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Samuel M Behar MD, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
368 Plantation Street, AS8-2053
Worcester MA 01605
Phone774-455-3682
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United StatesBSChemistry
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United StatesMD
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United StatesPHDMedicine & Immunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

     


    Immunity to Tuberculosis. It is estimated that 1/3 of the world’s population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the majority of infected people, the immune response is able to adequately control the infection, and consequently only 5-10% will develop clinical disease during their lifetime. My long-term goal is to understand the immunological basis for protective immunity. One way we are investigating this problem is to determine why different mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to tuberculosis. We have observed that certain susceptible mouse strains are unable to efficiently recruit T cells to the lung following infection with Mtb, and this failure likely contributes to increased mortality and morbidity of susceptible mice. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the early events leading to the initiation of the pulmonary immune response following respiratory Mtb infection. This includes establishing how T cells and myeloid cells are recruited back to the lung and how these cells mediate their effector functions.


    Although BCG is used universally as a vaccine, its efficacy in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis is controversial. Most Mtb infected individuals develop long-lived immunity that contains the infection in a T cell-dependent manner. Thus, there is considerable interest in how different T cell subsets contribute to immunity and whether vaccination can stimulate protective T cells. Delineating the role of CD8+ T cells in host immunity to Mtb has been hindered by the paucity of antigens known to be recognized by CD8+ T cells. Our antigen discovery program has successfully identified and defined several mycobacterial peptide epitopes that are recognized by CD8+ T cells. For example, CD8+ T cells specific for culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP10) are found in infected people, indicating that CFP10 can prime CD8+ T cells after infection. Notably, CFP10 is encoded in the RD1 genetic locus, which is associated with Mtb virulence. The aim of our studies is to identify, enumerate and functionally characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that are elicited following pulmonary infection. Finally, we are determining whether these antigens can be used as vaccines to elicit protective immunity.



    Collapse Rotation Projects
    LAB ROTATION PROJECTS AVAILABLE -- PLEASE CONTACT SAM BEHAR FOR MORE INFORMATION


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Boggiano C, Eichelberg K, Ramachandra L, Shea J, Ramakrishnan L, Behar S, Ernst JD, Porcelli SA, Maeurer M, Kornfeld H. "The Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" - Meeting report. Vaccine. 2017 May 02. PMID: 28476627.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Booty MG, Barreira-Silva P, Carpenter SM, Nunes-Alves C, Jacques MK, Stowell BL, Jayaraman P, Beamer G, Behar SM. IL-21 signaling is essential for optimal host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 07; 6:36720. PMID: 27819295.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Smith CM, Proulx MK, Olive AJ, Laddy D, Mishra BB, Moss C, Gutierrez NM, Bellerose MM, Barreira-Silva P, Phuah JY, Baker RE, Behar SM, Kornfeld H, Evans TG, Beamer G, Sassetti CM. Tuberculosis Susceptibility and Vaccine Protection Are Independently Controlled by Host Genotype. MBio. 2016 Sep 20; 7(5). PMID: 27651361.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Marakalala MJ, Raju RM, Sharma K, Zhang YJ, Eugenin EA, Prideaux B, Daudelin IB, Chen PY, Booty MG, Kim JH, Eum SY, Via LE, Behar SM, Barry CE, Mann M, Dartois V, Rubin EJ. Inflammatory signaling in human tuberculosis granulomas is spatially organized. Nat Med. 2016 May; 22(5):531-8. PMID: 27043495.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Jayaraman P, Jacques MK, Zhu C, Steblenko KM, Stowell BL, Madi A, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Behar SM. TIM3 Mediates T Cell Exhaustion during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Mar; 12(3):e1005490. PMID: 26967901.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Booty MG, Nunes-Alves C, Carpenter SM, Jayaraman P, Behar SM. Multiple Inflammatory Cytokines Converge To Regulate CD8+ T Cell Expansion and Function during Tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2016 Feb 15; 196(4):1822-31. PMID: 26755819.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Carpenter SM, Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Way SS, Behar SM. A Higher Activation Threshold of Memory CD8+ T Cells Has a Fitness Cost That Is Modified by TCR Affinity during Tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005380. PMID: 26745507.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Behar SM, Baehrecke EH. Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer. Nature. 2015 Dec 24; 528(7583):482-3. PMID: 26649822.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Carpenter SM, Rothchild AC, Martin CJ, Desjardins D, Steblenko K, Kløverpris HN, Madansein R, Ramsuran D, Leslie A, Correia-Neves M, Behar SM. Human and Murine Clonal CD8+ T Cell Expansions Arise during Tuberculosis Because of TCR Selection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004849. PMID: 25945999.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Behar SM, Carpenter SM, Booty MG, Barber DL, Jayaraman P. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus. Semin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 26(6):559-77. PMID: 25311810.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Martinez N, Vallerskog T, West K, Nunes-Alves C, Lee J, Martens GW, Behar SM, Kornfeld H. Chromatin decondensation and T cell hyperresponsiveness in diabetes-associated hyperglycemia. J Immunol. 2014 Nov 1; 193(9):4457-68. PMID: 25246495.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Behar SM, Sassetti CM. Immunology: Fixing the odds against tuberculosis. Nature. 2014 Jul 3; 511(7507):39-40. PMID: 24990740.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Carpenter SM, Jayaraman P, Rothchild AC, Behar SM. In search of a new paradigm for protective immunity to TB. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Apr; 12(4):289-99. PMID: 24590243.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Rothchild AC, Jayaraman P, Nunes-Alves C, Behar SM. iNKT cell production of GM-CSF controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003805. PMID: 24391492.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Martin CJ, Peters KN, Behar SM. Macrophages clean up: efferocytosis and microbial control. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Feb; 17:17-23. PMID: 24581688.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Zhang YJ, Reddy MC, Ioerger TR, Rothchild AC, Dartois V, Schuster BM, Trauner A, Wallis D, Galaviz S, Huttenhower C, Sacchettini JC, Behar SM, Rubin EJ. Tryptophan biosynthesis protects mycobacteria from CD4 T-cell-mediated killing. Cell. 2013 Dec 5; 155(6):1296-308. PMID: 24315099.
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    17. Nunes-Alves C, Nobrega C, Behar SM, Correia-Neves M. Tolerance has its limits: how the thymus copes with infection. Trends Immunol. 2013 Oct; 34(10):502-10. PMID: 23871487.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Jayaraman P, Sada-Ovalle I, Nishimura T, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Remold HG, Behar SM. IL-1ß promotes antimicrobial immunity in macrophages by regulating TNFR signaling and caspase-3 activation. J Immunol. 2013 Apr 15; 190(8):4196-204. PMID: 23487424.
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    19. Nobrega C, Nunes-Alves C, Cerqueira-Rodrigues B, Roque S, Barreira-Silva P, Behar SM, Correia-Neves M. T cells home to the thymus and control infection. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 15; 190(4):1646-58. PMID: 23315077.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Tatituri RV, Watts GF, Bhowruth V, Barton N, Rothchild A, Hsu FF, Almeida CF, Cox LR, Eggeling L, Cardell S, Rossjohn J, Godfrey DI, Behar SM, Besra GS, Brenner MB, Brigl M. Recognition of microbial and mammalian phospholipid antigens by NKT cells with diverse TCRs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 29; 110(5):1827-32. PMID: 23307809.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Divangahi M, Behar SM, Remold H. Dying to live: how the death modality of the infected macrophage affects immunity to tuberculosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 783:103-20. PMID: 23468106.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Behar SM. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 783:141-63. PMID: 23468108.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Sada-Ovalle I, Chávez-Galán L, Torre-Bouscoulet L, Nava-Gamiño L, Barrera L, Jayaraman P, Torres-Rojas M, Salazar-Lezama MA, Behar SM. The Tim3-galectin 9 pathway induces antibacterial activity in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5896-902. PMID: 23180819.
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    24. Martin CJ, Booty MG, Rosebrock TR, Nunes-Alves C, Desjardins DM, Keren I, Fortune SM, Remold HG, Behar SM. Efferocytosis is an innate antibacterial mechanism. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Sep 13; 12(3):289-300. PMID: 22980326.
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    25. Layre E, Sweet L, Hong S, Madigan CA, Desjardins D, Young DC, Cheng TY, Annand JW, Kim K, Shamputa IC, McConnell MJ, Debono CA, Behar SM, Minnaard AJ, Murray M, Barry CE, Matsunaga I, Moody DB. A comparative lipidomics platform for chemotaxonomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chem Biol. 2011 Dec 23; 18(12):1537-49. PMID: 22195556.
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    26. Nandi B, Behar SM. Regulation of neutrophils by interferon-? limits lung inflammation during tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2011 Oct 24; 208(11):2251-62. PMID: 21967766.
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    27. Sakuishi K, Jayaraman P, Behar SM, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK. Emerging Tim-3 functions in antimicrobial and tumor immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Aug; 32(8):345-9. PMID: 21697013.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Sillé FC, Martin C, Jayaraman P, Rothchild A, Fortune S, Besra GS, Behar SM, Boes M. Requirement for invariant chain in macrophages for Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication and CD1d antigen presentation. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3053-63. PMID: 21576321.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Sillé FC, Martin C, Jayaraman P, Rothchild A, Besra GS, Behar SM, Boes M. Critical role for invariant chain in CD1d-mediated selection and maturation of Va14-invariant NKT cells. Immunol Lett. 2011 Sep 30; 139(1-2):33-41. PMID: 21565221.
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    30. Behar SM, Martin CJ, Nunes-Alves C, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Lipids, apoptosis, and cross-presentation: links in the chain of host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 2011 Aug; 13(8-9):749-56. PMID: 21458584.
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    31. Akhrameyeva NV, Zhang P, Sugiyama N, Behar SM, Yao F. Development of a glycoprotein D-expressing dominant-negative and replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) recombinant viral vaccine against HSV-2 infection in mice. J Virol. 2011 May; 85(10):5036-47. PMID: 21389121.
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    32. Dieudé M, Striegl H, Tyznik AJ, Wang J, Behar SM, Piccirillo CA, Levine JS, Zajonc DM, Rauch J. Cardiolipin binds to CD1d and stimulates CD1d-restricted ?d T cells in the normal murine repertoire. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4771-81. PMID: 21389252.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Behar SM, Martin CJ, Booty MG, Nishimura T, Zhao X, Gan HX, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Apoptosis is an innate defense function of macrophages against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 May; 4(3):279-87. PMID: 21307848.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Woodworth JS, Shin D, Volman M, Nunes-Alves C, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis directs immunofocusing of CD8+ T cell responses despite vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 1; 186(3):1627-37. PMID: 21178003.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Jayaraman P, Sada-Ovalle I, Beladi S, Anderson AC, Dardalhon V, Hotta C, Kuchroo VK, Behar SM. Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity. J Exp Med. 2010 Oct 25; 207(11):2343-54. PMID: 20937702.
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    36. Behar SM, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Evasion of innate immunity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is death an exit strategy? Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Sep; 8(9):668-74. PMID: 20676146.
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    37. Divangahi M, Desjardins D, Nunes-Alves C, Remold HG, Behar SM. Eicosanoid pathways regulate adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Immunol. 2010 Aug; 11(8):751-8. PMID: 20622882.
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    38. Zeissig S, Dougan SK, Barral DC, Junker Y, Chen Z, Kaser A, Ho M, Mandel H, McIntyre A, Kennedy SM, Painter GF, Veerapen N, Besra GS, Cerundolo V, Yue S, Beladi S, Behar SM, Chen X, Gumperz JE, Breckpot K, Raper A, Baer A, Exley MA, Hegele RA, Cuchel M, Rader DJ, Davidson NO, Blumberg RS. Primary deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in human abetalipoproteinemia is associated with loss of CD1 function. J Clin Invest. 2010 Aug; 120(8):2889-99. PMID: 20592474.
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    39. Garces A, Atmakuri K, Chase MR, Woodworth JS, Krastins B, Rothchild AC, Ramsdell TL, Lopez MF, Behar SM, Sarracino DA, Fortune SM. EspA acts as a critical mediator of ESX1-dependent virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by affecting bacterial cell wall integrity. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jun 24; 6(6):e1000957. PMID: 20585630.
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    40. Sada-Ovalle I, Sköld M, Tian T, Besra GS, Behar SM. Alpha-galactosylceramide as a therapeutic agent for pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep 15; 182(6):841-7. PMID: 20508216.
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    41. Kiener HP, Watts GF, Cui Y, Wright J, Thornhill TS, Sköld M, Behar SM, Niederreiter B, Lu J, Cernadas M, Coyle AJ, Sims GP, Smolen J, Warman ML, Brenner MB, Lee DM. Synovial fibroblasts self-direct multicellular lining architecture and synthetic function in three-dimensional organ culture. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Mar; 62(3):742-52. PMID: 20131230.
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    42. Iweala OI, Smith DW, Matharu KS, Sada-Ovalle I, Nguyen DD, Dekruyff RH, Umetsu DT, Behar SM, Nagler CR. Vaccine-induced antibody isotypes are skewed by impaired CD4 T cell and invariant NKT cell effector responses in MyD88-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2009 Aug 15; 183(4):2252-60. PMID: 19620295.
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    43. Divangahi M, Chen M, Gan H, Desjardins D, Hickman TT, Lee DM, Fortune S, Behar SM, Remold HG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades macrophage defenses by inhibiting plasma membrane repair. Nat Immunol. 2009 Aug; 10(8):899-906. PMID: 19561612.
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    44. Behar SM, Shin DS, Maier A, Coblyn J, Helfgott S, Weinblatt ME. Use of the T-SPOT.TB assay to detect latent tuberculosis infection among rheumatic disease patients on immunosuppressive therapy. J Rheumatol. 2009 Mar; 36(3):546-51. PMID: 19228655.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Woodworth JS, Wu Y, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells require perforin to kill target cells and provide protection in vivo. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8595-603. PMID: 19050279.
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    46. Sada-Ovalle I, Chiba A, Gonzales A, Brenner MB, Behar SM. Innate invariant NKT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages, produce interferon-gamma, and kill intracellular bacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Dec; 4(12):e1000239. PMID: 19079582.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Sköld M, Behar SM. Tuberculosis triggers a tissue-dependent program of differentiation and acquisition of effector functions by circulating monocytes. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 1; 181(9):6349-60. PMID: 18941226.
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    48. Chen M, Divangahi M, Gan H, Shin DS, Hong S, Lee DM, Serhan CN, Behar SM, Remold HG. Lipid mediators in innate immunity against tuberculosis: opposing roles of PGE2 and LXA4 in the induction of macrophage death. J Exp Med. 2008 Nov 24; 205(12):2791-801. PMID: 18955568.
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    49. Pollock NR, Campos-Neto A, Kashino S, Napolitano D, Behar SM, Shin D, Sloutsky A, Joshi S, Guillet J, Wong M, Nardell E. Discordant QuantiFERON-TB Gold test results among US healthcare workers with increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection: a problem or solution? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008 Sep; 29(9):878-86. PMID: 18713053.
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    50. Matsunaga I, Naka T, Talekar RS, McConnell MJ, Katoh K, Nakao H, Otsuka A, Behar SM, Yano I, Moody DB, Sugita M. Mycolyltransferase-mediated glycolipid exchange in Mycobacteria. J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 24; 283(43):28835-41. PMID: 18703502.
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    51. Woodworth JS, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Bacterial protein secretion is required for priming of CD8+ T cells specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen CFP10. Infect Immun. 2008 Sep; 76(9):4199-205. PMID: 18591224.
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    52. Wu Y, Woodworth JS, Shin DS, Morris S, Behar SM. Vaccine-elicited 10-kilodalton culture filtrate protein-specific CD8+ T cells are sufficient to mediate protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2249-55. PMID: 18332205.
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    53. Ernst JD, Lewinsohn DM, Behar S, Blythe M, Schlesinger LS, Kornfeld H, Sette A. Meeting Report: NIH Workshop on the Tuberculosis Immune Epitope Database. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Jul; 88(4):366-70. PMID: 18068490.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Behar SM, Woodworth JS, Wu Y. Next generation: tuberculosis vaccines that elicit protective CD8+ T cells. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Jun; 6(3):441-56. PMID: 17542758.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Behar SM, Porcelli SA. CD1-restricted T cells in host defense to infectious diseases. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007; 314:215-50. PMID: 17593663.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Kamath A, Woodworth JS, Behar SM. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and the development of central memory during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 1; 177(9):6361-9. PMID: 17056567.
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    57. Kinjo Y, Tupin E, Wu D, Fujio M, Garcia-Navarro R, Benhnia MR, Zajonc DM, Ben-Menachem G, Ainge GD, Painter GF, Khurana A, Hoebe K, Behar SM, Beutler B, Wilson IA, Tsuji M, Sellati TJ, Wong CH, Kronenberg M. Natural killer T cells recognize diacylglycerol antigens from pathogenic bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2006 Sep; 7(9):978-86. PMID: 16921381.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Ghosh S, Chackerian AA, Parker CM, Ballantyne CM, Behar SM. The LFA-1 adhesion molecule is required for protective immunity during pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):4914-22. PMID: 16585587.
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    59. Woodworth JS, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells and their role in immunity. Crit Rev Immunol. 2006; 26(4):317-52. PMID: 17073557.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Sköld M, Xiong X, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Behar SM. Interplay of cytokines and microbial signals in regulation of CD1d expression and NKT cell activation. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 15; 175(6):3584-93. PMID: 16148102.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Tian T, Woodworth J, Sköld M, Behar SM. In vivo depletion of CD11c+ cells delays the CD4+ T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and exacerbates the outcome of infection. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 1; 175(5):3268-72. PMID: 16116218.
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    62. Kamath AB, Behar SM. Anamnestic responses of mice following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):6110-8. PMID: 16113332.
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    63. Debbabi H, Ghosh S, Kamath AB, Alt J, Demello DE, Dunsmore S, Behar SM. Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells present microbial antigens to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Aug; 289(2):L274-9. PMID: 15833765.
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    64. Sköld M, Behar SM. The role of group 1 and group 2 CD1-restricted T cells in microbial immunity. Microbes Infect. 2005 Mar; 7(3):544-51. PMID: 15777730.
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    65. Kamath AB, Alt J, Debbabi H, Taylor C, Behar SM. The major histocompatibility complex haplotype affects T-cell recognition of mycobacterial antigens but not resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3H mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Dec; 72(12):6790-8. PMID: 15557599.
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    66. Kamath AB, Woodworth J, Xiong X, Taylor C, Weng Y, Behar SM. Cytolytic CD8+ T cells recognizing CFP10 are recruited to the lung after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 6; 200(11):1479-89. PMID: 15557351.
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    67. Cernadas M, Sugita M, van der Wel N, Cao X, Gumperz JE, Maltsev S, Besra GS, Behar SM, Peters PJ, Brenner MB. Lysosomal localization of murine CD1d mediated by AP-3 is necessary for NK T cell development. J Immunol. 2003 Oct 15; 171(8):4149-55. PMID: 14530337.
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    68. Sköld M, Behar SM. Role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in microbial immunity. Infect Immun. 2003 Oct; 71(10):5447-55. PMID: 14500461.
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    69. Rauch J, Gumperz J, Robinson C, Sköld M, Roy C, Young DC, Lafleur M, Moody DB, Brenner MB, Costello CE, Behar SM. Structural features of the acyl chain determine self-phospholipid antigen recognition by a CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cell. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):47508-15. PMID: 12963715.
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    70. Kamath AB, Alt J, Debbabi H, Behar SM. Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are not more susceptible than other C3H substrains to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul; 71(7):4112-8. PMID: 12819102.
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    71. Chackerian AA, Behar SM. Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: lessons from inbred strains of mice. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2003; 83(5):279-85. PMID: 12972341.
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    72. Dascher CC, Hiromatsu K, Xiong X, Sugita M, Buhlmann JE, Dodge IL, Lee SY, Roura-Mir C, Watts GF, Roy CJ, Behar SM, Clemens DL, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB. Conservation of CD1 intracellular trafficking patterns between mammalian species. J Immunol. 2002 Dec 15; 169(12):6951-8. PMID: 12471129.
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    73. Chackerian A, Alt J, Perera V, Behar SM. Activation of NKT cells protects mice from tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2002 Nov; 70(11):6302-9. PMID: 12379709.
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    74. Chackerian AA, Alt JM, Perera TV, Dascher CC, Behar SM. Dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by host factors and precedes the initiation of T-cell immunity. Infect Immun. 2002 Aug; 70(8):4501-9. PMID: 12117962.
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    75. Hiromatsu K, Dascher CC, Sugita M, Gingrich-Baker C, Behar SM, LeClair KP, Brenner MB, Porcelli SA. Characterization of guinea-pig group 1 CD1 proteins. Immunology. 2002 Jun; 106(2):159-72. PMID: 12047745.
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    76. Grant EP, Beckman EM, Behar SM, Degano M, Frederique D, Besra GS, Wilson IA, Porcelli SA, Furlong ST, Brenner MB. Fine specificity of TCR complementarity-determining region residues and lipid antigen hydrophilic moieties in the recognition of a CD1-lipid complex. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):3933-40. PMID: 11937549.
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    77. Riese RJ, Shi GP, Villadangos J, Stetson D, Driessen C, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Chu CL, Naumov Y, Behar SM, Ploegh H, Locksley R, Chapman HA. Regulation of CD1 function and NK1.1(+) T cell selection and maturation by cathepsin S. Immunity. 2001 Dec; 15(6):909-19. PMID: 11754813.
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    78. Chackerian AA, Perera TV, Behar SM. Gamma interferon-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes in the lung correlate with resistance to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2001 Apr; 69(4):2666-74. PMID: 11254633.
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    79. Behar SM, Cardell S. Diverse CD1d-restricted T cells: diverse phenotypes, and diverse functions. Semin Immunol. 2000 Dec; 12(6):551-60. PMID: 11145861.
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    80. Melián A, Watts GF, Shamshiev A, De Libero G, Clatworthy A, Vincent M, Brenner MB, Behar S, Niazi K, Modlin RL, Almo S, Ostrov D, Nathenson SG, Porcelli SA. Molecular recognition of human CD1b antigen complexes: evidence for a common pattern of interaction with alpha beta TCRs. J Immunol. 2000 Oct 15; 165(8):4494-504. PMID: 11035089.
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    81. Gumperz JE, Roy C, Makowska A, Lum D, Sugita M, Podrebarac T, Koezuka Y, Porcelli SA, Cardell S, Brenner MB, Behar SM. Murine CD1d-restricted T cell recognition of cellular lipids. Immunity. 2000 Feb; 12(2):211-21. PMID: 10714687.
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    82. Dascher CC, Hiromatsu K, Naylor JW, Brauer PP, Brown KA, Storey JR, Behar SM, Kawasaki ES, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, LeClair KP. Conservation of a CD1 multigene family in the guinea pig. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15; 163(10):5478-88. PMID: 10553074.
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    83. Le Roux P, Behar S, Higgins D, Charette M. OP-1 enhances dendritic growth from cerebral cortical neurons in vitro. Exp Neurol. 1999 Nov; 160(1):151-63. PMID: 10630200.
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    84. Behar SM, Dascher CC, Grusby MJ, Wang CR, Brenner MB. Susceptibility of mice deficient in CD1D or TAP1 to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Exp Med. 1999 Jun 21; 189(12):1973-80. PMID: 10377193.
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    85. Chen YH, Wang B, Chun T, Zhao L, Cardell S, Behar SM, Brenner MB, Wang CR. Expression of CD1d2 on thymocytes is not sufficient for the development of NK T cells in CD1d1-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1999 Apr 15; 162(8):4560-6. PMID: 10201995.
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    86. Behar SM, Podrebarac TA, Roy CJ, Wang CR, Brenner MB. Diverse TCRs recognize murine CD1. J Immunol. 1999 Jan 1; 162(1):161-7. PMID: 9886382.
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    87. Vincent MS, Roessner K, Sellati T, Huston CD, Sigal LH, Behar SM, Radolf JD, Budd RC. Lyme arthritis synovial gamma delta T cells respond to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and lipidated hexapeptides. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5762-71. PMID: 9820558.
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    88. Fan X, Crowe SE, Behar S, Gunasena H, Ye G, Haeberle H, Van Houten N, Gourley WK, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. The effect of class II major histocompatibility complex expression on adherence of Helicobacter pylori and induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells: a mechanism for T helper cell type 1-mediated damage. J Exp Med. 1998 May 18; 187(10):1659-69. PMID: 9584144.
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    89. Sugita M, Moody DB, Jackman RM, Grant EP, Rosat JP, Behar SM, Peters PJ, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB. CD1--a new paradigm for antigen presentation and T cell activation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Apr; 87(1):8-14. PMID: 9576005.
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    90. Behar SM, Chertow GM. Olecranon bursitis caused by infection with Candida lusitaniae. J Rheumatol. 1998 Mar; 25(3):598-600. PMID: 9517788.
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    91. Behar SM, Roy C, Lederer J, Fraser P, Brenner MB. Clonally expanded Valpha12+ (AV12S1),CD8+ T cells from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis are autoreactive. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Mar; 41(3):498-506. PMID: 9506578.
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    92. Prigozy TI, Sieling PA, Clemens D, Stewart PL, Behar SM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, Modlin RL, Kronenberg M. The mannose receptor delivers lipoglycan antigens to endosomes for presentation to T cells by CD1b molecules. Immunity. 1997 Feb; 6(2):187-97. PMID: 9047240.
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    93. Beckman EM, Melián A, Behar SM, Sieling PA, Chatterjee D, Furlong ST, Matsumoto R, Rosat JP, Modlin RL, Porcelli SA. CD1c restricts responses of mycobacteria-specific T cells. Evidence for antigen presentation by a second member of the human CD1 family. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 1; 157(7):2795-803. PMID: 8816382.
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    94. Sugita M, Jackman RM, van Donselaar E, Behar SM, Rogers RA, Peters PJ, Brenner MB, Porcelli SA. Cytoplasmic tail-dependent localization of CD1b antigen-presenting molecules to MIICs. Science. 1996 Jul 19; 273(5273):349-52. PMID: 8662520.
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    95. Behar SM, Porcelli SA, Beckman EM, Brenner MB. A pathway of costimulation that prevents anergy in CD28- T cells: B7-independent costimulation of CD1-restricted T cells. J Exp Med. 1995 Dec 1; 182(6):2007-18. PMID: 7500046.
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    96. Behar SM, Roy C, Brenner MB. Expansions of V alpha 12 CD8+ T-cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Jul 7; 756:130-7. PMID: 7645819.
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    97. Behar SM, Porcelli SA. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction. The role of the immune response to microbial pathogens. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Apr; 38(4):458-76. PMID: 7718001.
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    98. Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Morita CT, Behar SM, Furlong ST, Brenner MB. Recognition of a lipid antigen by CD1-restricted alpha beta+ T cells. Nature. 1994 Dec 15; 372(6507):691-4. PMID: 7527500.
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    99. Behar SM, Lustgarten DL, Corbet S, Scharff MD. Characterization of somatically mutated S107 VH11-encoded anti-DNA autoantibodies derived from autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. J Exp Med. 1991 Mar 1; 173(3):731-41. PMID: 1900082.
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    100. Behar SM, Chien NC, Corbet S, Diamond B, Getzoff ED, Lustgarten D, Roberts VA, Scharff MD, Shin SU. Impact of somatic mutation on the S107(T15) heavy-chain V region of antibodies reactive with self and nonself. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1989; 54 Pt 2:921-31. PMID: 2518013.
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    101. Peng AT, Behar S, Yue SJ. Long-term therapeutic effects of electro-acupuncture for chronic neck and shoulder pain--a double blind study. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1987; 12(1):37-44. PMID: 2883835.
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    102. Fox RI, Hueniken M, Fong S, Behar S, Royston I, Singhal SK, Thompson L. A novel cell surface antigen (T305) found in increased frequency on acute leukemia cells and in autoimmune disease states. J Immunol. 1983 Aug; 131(2):762-7. PMID: 6602845.
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