitative Health Sciences
Address216 West Hartford Avenue
Uxbridge MA 01569
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentPopulation and Quantitative Health Sciences
    DivisionPreventive And Behavioral Medicine

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United StatesBAPsychology
    Long Island University Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY, United StatesMSEducational Psychology & Couns
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United StatesPHDCounseling Psychology

    Collapse Overview 

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Dugas EN Wellman RJ Sylvestre M-P Belanger RE O'Loughlin J. Who mixes tobacco with cannabis and does mixing relate to nicotine dependence?. Addictive Behaviors. 2022. View Publication.
    2. Dugas EN, Wellman RJ, Sylvestre MP, Bélanger RE, O'Loughlin J. Who mixes tobacco with cannabis and does mixing relate to nicotine dependence? Addict Behav. 2022 05; 128:107254. PMID: 35085951.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    3. Coughlin JW, Nauman E, Wellman R, Coley RY, McTigue KM, Coleman KJ, Jones DB, Lewis K, Tobin JN, Wee CC, Fitzpatrick SL, Desai JR, Murali S, Morrow EH, Rogers AM, Wood GC, Schlundt DG, Apovian CM, Duke MC, McClay JC, Soans R, Nemr R, Williams N, Courcoulas A, Holmes JH, Anau J, Toh S, Sturtevant JL, Horgan CE, Cook AJ, Arterburn DE. Preoperative Depression Status and Five Year Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Outcomes in the PCORnet Bariatric Study Cohort. Ann Surg. 2022 Jan 19. PMID: 35058404.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    4. Wellman RJ, Sabiston CM, Morgenstern M. Depressive Symptoms, Alcohol Beliefs and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Adolescents. Children (Basel). 2022 Jan 13; 9(1). PMID: 35053728.
    5. Wellman RJ Sabiston CM Morgenstern M. Depressive symptoms, alcohol beliefs and heavy episodic drinking in adolescents. Children. 2022; 9(1):103. View Publication.
    6. Wellman RJ, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin EK, Sylvestre MP, Pelekanakis A, O'Loughlin J. Natural course of co-use of alcohol and cannabis in adolescents and young adults in Montréal, Canada. Psychol Addict Behav. 2021 Jul 29. PMID: 34323529.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    7. Wellman RJ, Morgenstern M. Can Asking Adolescents About Being Drunk and Their Subjective Experience of Intoxication Help in Screening for Risky Drinking? J Adolesc Health. 2020 11; 67(5):627-628. PMID: 33099410.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    8. Boykan R, Gorzkowski J, Wellman RJ, Jenssen BP, Klein JD, Krugman J, Pbert L, Salloum RG. Pediatric Resident Training in Tobacco Control and the Electronic Health Record. Am J Prev Med. 2021 03; 60(3):446-452. PMID: 33131991.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    9. Sylvestre MP, Wellman RJ, Ahun MN, Datta G, Jutras-Aswad D, O Loughlin J. Discrete time measures versus trajectories of drinking frequency across adolescence as predictors of binge drinking in young adulthood: a longitudinal investigation. BMJ Open. 2020 09 23; 10(9):e035939. PMID: 32967870.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Dugas EN, Sylvestre MP, Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin J. Does use of other tobacco products change when cigarette smoking status changes: A descriptive study of young adults. Addict Behav. 2020 08; 107:106404. PMID: 32222562.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Courcoulas A, Coley RY, Clark JM, McBride CL, Cirelli E, McTigue K, Arterburn D, Coleman KJ, Wellman R, Anau J, Toh S, Janning CD, Cook AJ, Williams N, Sturtevant JL, Horgan C, Tavakkoli A. Interventions and Operations 5 Years After Bariatric Surgery in a Cohort From the US National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network Bariatric Study. JAMA Surg. 2020 03 01; 155(3):194-204. PMID: 31940024.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Wellman RJ, Wilson KM, O'Loughlin EK, Dugas EN, Montreuil A, O'Loughlin J. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 01 27; 22(1):32-39. PMID: 30346615.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    13. Wellman RJ, Sylvestre MP, Abi Nader P, Chiolero A, Mesidor M, Dugas EN, Tougri G, O'Loughlin J. Intensity and frequency of physical activity and high blood pressure in adolescents: A longitudinal study. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2020 02; 22(2):283-290. PMID: 31955514.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Montreuil A, Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin JL. Single-parent status and smoke-free home rules among daily smokers. Can J Public Health. 2020 04; 111(2):297-304. PMID: 31858438.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    15. Wellman RJ, Chaiton M, Morgenstern M, O'Loughlin J. Untangling Influences in the Longitudinal Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Drinking Frequency in High School. J Adolesc Health. 2020 03; 66(3):308-314. PMID: 31727551.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. McCurry SM, Von Korff M, Morin CM, Cunningham A, Pike KC, Thakral M, Wellman R, Yeung K, Zhu W, Vitiello MV. Telephone interventions for co-morbid insomnia and osteoarthritis pain: The OsteoArthritis and Therapy for Sleep (OATS) randomized trial design. Contemp Clin Trials. 2019 12; 87:105851. PMID: 31614214.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    17. Dugas EN, Sylvestre MP, Wellman RJ, Winickoff J, Montreuil A, O'Loughlin J. Measures of nicotine dependence enhance interpretation of number of cigarettes smoked in youth smoking surveillance. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 11 01; 204:107534. PMID: 31493751.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    18. O'Loughlin JL, Wellman RJ. Letter to the Editor Regarding "Students' Cigarette Smoking and the Perceived Nicotine Content of Their E-cigarettes". Am J Prev Med. 2018 12; 55(6):932-933. PMID: 30454641.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. O'Loughlin JL, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin EK, Winickoff JP, Montreuil A, Wellman RJ, Sylvestre MP, Hanusaik N. Parental Cannabis Use Is Associated with Cannabis Initiation and Use in Offspring. J Pediatr. 2019 03; 206:142-147.e1. PMID: 30454963.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    20. Sylvestre MP, Chagnon M, Wellman RJ, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin J. Sex Differences in Attaining Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Milestones Among Novice Smokers. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 08 01; 187(8):1670-1677. PMID: 29522067.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Cherkin D, Balderson B, Wellman R, Hsu C, Sherman KJ, Evers SC, Hawkes R, Cook A, Levine MD, Piekara D, Rock P, Estlin KT, Brewer G, Jensen M, LaPorte AM, Yeoman J, Sowden G, Hill JC, Foster NE. Effect of Low Back Pain Risk-Stratification Strategy on Patient Outcomes and Care Processes: the MATCH Randomized Trial in Primary Care. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 08; 33(8):1324-1336. PMID: 29790073.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Wellman RJ, Sylvestre MP, O'Loughlin EK, Dutczak H, Montreuil A, Datta GD, O'Loughlin J. Socioeconomic status is associated with the prevalence and co-occurrence of risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation during adolescence. Int J Public Health. 2018 Jan; 63(1):125-136. PMID: 29116338.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin EK, Dugas EN, Montreuil A, Dutczak H, O'Loughlin J. Reasons for quitting smoking in young adult cigarette smokers. Addict Behav. 2018 Feb; 77:28-33. PMID: 28946012.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Sylvestre MP, Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin EK, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin J. Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in childhood. Addict Behav. 2017 09; 72:144-150. PMID: 28399489.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. O'Loughlin J, O'Loughlin EK, Wellman RJ, Sylvestre MP, Dugas EN, Chagnon M, Dutczak H, Laguë J, McGrath JJ. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence. J Adolesc Health. 2017 Sep; 61(3):363-370. PMID: 28318910.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Wellman RJ, Dugas EN, Dutczak H, O'Loughlin EK, Datta GD, Lauzon B, O'Loughlin J. Predictors of the Onset of Cigarette Smoking: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Population-Based Studies in Youth. Am J Prev Med. 2016 11; 51(5):767-778. PMID: 27180028.
      Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin J. E-cigarettes: addressing gaps in knowledge. Int J Public Health. 2016 Mar; 61(2):149-50. PMID: 26971509.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. O'Loughlin J, Wellman RJ, Potvin L. Whither the e-cigarette? Int J Public Health. 2016 Mar; 61(2):147-8. PMID: 26971510.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    29. Wellman RJ, Vaughn JA, Sylvestre MP, O'Loughlin EK, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin JL. Relationships Between Current and Past Binge Drinking and Systolic Blood Pressure in Young Adults. J Adolesc Health. 2016 Mar; 58(3):352-7. PMID: 26903432.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Morgenstern M, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Hanewinkel R. Relationship between early symptoms of alcohol craving and binge drinking 2.5 years later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Mar 01; 160:183-9. PMID: 26832933.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults. Addict Behav. 2015 Nov; 50:217-21. PMID: 26162621.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin J. Data dilemmas and difficult decisions: on dealing with inconsistencies in self-reports. J Adolesc Health. 2015 Apr; 56(4):365-6. PMID: 25797629.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Pbert L, Farber H, Horn K, Lando HA, Muramoto M, O'Loughlin J, Tanski S, Wellman RJ, Winickoff JP, Klein JD. State-of-the-art office-based interventions to eliminate youth tobacco use: the past decade. Pediatrics. 2015 Apr; 135(4):734-47. PMID: 25780075.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    34. Wellman RJ, Edelen MO, DiFranza JR. Item Response Theory analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS). Addict Behav. 2015 Jun; 45:195-200. PMID: 25697726.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Recalled first reactions to inhaling nicotine predict the level of physical dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Oct 01; 143:167-72. PMID: 25108583.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. O'Loughlin J, Dugas EN, Brunet J, DiFranza J, Engert JC, Gervais A, Gray-Donald K, Karp I, Low NC, Sabiston C, Sylvestre MP, Tyndale RF, Auger N, Auger N, Mathieu B, Tracie B, Chaiton M, Chenoweth MJ, Constantin E, Contreras G, Kakinami L, Labbe A, Maximova K, McMillan E, O'Loughlin EK, Pabayo R, Roy-Gagnon MH, Tremblay M, Wellman RJ, Hulst A, Paradis G. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Oct; 44(5):1537-46. PMID: 25022274.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Wellman RJ, Contreras GA, Dugas EN, O'Loughlin EK, O'Loughlin JL. Determinants of sustained binge drinking in young adults. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 May; 38(5):1409-15. PMID: 24512139.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Dugas EN, O'Loughlin EK, Low NC, Wellman RJ, O'Loughlin JL. Sustained waterpipe use among young adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Jun; 16(6):709-16. PMID: 24379147.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Beccia A, Ursprung WW, McMillen R. What aspect of dependence does the fagerström test for nicotine dependence measure? ISRN Addict. 2013; 2013:906276. PMID: 25969829.
    40. Difranza JR, Savageau JA, Wellman RJ. A comparison of the autonomy over tobacco scale and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2012 Jul; 37(7):856-61. PMID: 22472522.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Wellman RJ, Di Franza JR, Morgenstern M, Hanewinkel R, Isensee B, Sabiston CM. Psychometric properties of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale in German. Eur Addict Res. 2012; 18(2):76-82. PMID: 22189160.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA. Does progression through the stages of physical addiction indicate increasing overall addiction to tobacco? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Feb; 219(3):815-22. PMID: 21779781.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    43. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW, Lauzon B, Bancej C, Wellman RJ, Ziedonis D, Kim SS, Gervais A, Meltzer B, McKay CE, O'Loughlin J, Okoli CT, Fortuna LR, Tremblay M. A systematic review of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 May; 35(5):373-82. PMID: 20056335.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Ursprung WW, Sabiston C. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale. Psychol Addict Behav. 2009 Dec; 23(4):656-65. PMID: 20025371.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Wellman R, McMillen R, Difranza J. Assessing college students' autonomy over smoking with the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Mar-Apr; 56(5):549-53. PMID: 18400667.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Li Z, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Kulkarni P, King JA. Imaging brain activation in nicotine-sensitized rats. Brain Res. 2008 Mar 14; 1199:91-9. PMID: 18279841.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    47. Scragg R, Wellman RJ, Laugesen M, DiFranza JR. Diminished autonomy over tobacco can appear with the first cigarettes. Addict Behav. 2008 May; 33(5):689-98. PMID: 18207651.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Pbert L, O'Loughlin J, McNeill AD, Ockene JK, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Wood C, Dussault G, Wellman RJ. Susceptibility to nicotine dependence: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth 2 study. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):e974-83. PMID: 17908753.
      Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Laugesen M, Scragg R, Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. Prev Med. 2007 Dec; 45(6):454-9. PMID: 17707897.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, O'Loughlin J, Pbert L, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Hazelton J, Friedman K, Dussault G, Wood C, Wellman RJ. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth-2 study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Jul; 161(7):704-10. PMID: 17606835.
      Citations: 136     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Sensitization to nicotine: how the animal literature might inform future human research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):9-20. PMID: 17365732.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    52. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec; 160(12):1285-96. PMID: 17146027.
      Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ. Early dating and smoking initiation: Some thoughts about a common cause. Addiction. 2006 Dec; 101(12):1682-3. PMID: 17156163.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Fernando WW, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Oct; 188(3):335-42. PMID: 16953390.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Difranza JR. A comparison of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in adult smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):575-80. PMID: 16920655.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun; 117(6):e1237-48. PMID: 16740823.
      Citations: 99     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint A, Young MH, Druker S. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the hooked on nicotine checklist and the modified Fagerström tolerance questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2006 Mar; 31(3):486-95. PMID: 15993004.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Wood C. Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):717-21. PMID: 15979812.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J. The effect of abstinence on cigarette consumption upon the resumption of smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):711-6. PMID: 15982825.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):9-26. PMID: 15804674.
      Citations: 70     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Friedman K, Hazelton J. Measuring adults' loss of autonomy over nicotine use: the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):157-61. PMID: 15804688.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Wheeler KC, Fletcher KE, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. Screening adolescents for nicotine dependence: the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Sep; 35(3):225-30. PMID: 15313504.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    63. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Dussault GF. Short term patterns of early smoking acquisition. Tob Control. 2004 Sep; 13(3):251-7. PMID: 15333880.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    64. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Preventing cancer by controlling youth tobacco use. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):261-7. PMID: 14702860.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. Seasonality in onset of youth smoking parallels seasonality in cigarette sales. Tob Control. 2003 Sep; 12(3):339. PMID: 12958399.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Wellman RJ, Wellman MM. Correlates of suicide ideation in a college population. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1988 Apr; 23(2):90-5. PMID: 3133785.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    67. Wellman MM, Wellman RJ. Sex differences in peer responsiveness to suicide ideation. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1986; 16(3):360-78. PMID: 3765000.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. Dugas EN, Wellman RJ, Kermack A, Tremblay M, O’Loughlin J. Reasons young smokers do not use NRT even when it is available free-of-charge: an exploratory study. Can J Addict. 2016;7(2):14-21.
    69. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB. The impact of personal expectations on counterfactual thinking about life and death medical decisions. Basic Appl Soc Psychol. 2006;28:81-89. doi:10.1207/s15324834basp2801.
    70. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB. Does advice affect perceptions of a patient’s withdrawal from kidney dialysis? J Soc Behav Pers. 2001;16.
    71. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB. Elder and young adults’ perceptions of the decision to withdraw from medical treatment: a replication and extension. J Soc Behav Pers. 1999;14(2):287-298.
    72. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB. Social perceptions of medical treatment termination: rational decision or suicide? J Appl Soc Psychol. 1996;26:1378-1399. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1996.tb00077.x.
    73. Wellman RJ. Fear of solo driving treated with sequentially arranged behavioral methods: a case study. Behav Ther. 1978;9:290-292. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(78)80115-4 .
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