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Samuel M Behar MD, PhD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
368 Plantation Street AS8-2053
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United StatesBSChemistry
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United StatesMD
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United StatesPHDMedicine & Immunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Summary
    Focus: We seek to understand how the causative agent of tuberculosis, namely the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades host immunity, and how different components of the immune response work together to contain infection. Our ultimate goal is to inform vaccine development and the design of host directed therapy.
    Collapse overview


    Immunity to Tuberculosis. It is estimated that 1/3 of the world’s population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the majority of infected people, the immune response is able to adequately control the infection, and consequently only 5-10% will develop clinical disease during their lifetime. My long-term goal is to understand the immunological basis for protective immunity. One way we are investigating this problem is to determine why different mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to tuberculosis. We have observed that certain susceptible mouse strains are unable to efficiently recruit T cells to the lung following infection with Mtb, and this failure likely contributes to increased mortality and morbidity of susceptible mice. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the early events leading to the initiation of the pulmonary immune response following respiratory Mtb infection. This includes establishing how T cells and myeloid cells are recruited back to the lung and how these cells mediate their effector functions.

    Although BCG is used universally as a vaccine, its efficacy in preventing pulmonary tuberculosis is controversial. Most Mtb infected individuals develop long-lived immunity that contains the infection in a T cell-dependent manner. Thus, there is considerable interest in how different T cell subsets contribute to immunity and whether vaccination can stimulate protective T cells. Delineating the role of CD8+ T cells in host immunity to Mtb has been hindered by the paucity of antigens known to be recognized by CD8+ T cells. Our antigen discovery program has successfully identified and defined several mycobacterial peptide epitopes that are recognized by CD8+ T cells. For example, CD8+ T cells specific for culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP10) are found in infected people, indicating that CFP10 can prime CD8+ T cells after infection. Notably, CFP10 is encoded in the RD1 genetic locus, which is associated with Mtb virulence. The aim of our studies is to identify, enumerate and functionally characterize antigen-specific CD8+ T cells that are elicited following pulmonary infection. Finally, we are determining whether these antigens can be used as vaccines to elicit protective immunity.

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Lai R, Williams T, Rakib T, Lee J, Behar SM. Heterogeneity in lung macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is determined by T cells. bioRxiv. 2023 Dec 01. PMID: 38076803.
    2. Lai R, Ogunsola AF, Rakib T, Behar SM. Key advances in vaccine development for tuberculosis-success and challenges. NPJ Vaccines. 2023 Oct 13; 8(1):158. PMID: 37828070.
    3. Lai R, Gong DN, Williams T, Ogunsola AF, Cavallo K, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Acolatse S, Beamer GL, Ferris MT, Sassetti CM, Lauffenburger DA, Behar SM. Host genetic background is a barrier to broadly effective vaccine-mediated protection against tuberculosis. J Clin Invest. 2023 07 03; 133(13). PMID: 37200108.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Mott D, Yang J, Baer C, Papavinasasundaram K, Sassetti CM, Behar SM. High Bacillary Burden and the ESX-1 Type VII Secretion System Promote MHC Class I Presentation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages to CD8 T Cells. J Immunol. 2023 05 15; 210(10):1531-1542. PMID: 37000471.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    5. Musvosvi M, Huang H, Wang C, Xia Q, Rozot V, Krishnan A, Acs P, Cheruku A, Obermoser G, Leslie A, Behar SM, Hanekom WA, Bilek N, Fisher M, Kaufmann SHE, Walzl G, Hatherill M, Davis MM, Scriba TJ. T cell receptor repertoires associated with control and disease progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Nat Med. 2023 01; 29(1):258-269. PMID: 36604540.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Thakur P, Sutiwisesak R, Lu YJ, Behar SM. Use of the Human Granulysin Transgenic Mice To Evaluate the Role of Granulysin Expression by CD8 T Cells in Immunity To Mycobacterium tuberculosis. mBio. 2022 12 20; 13(6):e0302022. PMID: 36409085.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Jaiswal S, Nyquist SK, Boyce S, Jivanjee T, Ibrahim S, Bromley JD, Gatter GJ, Gideon H, Patel K, Ganchua SK, Berger B, Fortune SM, Flynn JL, Shalek AK, Behar SM. Identification and characterization of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca Fascicularis). BMC Genomics. 2022 Sep 12; 23(1):647. PMID: 36096729.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Gideon HP, Hughes TK, Tzouanas CN, Wadsworth MH, Tu AA, Gierahn TM, Peters JM, Hopkins FF, Wei JR, Kummerlowe C, Grant NL, Nargan K, Phuah JY, Borish HJ, Maiello P, White AG, Winchell CG, Nyquist SK, Ganchua SKC, Myers A, Patel KV, Ameel CL, Cochran CT, Ibrahim S, Tomko JA, Frye LJ, Rosenberg JM, Shih A, Chao M, Klein E, Scanga CA, Ordovas-Montanes J, Berger B, Mattila JT, Madansein R, Love JC, Lin PL, Leslie A, Behar SM, Bryson B, Flynn JL, Fortune SM, Shalek AK. Multimodal profiling of lung granulomas in macaques reveals cellular correlates of tuberculosis control. Immunity. 2022 05 10; 55(5):827-846.e10. PMID: 35483355.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Carey AF, Wang X, Cicchetti N, Spaulding CN, Liu Q, Hopkins F, Brown J, Sixsmith J, Sutiwisesak R, Behar SM, Ioerger TR, Fortune SM. Multiplexed Strain Phenotyping Defines Consequences of Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Infection and Vaccination Outcomes. mSystems. 2022 06 28; 7(3):e0011022. PMID: 35430871.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    
    10. Jivanjee T, Ibrahim S, Nyquist SK, Gatter GJ, Bromley JD, Jaiswal S, Berger B, Behar SM, Love JC, Shalek AK. Enriching and Characterizing T Cell Repertoires from 3' Barcoded Single-Cell Whole Transcriptome Amplification Products. Methods Mol Biol. 2022; 2574:159-182. PMID: 36087201.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    11. Barreira-Silva P, Melo-Miranda R, Nobrega C, Roque S, Serre-Miranda C, Borges M, Armada G, de S? Cal?ada D, Behar SM, Appelberg R, Correia-Neves M. IFN? and iNOS-Mediated Alterations in the Bone Marrow and Thymus and Its Impact on Mycobacterium avium-Induced Thymic Atrophy. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:696415. PMID: 34987496.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Kiritsy MC, McCann K, Mott D, Holland SM, Behar SM, Sassetti CM, Olive AJ. Mitochondrial respiration contributes to the interferon gamma response in antigen-presenting cells. Elife. 2021 11 02; 10. PMID: 34726598.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Lu YJ, Barreira-Silva P, Boyce S, Powers J, Cavallo K, Behar SM. CD4 T?cell help prevents CD8 T?cell exhaustion and promotes control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Cell Rep. 2021 09 14; 36(11):109696. PMID: 34525366.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Ogongo P, Tezera LB, Ardain A, Nhamoyebonde S, Ramsuran D, Singh A, Ng'oepe A, Karim F, Naidoo T, Khan K, Dullabh KJ, Fehlings M, Lee BH, Nardin A, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Sette A, Behar SM, Steyn AJ, Madansein R, Kl?verpris HN, Elkington PT, Leslie A. Tissue-resident-like CD4+ T cells secreting IL-17 control Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the human lung. J Clin Invest. 2021 05 17; 131(10). PMID: 33848273.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    15. Sutiwisesak R, Hicks ND, Boyce S, Murphy KC, Papavinasasundaram K, Carpenter SM, Boucau J, Joshi N, Le Gall S, Fortune SM, Sassetti CM, Behar SM. A natural polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the esxH gene disrupts immunodomination by the TB10.4-specific CD8 T cell response. PLoS Pathog. 2020 10; 16(10):e1009000. PMID: 33075106.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Lee J, Boyce S, Powers J, Baer C, Sassetti CM, Behar SM. CD11cHi?monocyte-derived macrophages are a major cellular compartment infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2020 06; 16(6):e1008621. PMID: 32544188.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Ogongo P, Steyn AJ, Karim F, Dullabh KJ, Awala I, Madansein R, Leslie A, Behar SM. Differential skewing of donor-unrestricted and ?d T cell repertoires in tuberculosis-infected human lungs. J Clin Invest. 2020 01 02; 130(1):214-230. PMID: 31763997.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Behar SM, Sassetti C. Tuberculosis vaccine finds an improved route. Nature. 2020 01; 577(7788):31-32. PMID: 31894152.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    19. Smith CM, Proulx MK, Lai R, Kiritsy MC, Bell TA, Hock P, Pardo-Manuel de Villena F, Ferris MT, Baker RE, Behar SM, Sassetti CM. Functionally Overlapping Variants Control Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Collaborative Cross Mice. mBio. 2019 11 26; 10(6). PMID: 31772048.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Patankar YR, Sutiwisesak R, Boyce S, Lai R, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Sette A, Behar SM. Limited recognition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages by polyclonal CD4 and CD8 T cells from the lungs of infected mice. Mucosal Immunol. 2020 01; 13(1):140-148. PMID: 31636345.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    21. Behar SM, Briken V. Apoptosis inhibition by intracellular bacteria and its consequence on host immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2019 10; 60:103-110. PMID: 31228759.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Wong EB, Gold MC, Meermeier EW, Xulu BZ, Khuzwayo S, Sullivan ZA, Mahyari E, Rogers Z, Kl?verpris H, Sharma PK, Worley AH, Lalloo U, Baijnath P, Ambaram A, Naidoo L, Suleman M, Madansein R, McLaren JE, Ladell K, Miners KL, Price DA, Behar SM, Nielsen M, Kasprowicz VO, Leslie A, Bishai WR, Ndung'u T, Lewinsohn DM. TRAV1-2+ CD8+ T-cells including oligoconal expansions of MAIT cells are enriched in the airways in human tuberculosis. Commun Biol. 2019; 2:203. PMID: 31231693.
    23. Yang JD, Mott D, Sutiwisesak R, Lu YJ, Raso F, Stowell B, Babunovic GH, Lee J, Carpenter SM, Way SS, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differ in their capacity to recognize infected macrophages. PLoS Pathog. 2018 02; 14(5):e1007060. PMID: 29782535.
      Citations: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Carpenter SM, Behar SM. A new vaccine for tuberculosis in rhesus macaques. Nat Med. 2018 02 07; 24(2):124-126. PMID: 29414932.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Carpenter SM, Yang JD, Lee J, Barreira-Silva P, Behar SM. Vaccine-elicited memory CD4+ T cell expansion is impaired in the lungs during tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Nov; 13(11):e1006704. PMID: 29176787.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Rothchild AC, Stowell B, Goyal G, Nunes-Alves C, Yang Q, Papavinasasundaram K, Sassetti CM, Dranoff G, Chen X, Lee J, Behar SM. Role of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Production by T Cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. mBio. 2017 10 24; 8(5). PMID: 29066547.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Boggiano C, Eichelberg K, Ramachandra L, Shea J, Ramakrishnan L, Behar S, Ernst JD, Porcelli SA, Maeurer M, Kornfeld H. "The Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" - Meeting report. Vaccine. 2017 06 14; 35(27):3433-3440. PMID: 28476627.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. Booty MG, Barreira-Silva P, Carpenter SM, Nunes-Alves C, Jacques MK, Stowell BL, Jayaraman P, Beamer G, Behar SM. IL-21 signaling is essential for optimal host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Sci Rep. 2016 11 07; 6:36720. PMID: 27819295.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Smith CM, Proulx MK, Olive AJ, Laddy D, Mishra BB, Moss C, Gutierrez NM, Bellerose MM, Barreira-Silva P, Phuah JY, Baker RE, Behar SM, Kornfeld H, Evans TG, Beamer G, Sassetti CM. Tuberculosis Susceptibility and Vaccine Protection Are Independently Controlled by Host Genotype. mBio. 2016 09 20; 7(5). PMID: 27651361.
      Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Marakalala MJ, Raju RM, Sharma K, Zhang YJ, Eugenin EA, Prideaux B, Daudelin IB, Chen PY, Booty MG, Kim JH, Eum SY, Via LE, Behar SM, Barry CE, Mann M, Dartois V, Rubin EJ. Inflammatory signaling in human tuberculosis granulomas is spatially organized. Nat Med. 2016 05; 22(5):531-8. PMID: 27043495.
      Citations: 143     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Jayaraman P, Jacques MK, Zhu C, Steblenko KM, Stowell BL, Madi A, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Behar SM. TIM3 Mediates T Cell Exhaustion during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Mar; 12(3):e1005490. PMID: 26967901.
      Citations: 88     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. Booty MG, Nunes-Alves C, Carpenter SM, Jayaraman P, Behar SM. Multiple Inflammatory Cytokines Converge To Regulate CD8+ T Cell Expansion and Function during Tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2016 Feb 15; 196(4):1822-31. PMID: 26755819.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Carpenter SM, Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Way SS, Behar SM. A Higher Activation Threshold of Memory CD8+ T Cells Has a Fitness Cost That Is Modified by TCR Affinity during Tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jan; 12(1):e1005380. PMID: 26745507.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Behar SM, Baehrecke EH. Tuberculosis: Autophagy is not the answer. Nature. 2015 Dec 24; 528(7583):482-3. PMID: 26649822.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Carpenter SM, Rothchild AC, Martin CJ, Desjardins D, Steblenko K, Kl?verpris HN, Madansein R, Ramsuran D, Leslie A, Correia-Neves M, Behar SM. Human and Murine Clonal CD8+ T Cell Expansions Arise during Tuberculosis Because of TCR Selection. PLoS Pathog. 2015 May; 11(5):e1004849. PMID: 25945999.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Behar SM, Carpenter SM, Booty MG, Barber DL, Jayaraman P. Orchestration of pulmonary T cell immunity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: immunity interruptus. Semin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 26(6):559-77. PMID: 25311810.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    37. Martinez N, Vallerskog T, West K, Nunes-Alves C, Lee J, Martens GW, Behar SM, Kornfeld H. Chromatin decondensation and T cell hyperresponsiveness in diabetes-associated hyperglycemia. J Immunol. 2014 Nov 01; 193(9):4457-68. PMID: 25246495.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Behar SM, Sassetti CM. Immunology: Fixing the odds against tuberculosis. Nature. 2014 Jul 03; 511(7507):39-40. PMID: 24990740.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Nunes-Alves C, Booty MG, Carpenter SM, Jayaraman P, Rothchild AC, Behar SM. In search of a new paradigm for protective immunity to TB. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 04; 12(4):289-99. PMID: 24590243.
      Citations: 153     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Rothchild AC, Jayaraman P, Nunes-Alves C, Behar SM. iNKT cell production of GM-CSF controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003805. PMID: 24391492.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Martin CJ, Peters KN, Behar SM. Macrophages clean up: efferocytosis and microbial control. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Feb; 17:17-23. PMID: 24581688.
      Citations: 79     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Zhang YJ, Reddy MC, Ioerger TR, Rothchild AC, Dartois V, Schuster BM, Trauner A, Wallis D, Galaviz S, Huttenhower C, Sacchettini JC, Behar SM, Rubin EJ. Tryptophan biosynthesis protects mycobacteria from CD4 T-cell-mediated killing. Cell. 2013 Dec 05; 155(6):1296-308. PMID: 24315099.
      Citations: 171     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Nunes-Alves C, Nobrega C, Behar SM, Correia-Neves M. Tolerance has its limits: how the thymus copes with infection. Trends Immunol. 2013 Oct; 34(10):502-10. PMID: 23871487.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Jayaraman P, Sada-Ovalle I, Nishimura T, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Remold HG, Behar SM. IL-1? promotes antimicrobial immunity in macrophages by regulating TNFR signaling and caspase-3 activation. J Immunol. 2013 Apr 15; 190(8):4196-204. PMID: 23487424.
      Citations: 114     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Nobrega C, Nunes-Alves C, Cerqueira-Rodrigues B, Roque S, Barreira-Silva P, Behar SM, Correia-Neves M. T cells home to the thymus and control infection. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 15; 190(4):1646-58. PMID: 23315077.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Tatituri RV, Watts GF, Bhowruth V, Barton N, Rothchild A, Hsu FF, Almeida CF, Cox LR, Eggeling L, Cardell S, Rossjohn J, Godfrey DI, Behar SM, Besra GS, Brenner MB, Brigl M. Recognition of microbial and mammalian phospholipid antigens by NKT cells with diverse TCRs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 29; 110(5):1827-32. PMID: 23307809.
      Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Divangahi M, Behar SM, Remold H. Dying to live: how the death modality of the infected macrophage affects immunity to tuberculosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 783:103-20. PMID: 23468106.
      Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Behar SM. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and protective immunity to tuberculosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 783:141-63. PMID: 23468108.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Sada-Ovalle I, Ch?vez-Gal?n L, Torre-Bouscoulet L, Nava-Gami?o L, Barrera L, Jayaraman P, Torres-Rojas M, Salazar-Lezama MA, Behar SM. The Tim3-galectin 9 pathway induces antibacterial activity in human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5896-902. PMID: 23180819.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Martin CJ, Booty MG, Rosebrock TR, Nunes-Alves C, Desjardins DM, Keren I, Fortune SM, Remold HG, Behar SM. Efferocytosis is an innate antibacterial mechanism. Cell Host Microbe. 2012 Sep 13; 12(3):289-300. PMID: 22980326.
      Citations: 141     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Layre E, Sweet L, Hong S, Madigan CA, Desjardins D, Young DC, Cheng TY, Annand JW, Kim K, Shamputa IC, McConnell MJ, Debono CA, Behar SM, Minnaard AJ, Murray M, Barry CE, Matsunaga I, Moody DB. A comparative lipidomics platform for chemotaxonomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chem Biol. 2011 Dec 23; 18(12):1537-49. PMID: 22195556.
      Citations: 99     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Nandi B, Behar SM. Regulation of neutrophils by interferon-? limits lung inflammation during tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2011 Oct 24; 208(11):2251-62. PMID: 21967766.
      Citations: 206     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Sakuishi K, Jayaraman P, Behar SM, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK. Emerging Tim-3 functions in antimicrobial and tumor immunity. Trends Immunol. 2011 Aug; 32(8):345-9. PMID: 21697013.
      Citations: 122     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. Sill? FC, Martin C, Jayaraman P, Rothchild A, Fortune S, Besra GS, Behar SM, Boes M. Requirement for invariant chain in macrophages for Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication and CD1d antigen presentation. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3053-63. PMID: 21576321.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Sill? FC, Martin C, Jayaraman P, Rothchild A, Besra GS, Behar SM, Boes M. Critical role for invariant chain in CD1d-mediated selection and maturation of Va14-invariant NKT cells. Immunol Lett. 2011 Sep 30; 139(1-2):33-41. PMID: 21565221.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Behar SM, Martin CJ, Nunes-Alves C, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Lipids, apoptosis, and cross-presentation: links in the chain of host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 2011 Aug; 13(8-9):749-56. PMID: 21458584.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Akhrameyeva NV, Zhang P, Sugiyama N, Behar SM, Yao F. Development of a glycoprotein D-expressing dominant-negative and replication-defective herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) recombinant viral vaccine against HSV-2 infection in mice. J Virol. 2011 May; 85(10):5036-47. PMID: 21389121.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Dieud? M, Striegl H, Tyznik AJ, Wang J, Behar SM, Piccirillo CA, Levine JS, Zajonc DM, Rauch J. Cardiolipin binds to CD1d and stimulates CD1d-restricted ?d T cells in the normal murine repertoire. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4771-81. PMID: 21389252.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Behar SM, Martin CJ, Booty MG, Nishimura T, Zhao X, Gan HX, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Apoptosis is an innate defense function of macrophages against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 May; 4(3):279-87. PMID: 21307848.
      Citations: 206     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Woodworth JS, Shin D, Volman M, Nunes-Alves C, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis directs immunofocusing of CD8+ T cell responses despite vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 01; 186(3):1627-37. PMID: 21178003.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Jayaraman P, Sada-Ovalle I, Beladi S, Anderson AC, Dardalhon V, Hotta C, Kuchroo VK, Behar SM. Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity. J Exp Med. 2010 Oct 25; 207(11):2343-54. PMID: 20937702.
      Citations: 96     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Behar SM, Divangahi M, Remold HG. Evasion of innate immunity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is death an exit strategy? Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 09; 8(9):668-74. PMID: 20676146.
      Citations: 219     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Divangahi M, Desjardins D, Nunes-Alves C, Remold HG, Behar SM. Eicosanoid pathways regulate adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat Immunol. 2010 Aug; 11(8):751-8. PMID: 20622882.
      Citations: 126     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Zeissig S, Dougan SK, Barral DC, Junker Y, Chen Z, Kaser A, Ho M, Mandel H, McIntyre A, Kennedy SM, Painter GF, Veerapen N, Besra GS, Cerundolo V, Yue S, Beladi S, Behar SM, Chen X, Gumperz JE, Breckpot K, Raper A, Baer A, Exley MA, Hegele RA, Cuchel M, Rader DJ, Davidson NO, Blumberg RS. Primary deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein in human abetalipoproteinemia is associated with loss of CD1 function. J Clin Invest. 2010 Aug; 120(8):2889-99. PMID: 20592474.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    65. Garces A, Atmakuri K, Chase MR, Woodworth JS, Krastins B, Rothchild AC, Ramsdell TL, Lopez MF, Behar SM, Sarracino DA, Fortune SM. EspA acts as a critical mediator of ESX1-dependent virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by affecting bacterial cell wall integrity. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jun 24; 6(6):e1000957. PMID: 20585630.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Sada-Ovalle I, Sk?ld M, Tian T, Besra GS, Behar SM. Alpha-galactosylceramide as a therapeutic agent for pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Sep 15; 182(6):841-7. PMID: 20508216.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Kiener HP, Watts GF, Cui Y, Wright J, Thornhill TS, Sk?ld M, Behar SM, Niederreiter B, Lu J, Cernadas M, Coyle AJ, Sims GP, Smolen J, Warman ML, Brenner MB, Lee DM. Synovial fibroblasts self-direct multicellular lining architecture and synthetic function in three-dimensional organ culture. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Mar; 62(3):742-52. PMID: 20131230.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    68. Iweala OI, Smith DW, Matharu KS, Sada-Ovalle I, Nguyen DD, Dekruyff RH, Umetsu DT, Behar SM, Nagler CR. Vaccine-induced antibody isotypes are skewed by impaired CD4 T cell and invariant NKT cell effector responses in MyD88-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2009 Aug 15; 183(4):2252-60. PMID: 19620295.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. Divangahi M, Chen M, Gan H, Desjardins D, Hickman TT, Lee DM, Fortune S, Behar SM, Remold HG. Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades macrophage defenses by inhibiting plasma membrane repair. Nat Immunol. 2009 Aug; 10(8):899-906. PMID: 19561612.
      Citations: 193     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    70. Behar SM, Shin DS, Maier A, Coblyn J, Helfgott S, Weinblatt ME. Use of the T-SPOT.TB assay to detect latent tuberculosis infection among rheumatic disease patients on immunosuppressive therapy. J Rheumatol. 2009 Mar; 36(3):546-51. PMID: 19228655.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. Woodworth JS, Wu Y, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells require perforin to kill target cells and provide protection in vivo. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8595-603. PMID: 19050279.
      Citations: 77     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Sada-Ovalle I, Chiba A, Gonzales A, Brenner MB, Behar SM. Innate invariant NKT cells recognize Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages, produce interferon-gamma, and kill intracellular bacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Dec; 4(12):e1000239. PMID: 19079582.
      Citations: 120     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    73. Sk?ld M, Behar SM. Tuberculosis triggers a tissue-dependent program of differentiation and acquisition of effector functions by circulating monocytes. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 01; 181(9):6349-60. PMID: 18941226.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    74. Chen M, Divangahi M, Gan H, Shin DS, Hong S, Lee DM, Serhan CN, Behar SM, Remold HG. Lipid mediators in innate immunity against tuberculosis: opposing roles of PGE2 and LXA4 in the induction of macrophage death. J Exp Med. 2008 Nov 24; 205(12):2791-801. PMID: 18955568.
      Citations: 182     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    75. Pollock NR, Campos-Neto A, Kashino S, Napolitano D, Behar SM, Shin D, Sloutsky A, Joshi S, Guillet J, Wong M, Nardell E. Discordant QuantiFERON-TB Gold test results among US healthcare workers with increased risk of latent tuberculosis infection: a problem or solution? Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2008 Sep; 29(9):878-86. PMID: 18713053.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    76. Matsunaga I, Naka T, Talekar RS, McConnell MJ, Katoh K, Nakao H, Otsuka A, Behar SM, Yano I, Moody DB, Sugita M. Mycolyltransferase-mediated glycolipid exchange in Mycobacteria. J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 24; 283(43):28835-41. PMID: 18703502.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Woodworth JS, Fortune SM, Behar SM. Bacterial protein secretion is required for priming of CD8+ T cells specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen CFP10. Infect Immun. 2008 Sep; 76(9):4199-205. PMID: 18591224.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. Wu Y, Woodworth JS, Shin DS, Morris S, Behar SM. Vaccine-elicited 10-kilodalton culture filtrate protein-specific CD8+ T cells are sufficient to mediate protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Infect Immun. 2008 May; 76(5):2249-55. PMID: 18332205.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Ernst JD, Lewinsohn DM, Behar S, Blythe M, Schlesinger LS, Kornfeld H, Sette A. Meeting Report: NIH Workshop on the Tuberculosis Immune Epitope Database. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Jul; 88(4):366-70. PMID: 18068490.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    80. Behar SM, Woodworth JS, Wu Y. Next generation: tuberculosis vaccines that elicit protective CD8+ T cells. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Jun; 6(3):441-56. PMID: 17542758.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    81. Behar SM, Porcelli SA. CD1-restricted T cells in host defense to infectious diseases. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007; 314:215-50. PMID: 17593663.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    82. Kamath A, Woodworth JS, Behar SM. Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and the development of central memory during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 01; 177(9):6361-9. PMID: 17056567.
      Citations: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Kinjo Y, Tupin E, Wu D, Fujio M, Garcia-Navarro R, Benhnia MR, Zajonc DM, Ben-Menachem G, Ainge GD, Painter GF, Khurana A, Hoebe K, Behar SM, Beutler B, Wilson IA, Tsuji M, Sellati TJ, Wong CH, Kronenberg M. Natural killer T cells recognize diacylglycerol antigens from pathogenic bacteria. Nat Immunol. 2006 Sep; 7(9):978-86. PMID: 16921381.
      Citations: 299     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    84. Ghosh S, Chackerian AA, Parker CM, Ballantyne CM, Behar SM. The LFA-1 adhesion molecule is required for protective immunity during pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 15; 176(8):4914-22. PMID: 16585587.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. Woodworth JS, Behar SM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T cells and their role in immunity. Crit Rev Immunol. 2006; 26(4):317-52. PMID: 17073557.
      Citations: 82     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    86. Sk?ld M, Xiong X, Illarionov PA, Besra GS, Behar SM. Interplay of cytokines and microbial signals in regulation of CD1d expression and NKT cell activation. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 15; 175(6):3584-93. PMID: 16148102.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Tian T, Woodworth J, Sk?ld M, Behar SM. In vivo depletion of CD11c+ cells delays the CD4+ T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and exacerbates the outcome of infection. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 01; 175(5):3268-72. PMID: 16116218.
      Citations: 86     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    88. Kamath AB, Behar SM. Anamnestic responses of mice following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Sep; 73(9):6110-8. PMID: 16113332.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    89. Debbabi H, Ghosh S, Kamath AB, Alt J, Demello DE, Dunsmore S, Behar SM. Primary type II alveolar epithelial cells present microbial antigens to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005 Aug; 289(2):L274-9. PMID: 15833765.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Sk?ld M, Behar SM. The role of group 1 and group 2 CD1-restricted T cells in microbial immunity. Microbes Infect. 2005 Mar; 7(3):544-51. PMID: 15777730.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    91. Kamath AB, Alt J, Debbabi H, Taylor C, Behar SM. The major histocompatibility complex haplotype affects T-cell recognition of mycobacterial antigens but not resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C3H mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Dec; 72(12):6790-8. PMID: 15557599.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    92. Kamath AB, Woodworth J, Xiong X, Taylor C, Weng Y, Behar SM. Cytolytic CD8+ T cells recognizing CFP10 are recruited to the lung after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. J Exp Med. 2004 Dec 06; 200(11):1479-89. PMID: 15557351.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Cernadas M, Sugita M, van der Wel N, Cao X, Gumperz JE, Maltsev S, Besra GS, Behar SM, Peters PJ, Brenner MB. Lysosomal localization of murine CD1d mediated by AP-3 is necessary for NK T cell development. J Immunol. 2003 Oct 15; 171(8):4149-55. PMID: 14530337.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    94. Sk?ld M, Behar SM. Role of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in microbial immunity. Infect Immun. 2003 Oct; 71(10):5447-55. PMID: 14500461.
      Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    95. Rauch J, Gumperz J, Robinson C, Sk?ld M, Roy C, Young DC, Lafleur M, Moody DB, Brenner MB, Costello CE, Behar SM. Structural features of the acyl chain determine self-phospholipid antigen recognition by a CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cell. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):47508-15. PMID: 12963715.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    96. Kamath AB, Alt J, Debbabi H, Behar SM. Toll-like receptor 4-defective C3H/HeJ mice are not more susceptible than other C3H substrains to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul; 71(7):4112-8. PMID: 12819102.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    97. Chackerian AA, Behar SM. Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: lessons from inbred strains of mice. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2003; 83(5):279-85. PMID: 12972341.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Dascher CC, Hiromatsu K, Xiong X, Sugita M, Buhlmann JE, Dodge IL, Lee SY, Roura-Mir C, Watts GF, Roy CJ, Behar SM, Clemens DL, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB. Conservation of CD1 intracellular trafficking patterns between mammalian species. J Immunol. 2002 Dec 15; 169(12):6951-8. PMID: 12471129.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    99. Chackerian A, Alt J, Perera V, Behar SM. Activation of NKT cells protects mice from tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2002 Nov; 70(11):6302-9. PMID: 12379709.
      Citations: 70     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    100. Chackerian AA, Alt JM, Perera TV, Dascher CC, Behar SM. Dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is influenced by host factors and precedes the initiation of T-cell immunity. Infect Immun. 2002 Aug; 70(8):4501-9. PMID: 12117962.
      Citations: 204     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. Hiromatsu K, Dascher CC, Sugita M, Gingrich-Baker C, Behar SM, LeClair KP, Brenner MB, Porcelli SA. Characterization of guinea-pig group 1 CD1 proteins. Immunology. 2002 Jun; 106(2):159-72. PMID: 12047745.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    102. Grant EP, Beckman EM, Behar SM, Degano M, Frederique D, Besra GS, Wilson IA, Porcelli SA, Furlong ST, Brenner MB. Fine specificity of TCR complementarity-determining region residues and lipid antigen hydrophilic moieties in the recognition of a CD1-lipid complex. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):3933-40. PMID: 11937549.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    103. Riese RJ, Shi GP, Villadangos J, Stetson D, Driessen C, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Chu CL, Naumov Y, Behar SM, Ploegh H, Locksley R, Chapman HA. Regulation of CD1 function and NK1.1(+) T cell selection and maturation by cathepsin S. Immunity. 2001 Dec; 15(6):909-19. PMID: 11754813.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. Chackerian AA, Perera TV, Behar SM. Gamma interferon-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes in the lung correlate with resistance to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2001 Apr; 69(4):2666-74. PMID: 11254633.
      Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    105. Behar SM, Cardell S. Diverse CD1d-restricted T cells: diverse phenotypes, and diverse functions. Semin Immunol. 2000 Dec; 12(6):551-60. PMID: 11145861.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    106. Meli?n A, Watts GF, Shamshiev A, De Libero G, Clatworthy A, Vincent M, Brenner MB, Behar S, Niazi K, Modlin RL, Almo S, Ostrov D, Nathenson SG, Porcelli SA. Molecular recognition of human CD1b antigen complexes: evidence for a common pattern of interaction with alpha beta TCRs. J Immunol. 2000 Oct 15; 165(8):4494-504. PMID: 11035089.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    107. Gumperz JE, Roy C, Makowska A, Lum D, Sugita M, Podrebarac T, Koezuka Y, Porcelli SA, Cardell S, Brenner MB, Behar SM. Murine CD1d-restricted T cell recognition of cellular lipids. Immunity. 2000 Feb; 12(2):211-21. PMID: 10714687.
      Citations: 184     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Dascher CC, Hiromatsu K, Naylor JW, Brauer PP, Brown KA, Storey JR, Behar SM, Kawasaki ES, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, LeClair KP. Conservation of a CD1 multigene family in the guinea pig. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15; 163(10):5478-88. PMID: 10553074.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    109. Le Roux P, Behar S, Higgins D, Charette M. OP-1 enhances dendritic growth from cerebral cortical neurons in vitro. Exp Neurol. 1999 Nov; 160(1):151-63. PMID: 10630200.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    110. Behar SM, Dascher CC, Grusby MJ, Wang CR, Brenner MB. Susceptibility of mice deficient in CD1D or TAP1 to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Exp Med. 1999 Jun 21; 189(12):1973-80. PMID: 10377193.
      Citations: 119     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Chen YH, Wang B, Chun T, Zhao L, Cardell S, Behar SM, Brenner MB, Wang CR. Expression of CD1d2 on thymocytes is not sufficient for the development of NK T cells in CD1d1-deficient mice. J Immunol. 1999 Apr 15; 162(8):4560-6. PMID: 10201995.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    112. Behar SM, Podrebarac TA, Roy CJ, Wang CR, Brenner MB. Diverse TCRs recognize murine CD1. J Immunol. 1999 Jan 01; 162(1):161-7. PMID: 9886382.
      Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    113. Vincent MS, Roessner K, Sellati T, Huston CD, Sigal LH, Behar SM, Radolf JD, Budd RC. Lyme arthritis synovial gamma delta T cells respond to Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and lipidated hexapeptides. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5762-71. PMID: 9820558.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    114. Fan X, Crowe SE, Behar S, Gunasena H, Ye G, Haeberle H, Van Houten N, Gourley WK, Ernst PB, Reyes VE. The effect of class II major histocompatibility complex expression on adherence of Helicobacter pylori and induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells: a mechanism for T helper cell type 1-mediated damage. J Exp Med. 1998 May 18; 187(10):1659-69. PMID: 9584144.
      Citations: 64     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Sugita M, Moody DB, Jackman RM, Grant EP, Rosat JP, Behar SM, Peters PJ, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB. CD1--a new paradigm for antigen presentation and T cell activation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Apr; 87(1):8-14. PMID: 9576005.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    116. Behar SM, Chertow GM. Olecranon bursitis caused by infection with Candida lusitaniae. J Rheumatol. 1998 Mar; 25(3):598-600. PMID: 9517788.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    117. Behar SM, Roy C, Lederer J, Fraser P, Brenner MB. Clonally expanded Valpha12+ (AV12S1),CD8+ T cells from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis are autoreactive. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Mar; 41(3):498-506. PMID: 9506578.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    118. Prigozy TI, Sieling PA, Clemens D, Stewart PL, Behar SM, Porcelli SA, Brenner MB, Modlin RL, Kronenberg M. The mannose receptor delivers lipoglycan antigens to endosomes for presentation to T cells by CD1b molecules. Immunity. 1997 Feb; 6(2):187-97. PMID: 9047240.
      Citations: 81     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    119. Beckman EM, Meli?n A, Behar SM, Sieling PA, Chatterjee D, Furlong ST, Matsumoto R, Rosat JP, Modlin RL, Porcelli SA. CD1c restricts responses of mycobacteria-specific T cells. Evidence for antigen presentation by a second member of the human CD1 family. J Immunol. 1996 Oct 01; 157(7):2795-803. PMID: 8816382.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    120. Sugita M, Jackman RM, van Donselaar E, Behar SM, Rogers RA, Peters PJ, Brenner MB, Porcelli SA. Cytoplasmic tail-dependent localization of CD1b antigen-presenting molecules to MIICs. Science. 1996 Jul 19; 273(5273):349-52. PMID: 8662520.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    121. Behar SM, Porcelli SA, Beckman EM, Brenner MB. A pathway of costimulation that prevents anergy in CD28- T cells: B7-independent costimulation of CD1-restricted T cells. J Exp Med. 1995 Dec 01; 182(6):2007-18. PMID: 7500046.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    122. Behar SM, Roy C, Brenner MB. Expansions of V alpha 12 CD8+ T-cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Jul 07; 756:130-7. PMID: 7645819.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    123. Behar SM, Porcelli SA. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction. The role of the immune response to microbial pathogens. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Apr; 38(4):458-76. PMID: 7718001.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    124. Beckman EM, Porcelli SA, Morita CT, Behar SM, Furlong ST, Brenner MB. Recognition of a lipid antigen by CD1-restricted alpha beta+ T cells. Nature. 1994 Dec 15; 372(6507):691-4. PMID: 7527500.
      Citations: 304     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    125. Behar SM, Lustgarten DL, Corbet S, Scharff MD. Characterization of somatically mutated S107 VH11-encoded anti-DNA autoantibodies derived from autoimmune (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. J Exp Med. 1991 Mar 01; 173(3):731-41. PMID: 1900082.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    126. Behar SM, Chien NC, Corbet S, Diamond B, Getzoff ED, Lustgarten D, Roberts VA, Scharff MD, Shin SU. Impact of somatic mutation on the S107(T15) heavy-chain V region of antibodies reactive with self and nonself. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1989; 54 Pt 2:921-31. PMID: 2518013.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    127. Peng AT, Behar S, Yue SJ. Long-term therapeutic effects of electro-acupuncture for chronic neck and shoulder pain--a double blind study. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1987; 12(1):37-44. PMID: 2883835.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    128. Fox RI, Hueniken M, Fong S, Behar S, Royston I, Singhal SK, Thompson L. A novel cell surface antigen (T305) found in increased frequency on acute leukemia cells and in autoimmune disease states. J Immunol. 1983 Aug; 131(2):762-7. PMID: 6602845.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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