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Michael A King PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentRadiology
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
Phone774-442-4255
vCardDownload vCard
    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentRadiology
    DivisionNuclear Medicine

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    State University of New York, Oswego, Oswego, NY, United StatesBAPhysics
    State University of New York, Albany, Albany, NY, United StatesMSPhysics
    University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United StatesPHDRadiation Biology & Biophysics

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Nuclear Medicine Physics Imaging Research Interests

    • Correction for causes of image degradation in nuclear medicine such as attenuation, distance-dependent spatial-resolution, and scatter.
    • Detection, estimation, and correction of all forms of patient motion during imaging
    • Tomographic image reconstruction for SPECT and PET.
    • Combination of CT with SPECT and PET
    • Design of the next generation of SPECT Imaging Systems
    • Assessment of image quality by task performance studies using human and numerical observers.
    • Quantification of activity and assessment of physiological function.
    • Image segmentation and computer vision applications in nuclear medicine.
    • Reduction in radiation dose to patients and personnel

    One example of the research accomplishments of the laboratory is our work on the detection and compensation of patient motion during the up to 16 minute period which the patient is required to remain motionless for nuclear medicine studies. We have taken the approach of combining estimates of patient motion as determined from the nuclear medicine images themselves with information from our visual-tracking system (VTS) which tracks the motion of retro-reflective markers on stretchy bands wrapped about the patient to provide a combined correction of respiratory and bodily motion. Once motion is determined it is corrected by inclusion in iterative reconstruction as illustrated in the following figure. These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-HL122484.

    Clinical SPECT
    Clinical SPECT images showing benefits of respiratory motion correction (RM) as noted in top row versus second row which is without RM correction.

    Another example of our current interests is the development of a multi-pinhole collimator (MPH) for use on one gamma-camera head of a general purpose SPECT system in combination with a fan-beam collimator on the second camera head for high resolution / sensitivity imaging of the striatal region of the brain in I-123 DaTscan imaging for Parkinson’s Disease. A rendering of the collimator is shown below followed by reconstructed simulated images of the strata for MPH, Fan, and Combined imaging. These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-EB022092.

    MPH collimator
    Rendering of the MPH collimator showing the aperture plate with 9 pinholes.
    XCAT
    A. Example XCAT transverse slice multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator noise-free reconstructions through substantia nigra (left) and the caudate and putamen (right) for 15, 30, and 60 angles for VOI over striata. B. Same for low-energy ultra-high-resolution (LEUHR) fan-beam only collimator reconstruction. C. Same for combined reconstruction using MPH and LEUHR fan-beam collimators. D. Matching slices through original XCAT DaTscan source distribution for substantia nigra (top), and caudate and putamen (bottom) with 8:1 striatal to rest of brain  concentration ratio, and no activity in the ventricles. Note that separation of caudate and putamen can be seen in combined reconstruction.

    The third example of our current investigations is the development of a multi-detector-module multi-pinhole (MPH) SPECT brain-imaging system ideally suited for quantitative dynamic and high-spatial-resolution static SPECT imaging. Dynamic imaging will be enabled by obtaining sufficient angular sampling without the need for rotation. The system will automatically adapt its imaging characteristics (aperture size and number of pinholes open for imaging) in response to the imaging tasks and individual patients. It will thereby optimize lesion detection and quantification, as well as provide optimal data for pharmacokinetic analysis within structures throughout the brain. The prototype design for this system is illustrated in the following computer aided design (CAD) drawings.  These investigations are funded by NIH grant R01-EB022521.

    Frontal view SolidWorks CADRear view SolidWorks CAD
    Shown left is a frontal view and right is a view from behind of SolidWorks CAD renderings of the proposed prototype configuration of the 23 detectors of the system dedicated to brain SPECT imaging. Shown are detector modules with MPH aperture plates towards the brain and circular scintillation detector crystals opposed to them.

    Current Teaching

    Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation I Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation I: A 4 credit hour course covering radiological physics and instrumentation for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation II Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation II: A 4 credit hour course covering planar and tomographic nuclear medicine imaging, and computer applications.

    Physics of Radiology for Residents Nuclear Medical Physics for Cardiologists A year long course starting in September each year consisting of one-hour lectures plus quizzes on Wednesday mornings each week.

    Physics Review for Radiology Residents Taking the ABR Exam Nuclear Medical Physics for Cardiologists: Lectures, demonstrations, and practice question review for physics portion of ABR exam from January to June.

    List of Graduate Students and Post-Doctoral Fellows List of Graduate Students

    Honors and Awards

    Current Grant Support

    1.  NIH, No R01-HL122484, Probing Dose Limits in Cardiac SPECT with Reconstruction and Personalized Imaging. M. N. Wernick of IIT contact PI, M. A. King UMass MPI, 5/1/2014-4/30/2019.

    2.  NIH, No R01-EB022092, Combined Multi-Pinhole and Fan-Beam Brain SPECT. M. A. King, PI, 5/18/2016-2/29/2020.

    3.  NIH, No R01-EB020658, Towards in vivo imaging with bench-top x-ray fluorescence computed tomography. S. H. Cho PI, A. Karellas UMass Sub PI, 4/01/2016–1/31/2020, Role: M. A. King, Co-investigator

    4.  NIH, No. R01 EB022521, AdaptiSPECT-C: A Next-Generation, Adaptive Brain-Imaging SPECT System for Drug Discovery and Clinical Imaging, M. A. King, contact PI, L. Furenlid, MPI, G. Zubal, MPI, 9/1/2016-8/30/2021.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Pretorius PH, Ramon AJ, King MA, Konik A, Dahlberg ST, Parker MW, Botkin NF, Johnson KL, Yang Y, Wernick MN. Retrospective fractional dose reduction in Tc-99m cardiac perfusion SPECT/CT patients: A human and model observer study. J Nucl Cardiol. 2019 May 10. PMID: 31077073.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Song C, Yang Y, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, Slomka PJ, King MA. Cardiac motion correction for improving perfusion defect detection in cardiac SPECT at standard and reduced doses of activity. Phys Med Biol. 2019 Jan 16. PMID: 30650394.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ramon AJ, Yang Y, Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, King MA, Wernick MN. Personalized Models for Injected Activity Levels in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2018 Dec 06. PMID: 30530358.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Juan Ramon A, Yang Y, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, Slomka PJ, King MA. Evaluation of the effect of reducing administered activity on assessment of function in cardiac gated SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Nov 07. PMID: 30406608.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Zhang D, Pretorius PH, Ghaly M, Zhang Q, King MA, Mok GSP. Evaluation of different respiratory gating schemes for cardiac SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Aug 07. PMID: 30088195.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Song C, Yang Y, Ramon AJ, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, Slomka PJ, King MA. Improving perfusion defect detection with respiratory motion correction in cardiac SPECT at standard and reduced doses. J Nucl Cardiol. 2018 Jul 30. PMID: 30062470.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Könik A, De Beenhouwer J, Mukherjee JM, Kalluri K, Banerjee S, Zeraatkar N, Fromme T, King MA. Simulations of a Multi-Pinhole SPECT Collimator for Clinical Dopamine Transporter (DAT) Imaging. IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci. 2018 Sep; 2(5):444-451. PMID: 31011693.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Song C, Yang Y, Qi W, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, King MA. Motion-compensated image reconstruction vs postreconstruction correction in respiratory-binned SPECT with standard and reduced-dose acquisitions. Med Phys. 2018 Apr 21. PMID: 29679508.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Song C, Yang Y, Pretorius PH, King MA. 4D non-local means post-filtering for cardiac gated SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2018 Jan 31; 63(3):035026. PMID: 29283356.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Juan Ramon A, Yang Y, Pretorius PH, Slomka PJ, Johnson KL, King MA, Wernick MN. Investigation of dose reduction in cardiac perfusion SPECT via optimization and choice of the image reconstruction strategy. J Nucl Cardiol. 2017 May 23. PMID: 28537039.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, Dahlberg ST, King MA. Investigation of the physical effects of respiratory motion compensation in a large population of patients undergoing Tc-99m cardiac perfusion SPECT/CT stress imaging. J Nucl Cardiol. 2017 Apr 21. PMID: 28432671.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Qi W, Yang Y, Song C, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, King MA. 4-D Reconstruction With Respiratory Correction for Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2017 08; 36(8):1626-1635. PMID: 28391190.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Dasari PK, Könik A, Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, Segars WP, Shazeeb MS, King MA. Correction of Hysteretic Respiratory Motion in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Simulation and Patient Studies. Med Phys. 2016 Dec 29. PMID: 28032913.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Pretorius PH, Johnson KL, King MA. Evaluation of Rigid-Body Motion Compensation in Cardiac Perfusion SPECT Employing Polar-Map Quantification. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2016 Jun; 63(3):1419-1425. PMID: 28042170.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Mukherjee JM, Lindsay C, Mukherjee A, Olivier P, Shao L, King MA, Licho R. Improved frame-based estimation of head motion in PET brain imaging. Med Phys. 2016 May; 43(5):2443. PMID: 27147355.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Smyczynski MS, Gifford HC, Dey J, Lehovich A, McNamara JE, Segars WP, King MA. LROC Investigation of Three Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Respiratory Motion on the Detection of Solitary Pulmonary Nodules in SPECT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2016 Feb; 63(1):130-139. PMID: 27182080.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Smyczynski MS, Gifford HC, Lehovich A, McNamara JE, Segars WP, Hoffman EA, Tsui BM, King MA. Modeling the respiratory motion of solitary pulmonary nodules and determining the impact of respiratory motion on their detection in SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2016 Feb; 63(1):117-129. PMID: 27182079.
      View in: PubMed
    18. King MA, Mukherjee JM, Könik A, Zubal IG, Dey J, Licho R. Design of a Multi-Pinhole Collimator for I-123 DaTscan Imaging on Dual-Headed SPECT Systems in Combination with a Fan-Beam Collimator. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2016 Feb; 63(1):90-97. PMID: 27182078.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Qi W, Yang Y, Wernick MN, Pretorius PH, King MA. Limited-angle effect compensation for respiratory binned cardiac SPECT. Med Phys. 2016 Jan; 43(1):443. PMID: 26745937.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Könik A, Kupinski M, Pretorius PH, King MA, Barrett HH. Comparison of the scanning linear estimator (SLE) and ROI methods for quantitative SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2015 Aug 21; 60(16):6479-94. PMID: 26247228.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Dey J, Segars WP, Pretorius PH, King MA. Effect of Non-Alignment/Alignment of Attenuation Map Without/With Emission Motion Correction in Cardiac SPECT/CT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2015 Aug; 62(4):1813-1824. PMID: 26543244.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Dasari PK, Shazeeb MS, Könik A, Lindsay C, Mukherjee JM, Johnson KL, King MA. Adaptation of the modified Bouc-Wen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: testing using MRI. Med Phys. 2014 Nov; 41(11):112508. PMID: 25370667.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Könik A, Connolly CM, Johnson KL, Dasari P, Segars PW, Pretorius PH, Lindsay C, Dey J, King MA. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Jul 21; 59(14):3669-82. PMID: 24925891.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Dasari P, Johnson K, Dey J, Lindsay C, Shazeeb MS, Mukherjee JM, Zheng S, King MA. MRI Investigation of the Linkage Between Respiratory Motion of the Heart and Markers on Patient's Abdomen and Chest: Implications for Respiratory Amplitude Binning List-Mode PET and SPECT Studies. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2014 Feb 6; 61(1):192-201. PMID: 24817767.
      View in: PubMed
    25. O'Connor JM, Pretorius PH, Johnson K, King MA. A method to synchronize signals from multiple patient monitoring devices through a single input channel for inclusion in list-mode acquisitions. Med Phys. 2013 Dec; 40(12):122502. PMID: 24320538.
      View in: PubMed
    26. King MA, Dey J, Johnson K, Dasari P, Mukherjee JM, McNamara JE, Konik A, Lindsay C, Zheng S, Coughlin D. Use of MRI to assess the prediction of heart motion with gross body motion in myocardial perfusion imaging by stereotracking of markers on the body surface. Med Phys. 2013 Nov; 40(11):112504. PMID: 24320463.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Könik A, Kikut J, Lew R, Johnson K, King MA. Comparison of methods of acquiring attenuation maps for cardiac SPECT in the presence of respiratory motion. J Nucl Cardiol. 2013 Dec; 20(6):1093-107. PMID: 24146161.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Mukherjee JM, Hutton BF, Johnson KL, Pretorius PH, King MA. An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 2013 Nov 7; 58(21):7625-46. PMID: 24107647.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Jin M, Niu X, Qi W, Yang Y, Dey J, King MA, Dahlberg S, Wernick MN. 4D reconstruction for low-dose cardiac gated SPECT. Med Phys. 2013 Feb; 40(2):022501. PMID: 23387768.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Niu X, Yang Y, King MA. Comparison study of temporal regularization methods for fully 5D reconstruction of cardiac gated dynamic SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2012 Sep 7; 57(17):5523-42. PMID: 22872160.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Qi W, Yang Y, Niu X, King MA. A quantitative study of motion estimation methods on 4D cardiac gated SPECT reconstruction. Med Phys. 2012 Aug; 39(8):5182-93. PMID: 22894443.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Niu X, Yang Y, Jin M, Wernick MN, King MA. Effects of motion, attenuation, and scatter corrections on gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction. Med Phys. 2011 Dec; 38(12):6571-84. PMID: 22149839.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Dey J, Segars WP, Pretorius PH, Walvick RP, Bruyant PP, Dahlberg S, King MA. Estimation and correction of cardiac respiratory motion in SPECT in the presence of limited-angle effects due to irregular respiration. Med Phys. 2010 Dec; 37(12):6453-65. PMID: 21302801.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Niu X, Yang Y, King MA, Wernick MN. Detectability of perfusion defect in five-dimensional gated-dynamic cardiac SPECT images. Med Phys. 2010 Sep; 37(9):5102-12. PMID: 20964230.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Mukherjee JM, Johnson KL, McNamara JE, King MA. Quantitative Study of Rigid-Body and Respiratory Motion of Patients Undergoing Stress and Rest Cardiac SPECT Imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2010 Jun 1; 57(3):1105-1115. PMID: 20694041.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Niu X, Yang Y, Jin M, Wernick MN, King MA. Regularized Fully 5D Reconstruction of Cardiac Gated Dynamic SPECT Images. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2010; 57(6):1085-1095. PMID: 24049191.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Dey J, Pan T, Choi DJ, Robotis D, Smyczynski MS, Pretorius PH, King MA. Estimation of Cardiac Respiratory-Motion by Semi-Automatic Segmentation and Registration of Non-Contrast-Enhanced 4D-CT Cardiac Datasets. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Dec 8; 56(6):3662-3671. PMID: 20419041.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Dey J, King MA. Theoretical and Numerical Study of MLEM and OSEM Reconstruction Algorithms for Motion Correction in Emission Tomography. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Oct 1; 56(5):2739-2749. PMID: 20419053.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Segars WP, Lalush DS, Frey EC, Manocha D, King MA, Tsui BM. Improved Dynamic Cardiac Phantom Based on 4D NURBS and Tagged MRI. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Oct 1; 56(5):2728-2738. PMID: 20711514.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Jin M, Yang Y, Niu X, Marin T, Brankov JG, Feng B, Pretorius PH, King MA, Wernick MN. A quantitative evaluation study of four-dimensional gated cardiac SPECT reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 2009 Sep 21; 54(18):5643-59. PMID: 19724094.
      View in: PubMed
    41. King MA, Covassin L, Brehm MA, Racki W, Pearson T, Leif J, Laning J, Fodor W, Foreman O, Burzenski L, Chase TH, Gott B, Rossini AA, Bortell R, Shultz LD, Greiner DL. Human peripheral blood leucocyte non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene mouse model of xenogeneic graft-versus-host-like disease and the role of host major histocompatibility complex. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Jul; 157(1):104-18. PMID: 19659776.
      View in: PubMed
    42. McNamara JE, Pretorius PH, Johnson K, Mukherjee JM, Dey J, Gennert MA, King MA. A flexible multicamera visual-tracking system for detecting and correcting motion-induced artifacts in cardiac SPECT slices. Med Phys. 2009 May; 36(5):1913-23. PMID: 19544811.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Lehovich A, Bruyant PP, Gifford HS, Schneider PB, Squires S, Licho R, Gindi G, King MA. Impact on reader performance for lesion-detection/ localization tasks of anatomical priors in SPECT reconstruction. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2009 Sep; 28(9):1459-67. PMID: 19336295.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Mukherjee JM, McNamara JE, Johnson KL, Dey J, King MA. Estimation of Rigid-Body and Respiratory Motion of the Heart From Marker-Tracking Data for SPECT Motion Correction. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2009 Feb; 56(1):147-155. PMID: 20539825.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Pretorius PH, King MA. Diminishing the impact of the partial volume effect in cardiac SPECT perfusion imaging. Med Phys. 2009 Jan; 36(1):105-15. PMID: 19235379.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Pereira NF, Gifford HC, Pretorius PH, Smyczynski M, Licho R, Schneider P, Farncombe T, King MA. An evaluation of iterative reconstruction strategies based on mediastinal lesion detection using hybrid Ga-67 SPECT images. Med Phys. 2008 Nov; 35(11):4808-15. PMID: 19070213.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Liu S, King MA, Brill AB, Stabin MG, Farncombe TH. Convolution-Based Forced Detection Monte Carlo Simulation Incorporating Septal Penetration Modeling. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2008 Jun; 55(3):967-974. PMID: 20814585.
      View in: PubMed
    48. McNamara JE, Bruyant P, Johnson K, Feng B, Lehovich A, Gu S, Gennert MA, King MA. An Assessment of a Low-Cost Visual Tracking System (VTS) to Detect and Compensate for Patient Motion during SPECT. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2008 Jun; 55(3):992-998. PMID: 19081803.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Pretorius PH, King MA. Spillover Compensation in the Presence of Respiratory Motion Embedded in SPECT Perfusion Data. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2008; 55(1):537-542. PMID: 19907675.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Liu S, King MA, Brill AB, Stabin MG, Farncombe TH. Accelerated SPECT Monte Carlo Simulation Using Multiple Projection Sampling and Convolution-Based Forced Detection. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2008 Jan 1; 55(1):560-567. PMID: 20811587.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lehovich A, Gifford HC, Schneider PB, King MA. Choosing anatomical-prior strength for MAP SPECT reconstruction to maximize lesion detectability. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2007 Oct 26; 6(1):4222-4225. PMID: 19779594.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Beach RD, Depold H, Boening G, Bruyant PP, Feng B, Gifford HC, Gennert MA, Nadella S, King MA. An Adaptive Approach to Decomposing Patient-Motion Tracking Data Acquired During Cardiac SPECT Imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2007 Feb; 54(1):130-139. PMID: 19081763.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Pereira NF, Gifford HC, Pretorius PH, Farncombe T, Smyczynski M, Licho R, Schneider P, King MA. An Evaluation of Iterative Reconstruction Strategies on Mediastinal Lesion Detection Using Hybrid Ga-67 SPECT Images. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2007; 5:3486-3490. PMID: 19169427.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Gifford HC, King MA. Impact of Mismatched Detector-Blur Models on Ga SPECT Tumor Detection. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2007; 6:4226-4229. PMID: 19890463.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Gifford HC. Evaluation of Multiclass Model Observers in PET LROC Studies. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2007; 54:116-123. PMID: 18392119.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Smyczynski MS, Gifford HC, Lehovich A, McNamara JE, Segars WP, Tsui BM, King MA. Impact of respiratory motion on the detection of small pulmonary nodules in SPECT imaging. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2007; 5:3241-3245. PMID: 19169431.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Soares EJ, King MA, Byrne CL, Gifford HC, Lehovich A. The Influence of Photon Attenuation on Tumor-to-Background and Signal-to-Noise Ratios for SPECT Imaging. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2007; 5:3609-3615. PMID: 19169429.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Gu S, McNamara JE, Mitra J, Gifford HC, Johnson K, Gennert MA, King MA. Body Deformation Correction for SPECT Imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2007; 4:2708-2714. PMID: 20336188.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Feng B, King MA. Estimation of 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DOF) Rigid-Body Patient Motion From Projection Data by the Principal-Axes Method in Iterative Reconstruction. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2006 Nov; 5:2695-2698. PMID: 24817766.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Jin M, Yang Y, King MA. Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT. Med Phys. 2006 Nov; 33(11):4384-94. PMID: 17153417.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Feng B, Bruyant PP, Pretorius PH, Beach RD, Gifford HC, Dey J, Gennert M, King MA. Estimation of the Rigid-Body Motion from Three-Dimensional Images Using a Generalized Center-of-Mass Points Approach. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2006 Oct; 53(5):2712-2718. PMID: 19081775.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Gravier E, Yang Y, King MA, Jin M. Fully 4D motion-compensated reconstruction of cardiac SPECT images. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Sep 21; 51(18):4603-19. PMID: 16953045.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Feng B, Gifford HC, Beach RD, Boening G, Gennert MA, King MA. Use of three-dimensional Gaussian interpolation in the projector/backprojector pair of iterative reconstruction for compensation of known rigid-body motion in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2006 Jul; 25(7):838-44. PMID: 16827485.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Feng B, Fessler JA, King MA. Incorporation of system resolution compensation (RC) in the ordered-subset transmission (OSTR) algorithm for transmission imaging in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2006 Jul; 25(7):941-9. PMID: 16827494.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Feng B, Pretorius PH, Farncombe TH, Dahlberg ST, Narayanan MV, Wernick MN, Celler AM, Leppo JA, King MA. Simultaneous assessment of cardiac perfusion and function using 5-dimensional imaging with Tc-99m teboroxime. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006 May-Jun; 13(3):354-61. PMID: 16750780.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Kupinski MA, Hoppin JW, Krasnow J, Dahlberg S, Leppo JA, King MA, Clarkson E, Barrett HH. Comparing cardiac ejection fraction estimation algorithms without a gold standard. Acad Radiol. 2006 Mar; 13(3):329-37. PMID: 16488845.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Gifford HC, Zheng XM, Licho R, Pretorius PH, Schneider PB, Simkin PH, King MA. Factors Influencing Lesion Detection in SPECT Lung Images. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2006; 5:2662-2666. PMID: 19169428.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Lehovich A, Gifford HC, King MA. Location-known-exactly human-observer ROC studies of attenuation and other corrections for SPECT lung imaging. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2006; 6:3229-3232. PMID: 19194523.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Gifford HC, Lehovich A, King MA. A Multiclass Model Observer for Multislice-Multiview Images. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2006; 3:1687-1691. PMID: 19194524.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Lehovich A, Bruyant PP, Gifford HC, Schneider PB, Squires S, Licho R, Gindi G, King MA. Human-observer LROC study of lesion detection in Ga-67 SPECT images reconstructed using MAP with anatomical priors. IEEE Nucl Sci Symp Conf Rec (1997). 2006; 3:1699-1702. PMID: 19412357.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Lee TK, Atkins MS, King MA, Lau S, McLean DI. Counting moles automatically from back images. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005 Nov; 52(11):1966-9. PMID: 16285401.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Bruyant PP, Gennert MA, Speckert GC, Beach RD, Morgenstern JD, Kumar N, Nadella S, King MA. A Robust Visual Tracking System for Patient Motion Detection in SPECT: Hardware Solutions. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2005 Oct; 52(5 I):1288-1294. PMID: 19081772.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Pretorius PH, King MA, Gifford HC, Dahlberg ST, Spencer F, Simon E, Rashkin J, Botkin N, Berndt W, Narayanan MV, Leppo JA. Myocardial perfusion SPECT reconstruction: receiver operating characteristic comparison of CAD detection accuracy of filtered backprojection reconstruction with all of the clinical imaging information available to readers and solely stress slices iteratively reconstructed with combined compensation. J Nucl Cardiol. 2005 May-Jun; 12(3):284-93. PMID: 15944533.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Gifford HC, King MA, Pretorius PH, Wells RG. A comparison of human and model observers in multislice LROC studies. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2005 Feb; 24(2):160-9. PMID: 15707242.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Beach RD, Pretorius PH, Boening G, Bruyant PP, Feng B, Fulton RR, Gennert MA, Nadella S, King MA. Feasibility of Stereo-Infrared Tracking to Monitor Patient Motion During Cardiac SPECT Imaging. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 2004 Oct; 51(5 II):2693-2698. PMID: 19081781.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Farncombe TH, Gifford HC, Narayanan MV, Pretorius PH, Frey EC, King MA. Assessment of scatter compensation strategies for (67)Ga SPECT using numerical observers and human LROC studies. J Nucl Med. 2004 May; 45(5):802-12. PMID: 15136630.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Narayanan MV, King MA, Pretorius PH, Dahlberg ST, Spencer F, Simon E, Ewald E, Healy E, MacNaught K, Leppo JA. Human-observer receiver-operating-characteristic evaluation of attenuation, scatter, and resolution compensation strategies for (99m)Tc myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med. 2003 Nov; 44(11):1725-34. PMID: 14602852.
      View in: PubMed
    78. King MA, Yeadon MR. Coping with perturbations to a layout somersault in tumbling. J Biomech. 2003 Jul; 36(7):921-7. PMID: 12757800.
      View in: PubMed
    79. King M, Farncombe T. An overview of attenuation and scatter correction of planar and SPECT data for dosimetry studies. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2003 Apr; 18(2):181-90. PMID: 12804043.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Narayanan MV, King MA, Byrne CL. An iterative transmission algorithm incorporating cross-talk correction for SPECT. Med Phys. 2002 May; 29(5):694-700. PMID: 12033564.
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    81. King MA, Pretorius PH, Farncombe T, Beekman FJ. Introduction to the physics of molecular imaging with radioactive tracers in small animals. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2002; 39:221-30. PMID: 12552621.
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    82. Bouwens LR, Gifford H, Van de Walle R, King MA, Lemahieu I, Dierckx RA. Resolution recovery for list-mode reconstruction in SPECT. Phys Med Biol. 2001 Aug; 46(8):2239-53. PMID: 11512622.
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    83. Pretorius PH, Narayanan MV, Dahlberg ST, Leppo JA, King MA. The influence of attenuation and scatter compensation on the apparent distribution of Tc-99m sestamibi in cardiac slices. J Nucl Cardiol. 2001 May-Jun; 8(3):356-64. PMID: 11391306.
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    84. Narayanan MV, Byrne CL, King MA. An interior point iterative maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm incorporating upper and lower bounds with application to SPECT transmission imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2001 Apr; 20(4):342-53. PMID: 11370901.
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    85. Beekman FJ, Kamphuis C, King MA, van Rijk PP, Viergever MA. Improvement of image resolution and quantitative accuracy in clinical Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2001 Mar-Apr; 25(2):135-46. PMID: 11137790.
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    86. Wells RG, King MA, Simkin PH, Judy PF, Brill AB, Gifford HC, Licho R, Pretorius PH, Schneider PB, Seldin DW. Comparing filtered backprojection and ordered-subsets expectation maximization for small-lesion detection and localization in 67Ga SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2000 Aug; 41(8):1391-9. PMID: 10945533.
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    87. Gifford HC, King MA, Wells RG, Hawkins WG, Narayanan MV, Pretorius PH. LROC analysis of detector-response compensation in SPECT. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000 May; 19(5):463-73. PMID: 11021689.
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    88. Narayanan MV, King MA, Wernick MN, Byrne CL, Soares EJ, Pretorius PH. Improved image quality and computation reduction in 4-D reconstruction of cardiac-gated SPECT images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2000 May; 19(5):423-33. PMID: 11021686.
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    89. Gifford HC, King MA, de Vries DJ, Soares EJ. Channelized hotelling and human observer correlation for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging. J Nucl Med. 2000 Mar; 41(3):514-21. PMID: 10716327.
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    90. Pretorius PH, King MA, Tsui BM, LaCroix KJ, Xia W. A mathematical model of motion of the heart for use in generating source and attenuation maps for simulating emission imaging. Med Phys. 1999 Nov; 26(11):2323-32. PMID: 10587213.
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    91. Wells RG, Simkin PH, Judy PF, King MA, Pretorius H, Gifford HC. Effect of filtering on the detection and localization of small Ga-67 lesions in thoracic single photon emission computed tomography images. Med Phys. 1999 Jul; 26(7):1382-8. PMID: 10435542.
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    92. de Vries DJ, King MA, Soares EJ, Tsui BM, Metz CE. Effects of scatter substraction on detection and quantitation in hepatic SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1999 Jun; 40(6):1011-23. PMID: 10452320.
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    93. Case JA, Licho R, King MA, Weaver JP. Bone SPECT of the spine: a comparison of attenuation correction techniques. J Nucl Med. 1999 Apr; 40(4):604-13. PMID: 10210219.
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    94. Licho R, Glick SJ, Xia W, Pan TS, Penney BC, King MA. Attenuation compensation in 99mTc SPECT brain imaging: a comparison of the use of attenuation maps derived from transmission versus emission data in normal scans. J Nucl Med. 1999 Mar; 40(3):456-63. PMID: 10086711.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Tsui BM, Frey EC, LaCroix KJ, Lalush DS, McCartney WH, King MA, Gullberg GT. Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Cardiol. 1998 Sep-Oct; 5(5):507-22. PMID: 9796898.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Kohli V, King MA, Glick SJ, Pan TS. Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Apr; 43(4):1025-37. PMID: 9572525.
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    97. Achtert AD, King MA, Dahlberg ST, Pretorius PH, LaCroix KJ, Tsui BM. An investigation of the estimation of ejection fractions and cardiac volumes by a quantitative gated SPECT software package in simulated gated SPECT images. J Nucl Cardiol. 1998 Mar-Apr; 5(2):144-52. PMID: 9588666.
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    98. Pretorius PH, King MA, Pan TS, de Vries DJ, Glick SJ, Byrne CL. Reducing the influence of the partial volume effect on SPECT activity quantitation with 3D modelling of spatial resolution in iterative reconstruction. Phys Med Biol. 1998 Feb; 43(2):407-20. PMID: 9509535.
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    99. Pan TS, Luo DS, Kohli V, King MA. Influence of OSEM, elliptical orbits and background activity on SPECT 3D resolution recovery. Phys Med Biol. 1997 Dec; 42(12):2517-29. PMID: 9434304.
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    100. Pretorius PH, Xia W, King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS, Villegas BJ. Evaluation of right and left ventricular volume and ejection fraction using a mathematical cardiac torso phantom. J Nucl Med. 1997 Oct; 38(10):1528-35. PMID: 9379187.
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    101. Pan TS, King MA, Luo DS, Dahlberg ST, Villegas BJ. Estimation of attenuation maps from scatter and photopeak window single photon-emission computed tomographic images of technetium 99m-labeled sestamibi. J Nucl Cardiol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 4(1 Pt 1):42-51. PMID: 9138839.
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    102. King MA, Luo D, Dahlberg ST, Villegas BJ, Penney BC, Morgan HT. Transmission imaging of large attenuators using a slant hole collimator on a three-headed SPECT system. Med Phys. 1996 Feb; 23(2):263-72. PMID: 8668108.
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    103. Pan TS, King MA, Devries DJ, Ljungberg M. Correction to "segmentation of the body and lungs from compton scatter and photopeak window data in. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1996; 15(3):394. PMID: 18215921.
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    104. Pan TS, King MA, de Vries DJ, Ljungberg M. Segmentation of the body and lungs from Compton scatter and photopeak window data in SPECT: a Monte-Carlo investigation. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1996; 15(1):13-24. PMID: 18215885.
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    105. King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS, Glick SJ, Soares EJ. Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 2. Attenuation compensation algorithms. J Nucl Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 3(1):55-64. PMID: 8799228.
      View in: PubMed
    106. King MA, Xia W, deVries DJ, Pan TS, Villegas BJ, Dahlberg S, Tsui BM, Ljungberg MH, Morgan HT. A Monte Carlo investigation of artifacts caused by liver uptake in single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled agents. J Nucl Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 3(1):18-29. PMID: 8799224.
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    107. King MA, Tsui BM, Pan TS. Attenuation compensation for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging: Part 1. Impact of attenuation and methods of estimating attenuation maps. J Nucl Cardiol. 1995 Nov-Dec; 2(6):513-24. PMID: 9420834.
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    108. Glick SJ, King MA, Pan TS, Soares EJ. An analytical approach for compensation of non-uniform attenuation in cardiac SPECT imaging. Phys Med Biol. 1995 Oct; 40(10):1677-93. PMID: 8532748.
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    109. Weinstein H, King MA, Reinhardt CP, McSherry BA, Leppo JA. A method of simultaneous dual-radionuclide cardiac imaging with technetium 99m and thallium 201. I: Analysis of interradionuclide crossover and validation in phantoms. J Nucl Cardiol. 1994 Jan-Feb; 1(1):39-51. PMID: 9420669.
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    110. Ljungberg M, King MA, Hademenos GJ, Strand SE. Comparison of four scatter correction methods using Monte Carlo simulated source distributions. J Nucl Med. 1994 Jan; 35(1):143-51. PMID: 8271036.
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    111. Glick SJ, Penney BC, King MA, Byrne CL. Noniterative compensation for the distance-dependent detector response and photon attenuation in SPECT imaging. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1994; 13(2):363-74. PMID: 18218512.
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    112. Glick SJ, Hawkins WG, King MA, Penney BC, Soares EJ, Byrne CL. The effect of intrinsic attenuation correction methods on the stationarity of the 3-D modulation transfer function of SPECT. Med Phys. 1992 Jul-Aug; 19(4):1105-12. PMID: 1518474.
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    113. King MA, Hademenos GJ, Glick SJ. A dual-photopeak window method for scatter correction. J Nucl Med. 1992 Apr; 33(4):605-12. PMID: 1552349.
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    114. Long DT, King MA, Sheehan J. Comparative evaluation of image segmentation methods for volume quantitation in SPECT. Med Phys. 1992 Mar-Apr; 19(2):483-9. PMID: 1584149.
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    115. Clarke LP, Cullom SJ, Shaw R, Reece C, Penney BC, King MA, Silbiger M. Bremsstrahlung imaging using the gamma camera: factors affecting attenuation. J Nucl Med. 1992 Jan; 33(1):161-6. PMID: 1730984.
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    116. King MA, Long DT, Brill AB. SPECT volume quantitation: influence of spatial resolution, source size and shape, and voxel size. Med Phys. 1991 Sep-Oct; 18(5):1016-24. PMID: 1961141.
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    117. King MA, Coleman M, Penney BC, Glick SJ. Activity quantitation in SPECT: a study of prereconstruction Metz filtering and use of the scatter degradation factor. Med Phys. 1991 Mar-Apr; 18(2):184-9. PMID: 2046603.
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    118. Glick SJ, King MA, Knesaurek K. An investigation of the 3D modulation transfer function used in 3D post-reconstruction restoration filtering of SPECT imaging. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991; 363:107-22. PMID: 1988967.
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    119. Long DT, King MA, Penney BC. 2D vs. 3D edge detection as a basis for volume quantitation in SPECT. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1991; 363:457-71. PMID: 1988994.
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    120. Stritzke P, King MA, Vaknine R, Goldsmith SJ. Deconvolution using orthogonal polynomials in nuclear medicine: a method for forming quantitative functional images from kinetic studies. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1990; 9(1):11-23. PMID: 18222746.
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    121. Penney BC, Glick SJ, King MA. Relative importance of the error sources in Wiener restoration of scintigrams. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1990; 9(1):60-70. PMID: 18222751.
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    122. Knesaurek K, King MA, Glick SJ, Penney BC. Investigation of causes of geometric distortion in 180 degrees and 360 degrees angular sampling in SPECT. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct; 30(10):1666-75. PMID: 2795207.
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    123. Cohen MB, Lake RR, Graham LS, King MA, Kling AS, Fitten LJ, O'Rear J, Bronca GA, Gan M, Servrin R, et al. Quantitative iodine-123 IMP imaging of brain perfusion in schizophrenia. J Nucl Med. 1989 Oct; 30(10):1616-20. PMID: 2795201.
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    124. Glick SJ, King MA, Penney BC. Characterization of the modulation transfer function of discrete filtered backprojection. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1989; 8(2):203-13. PMID: 18230518.
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    125. King MA, Penney BC, Glick SJ. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images. J Nucl Med. 1988 Dec; 29(12):1980-9. PMID: 3264021.
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    126. Penney BC, King MA, Schwinger RB, Baker SP, Doherty PW. Modifying constrained least-squares restoration for application to single photon emission computed tomography projection images. Med Phys. 1988 May-Jun; 15(3):334-42. PMID: 3261385.
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    127. Graham MM, Links JM, Lewellen TK, King MA, Croft BY, Wong DF, Esser PD, Goris ML. Considerations in the purchase of a nuclear medicine computer system. J Nucl Med. 1988 May; 29(5):717-24. PMID: 3373307.
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    128. King MA, Miller TR, Doherty PW, Schwinger RB. Stationary and nonstationary spatial domain Metz filtering. Nucl Med Commun. 1988 Jan; 9(1):3-13. PMID: 3386969.
      View in: PubMed
    129. Penney BC, King MA, Schwinger RB, Baker SP, Stritzke P, Doherty PW. Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function. Med Phys. 1987 Sep-Oct; 14(5):849-58. PMID: 3683315.
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    130. King MA, Glick SJ, Penney BC, Schwinger RB, Doherty PW. Interactive visual optimization of SPECT prereconstruction filtering. J Nucl Med. 1987 Jul; 28(7):1192-8. PMID: 3496435.
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    131. King MA, Schwinger RB, Penney BC, Doherty PW, Bianco JA. Digital restoration of indium-111 and iodine-123 SPECT images with optimized Metz filters. J Nucl Med. 1986 Aug; 27(8):1327-36. PMID: 3488378.
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    132. Bianco JA, Elmaleh DR, Leppo JA, King MA, Moring A, Livni E, Espinoza E, Alpert JS, Strauss HW. Effect of glucose and insulin infusion on the myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated methyl-substituted fatty acid. Eur J Nucl Med. 1986; 12(3):120-4. PMID: 3530771.
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    133. King MA, Schwinger RB, Doherty PW, Penney BC. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters. J Nucl Med. 1984 Nov; 25(11):1234-40. PMID: 6333497.
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    134. King MA, Doherty PW, Rosenberg RJ, Cool SL. Array processors: an introduction to their architecture, software, and applications in nuclear medicine. J Nucl Med. 1983 Nov; 24(11):1072-9. PMID: 6355407.
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    135. King MA, Doherty PW, Schwinger RB, Jacobs DA, Kidder RE, Miller TR. Fast count-dependent digital filtering of nuclear medicine images: concise communication. J Nucl Med. 1983 Nov; 24(11):1039-45. PMID: 6631524.
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    136. Miller TR, Sampathkumaran KS, King MA. Rapid digital filtering. J Nucl Med. 1983 Jul; 24(7):625-8. PMID: 6864316.
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    137. Raptopoulos V, Doherty PW, Goss TP, King MA, Johnson K, Gantz NM. Acute osteomyelitis: advantage of white cell scans in early detection. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Dec; 139(6):1077-82. PMID: 6216792.
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    138. King MA, Casarett GW, Weber DA, Burgener FA, O'Mara RE, Wilson GA. A study of irradiated bone. III. Scintigraphic and radiographic detection of radiation-induced osteosarcomas. J Nucl Med. 1980 May; 21(5):426-31. PMID: 6246224.
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    139. King MA, Weber DA, Casarett GW, Burgener FA, Corriveau O. A study of irradiated bone. Part II. changes in Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone imaging. J Nucl Med. 1980 Jan; 21(1):22-30. PMID: 6243352.
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    140. King MA, Casarett GW, Weber DA. A study of irradiated bone: I. histopathologic and physiologic changes. J Nucl Med. 1979 Nov; 20(11):1142-9. PMID: 536774.
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    141. King MA, Kilpper RW, Weber DA. A model for local accumulation of bone imaging radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med. 1977 Nov; 18(11):1106-11. PMID: 915088.
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