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Stephen M Rich MS, PhD

TitleDepartment Head
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Amherst
DepartmentCollege of Natural Sciences
Address209 Fernald Hall
Amherst, MA 01003
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Rich SM, Siegel EL, Xu G. What a Tick Can Tell a Doctor: Using the Human-Biting Tick in the Clinical Management of Tick-Borne Disease. J Clin Med. 2023 Oct 14; 12(20). PMID: 37892661.
    2. Pearson P, Rich C, Siegel EL, Brisson D, Rich SM. Differential Resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi Clones to Human Serum-Mediated Killing Does Not Correspond to Their Predicted Invasiveness. Pathogens. 2023 Oct 13; 12(10). PMID: 37887754.
    3. Lynch A, Pearson P, Savinov SN, Li AY, Rich SM. Lactate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors Suppress Borrelia burgdorferi Growth In Vitro. Pathogens. 2023 Jul 22; 12(7). PMID: 37513809.
    4. Snow AA, Pearson P, Xu G, Allen DN, Santamaria R, Rich SM. Tick Densities and Infection Prevalence on Coastal Islands in Massachusetts, USA: Establishing a Baseline. Insects. 2023 Jul 12; 14(7). PMID: 37504634.
    5. Siegel EL, Lavoie N, Xu G, Brown CM, Ledizet M, Rich SM. Human-Biting Ixodes scapularis Submissions to a Crowd-Funded Tick Testing Program Correlate with the Incidence of Rare Tick-Borne Disease: A Seven-Year Retrospective Study of Anaplasmosis and Babesiosis in Massachusetts. Microorganisms. 2023 May 27; 11(6). PMID: 37374922.
    6. Xu G, Foster E, Ribbe F, Hojgaard A, Eisen RJ, Paull S, Rich SM. Detection of Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis in Blacklegged Ticks (Ixodes scapularis) and White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in Massachusetts. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2023 06; 23(6):311-315. PMID: 37126383.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Pearson P, Rich C, Feehan MJR, Ditchkoff SS, Rich SM. White-Tailed Deer Serum Kills the Lyme Disease Spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2023 05; 23(5):303-305. PMID: 36944114.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    8. Sack A, Naumova EN, Price LL, Xu G, Rich SM. Passive Surveillance of Human-Biting Ixodes scapularis Ticks in Massachusetts from 2015-2019. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2023 02 28; 20(5). PMID: 36901316.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Dupuis AP, Prusinski MA, O'Connor C, Maffei JG, Koetzner CA, Zembsch TE, Zink SD, White AL, Santoriello MP, Romano CL, Xu G, Ribbe F, Campbell SR, Rich SM, Backenson PB, Kramer LD, Ciota AT. Bourbon Virus Transmission, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2023 01; 29(1):145-148. PMID: 36573733.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    10. Siegel EL, Olivera M, Roig EM, Perry M, Li AY, D'hers S, Elman NM, Rich SM. Spatial repellents transfluthrin and metofluthrin affect the behavior of Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis in an in vitro vertical climb assay. PLoS One. 2022; 17(11):e0269150. PMID: 36346809.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Xu G, Ribbe F, McCaffery J, Luo CY, Li AY, Rich SM. Development of a Taqman Real-Time PCR for the Identification of Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2022 07 13; 59(4):1484-1487. PMID: 35640022.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Pearson P, Skaltsis O, Luo CY, Xu G, Oppler Z, Brisson D, Rich SM. A Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein C (OspC) genotyping method using Luminex technology. PLoS One. 2022; 17(6):e0269266. PMID: 35648767.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    13. Luo CY, Pearson P, Xu G, Rich SM. A Computer Vision-Based Approach for Tick Identification Using Deep Learning Models. Insects. 2022 Jan 22; 13(2). PMID: 35206690.
    14. Xu G, Luo CY, Ribbe F, Pearson P, Ledizet M, Rich SM. Borrelia miyamotoi in Human-Biting Ticks, United States, 2013-2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 12; 27(12):3193-3195. PMID: 34808077.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Dupuis AP, Prusinski MA, O'Connor C, Maffei JG, Ngo KA, Koetzner CA, Santoriello MP, Romano CL, Xu G, Ribbe F, Campbell SR, Rich SM, Backenson PB, Kramer LD, Ciota AT. Heartland Virus Transmission, Suffolk County, New York, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 12; 27(12):3128-3132. PMID: 34648421.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Elfawal MA, Gray O, Dickson-Burke C, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Artemisia annua and artemisinins are ineffective against human Babesia microti and six Candida sp. Longhua Chin Med. 2021 Jun; 4. PMID: 34316676.
    17. Milholland MT, Xu G, Rich SM, Machtinger ET, Mullinax JM, Li AY. Pathogen Coinfections Harbored by Adult Ixodes scapularis from White-Tailed Deer Compared with Questing Adults Across Sites in Maryland, USA. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2021 02; 21(2):86-91. PMID: 33316206.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Kopsco HL, Xu G, Luo CY, Rich SM, Mather TN. Crowdsourced Photographs as an Effective Method for Large-Scale Passive Tick Surveillance. J Med Entomol. 2020 11 13; 57(6):1955-1963. PMID: 32812635.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    19. Xu G, Wielstra B, Rich SM. Northern and southern blacklegged (deer) ticks are genetically distinct with different histories and Lyme spirochete infection rates. Sci Rep. 2020 06 24; 10(1):10289. PMID: 32581236.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    20. Dykstra EA, Oltean HN, Kangiser D, Marsden-Haug N, Rich SM, Xu G, Lee MK, Morshed MG, Graham CB, Eisen RJ. Ecology and Epidemiology of Tickborne Pathogens, Washington, USA, 2011-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 04; 26(4):648-657. PMID: 32187009.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Xu G, Pearson P, Dykstra E, Andrews ES, Rich SM. Human-Biting Ixodes Ticks and Pathogen Prevalence from California, Oregon, and Washington. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 Feb; 19(2):106-114. PMID: 30207871.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Xu G, Pearson P, Rich SM. Ehrlichia muris in Ixodes cookei Ticks, Northeastern United States, 2016-2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 06; 24(6):1143-1144. PMID: 29774863.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Krause PJ, Schwab J, Narasimhan S, Brancato J, Xu G, Rich SM. Hard Tick Relapsing Fever Caused by Borrelia miyamotoi in a Child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 12; 35(12):1352-1354. PMID: 27626914.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Xu G, Mather TN, Hollingsworth CS, Rich SM. Passive Surveillance of Ixodes scapularis (Say), Their Biting Activity, and Associated Pathogens in Massachusetts. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2016 08; 16(8):520-7. PMID: 27248292.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Dried whole-plant Artemisia annua slows evolution of malaria drug resistance and overcomes resistance to artemisinin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20; 112(3):821-6. PMID: 25561559.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    26. Andrade JJ, Xu G, Rich SM. A silicone membrane for in vitro feeding of Ixodes scapularis (Ixodida: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2014 Jul; 51(4):878-9. PMID: 25118423.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsPHPublic Health
    27. Weathers PJ, Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Acquaah-Mensah GK, Rich SM. Pharmacokinetics of artemisinin delivered by oral consumption of Artemisia annua dried leaves in healthy vs. Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 May 14; 153(3):732-6. PMID: 24661969.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    28. Andrews ES, Xu G, Rich SM. Microbial communities within field-collected Culiseta melanura and Coquillettidia perturbans. Med Vet Entomol. 2014 Jun; 28(2):125-32. PMID: 23781871.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    29. Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, Golenbock D, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Dried whole plant Artemisia annua as an antimalarial therapy. PLoS One. 2012 Dec 20; 7(12):e52746. PMID: 23289055.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    30. Xu G, Wesker J, White C, Campbell J, Reich NG, Rich SM. Detection of heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in ixodes ticks by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Feb; 51(2):615-7. PMID: 23175266.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Blanco MB, Elfawal MA, Durden LA, Beati L, Xu G, Godfrey LR, Rich SM. Genetic diversity of ixodid ticks parasitizing eastern mouse and dwarf lemurs in Madagascar, with descriptions of the larva, nymph, and male of Ixodes lemuris (Acari: Ixodidae). J Parasitol. 2013 Feb; 99(1):11-8. PMID: 22924921.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Rich SM, Xu G. Resolving the phylogeny of malaria parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 09; 108(32):12973-4. PMID: 21804030.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Li X, Thomas BN, Rich SM, Ecker D, Tumwine JK, Foulkes AS. Estimating and testing haplotype-trait associations in non-diploid populations. J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat. 2009 12; 58(5):663-678. PMID: 20011038.
    34. Junglen S, Kurth A, Kuehl H, Quan PL, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G, Nitsche A, Nunn C, Rich SM, Lipkin WI, Briese T, Leendertz FH. Examining landscape factors influencing relative distribution of mosquito genera and frequency of virus infection. Ecohealth. 2009 Jun; 6(2):239-49. PMID: 19915916.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    35. Rich SM, Leendertz FH, Xu G, LeBreton M, Djoko CF, Aminake MN, Takang EE, Diffo JL, Pike BL, Rosenthal BM, Formenty P, Boesch C, Ayala FJ, Wolfe ND. The origin of malignant malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 01; 106(35):14902-7. PMID: 19666593.
      Citations: 102     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Walk ST, Xu G, Stull JW, Rich SM. Correlation between tick density and pathogen endemicity, New Hampshire. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Apr; 15(4):585-7. PMID: 19331738.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    37. Li X, Foulkes AS, Yucel RM, Rich SM. An expectation maximization approach to estimate malaria haplotype frequencies in multiply infected children. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol. 2007; 6:Article33. PMID: 18052916.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    38. Rich SM. The unpredictable past of Plasmodium vivax revealed in its genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 02; 101(44):15547-8. PMID: 15505201.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    39. Gov Y, Borovok I, Korem M, Singh VK, Jayaswal RK, Wilkinson BJ, Rich SM, Balaban N. Quorum sensing in Staphylococci is regulated via phosphorylation of three conserved histidine residues. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 09; 279(15):14665-72. PMID: 14726534.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Tumwine JK, Kekitiinwa A, Nabukeera N, Akiyoshi DE, Rich SM, Widmer G, Feng X, Tzipori S. Cryptosporidium parvum in children with diarrhea in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Jun; 68(6):710-5. PMID: 12887032.
      Citations: 75     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    41. Ferreira MU, Ribeiro WL, Tonon AP, Kawamoto F, Rich SM. Sequence diversity and evolution of the malaria vaccine candidate merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum. Gene. 2003 Jan 30; 304:65-75. PMID: 12568716.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Rich SM, Ayala FJ. Progress in malaria research: the case for phylogenetics. Adv Parasitol. 2003; 54:255-80. PMID: 14711087.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. Mukherjee J, Chios K, Fishwild D, Hudson D, O'Donnell S, Rich SM, Donohue-Rolfe A, Tzipori S. Production and characterization of protective human antibodies against Shiga toxin 1. Infect Immun. 2002 Oct; 70(10):5896-9. PMID: 12228326.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Okhuysen PC, Rich SM, Chappell CL, Grimes KA, Widmer G, Feng X, Tzipori S. Infectivity of a Cryptosporidium parvum isolate of cervine origin for healthy adults and interferon-gamma knockout mice. J Infect Dis. 2002 May 01; 185(9):1320-5. PMID: 12001050.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    45. Mukherjee J, Chios K, Fishwild D, Hudson D, O'Donnell S, Rich SM, Donohue-Rolfe A, Tzipori S. Human Stx2-specific monoclonal antibodies prevent systemic complications of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Infect Immun. 2002 Feb; 70(2):612-9. PMID: 11796590.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Feng X, Rich SM, Tzipori S, Widmer G. Experimental evidence for genetic recombination in the opportunistic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002 Jan; 119(1):55-62. PMID: 11755186.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Rich SM, Armstrong PM, Smith RD, Telford SR. Lone star tick-infecting borreliae are most closely related to the agent of bovine borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Feb; 39(2):494-7. PMID: 11158095.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Ayala FJ, Rich SM. Genetic variation and the recent worldwide expansion of Plasmodium falciparum. Gene. 2000 Dec 30; 261(1):161-70. PMID: 11164047.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Rich SM, Ferreira MU, Ayala FJ. The origin of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitol Today. 2000 Sep; 16(9):390-6. PMID: 10951599.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Feng X, Rich SM, Akiyoshi D, Tumwine JK, Kekitiinwa A, Nabukeera N, Tzipori S, Widmer G. Extensive polymorphism in Cryptosporidium parvum identified by multilocus microsatellite analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000 Aug; 66(8):3344-9. PMID: 10919789.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Rich SM, Ayala FJ. Population structure and recent evolution of Plasmodium falciparum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 20; 97(13):6994-7001. PMID: 10860962.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Widmer G, Akiyoshi D, Buckholt MA, Feng X, Rich SM, Deary KM, Bowman CA, Xu P, Wang Y, Wang X, Buck GA, Tzipori S. Animal propagation and genomic survey of a genotype 1 isolate of Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000 May; 108(2):187-97. PMID: 10838221.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    53. Ayala FJ, Escalante AA, Rich SM. Evolution of Plasmodium and the recent origin of the world populations of Plasmodium falciparum. Parassitologia. 1999 Sep; 41(1-3):55-68. PMID: 10697834.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. Rich SM, Ayala FJ. The recent origin of allelic variation in antigenic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum. Genetics. 1998 Sep; 150(1):515-7. PMID: 9841225.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Rich SM, Licht MC, Hudson RR, Ayala FJ. Malaria's Eve: evidence of a recent population bottleneck throughout the world populations of Plasmodium falciparum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14; 95(8):4425-30. PMID: 9539753.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    56. Rich SM, Hudson RR, Ayala FJ. Plasmodium falciparum antigenic diversity: evidence of clonal population structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Nov 25; 94(24):13040-5. PMID: 9371796.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Rich SM, Rosenthal BM, Telford SR, Spielman A, Hartl DL, Ayala FJ. Heterogeneity of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) region within individual deer ticks. Insect Mol Biol. 1997 May; 6(2):123-9. PMID: 9099576.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Boyd EF, Hill CW, Rich SM, Hartl DL. Mosaic structure of plasmids from natural populations of Escherichia coli. Genetics. 1996 Jul; 143(3):1091-100. PMID: 8807284.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    59. Armstrong PM, Rich SM, Smith RD, Hartl DL, Spielman A, Telford SR. A new Borrelia infecting Lone Star ticks. Lancet. 1996 Jan 06; 347(8993):67-8. PMID: 8531586.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    60. Caporale DA, Rich SM, Spielman A, Telford SR, Kocher TD. Discriminating between Ixodes ticks by means of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1995 Dec; 4(4):361-5. PMID: 8747292.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    61. Rich SM, Caporale DA, Telford SR, Kocher TD, Hartl DL, Spielman A. Distribution of the Ixodes ricinus-like ticks of eastern North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 03; 92(14):6284-8. PMID: 7603983.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Smith RP, Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Telford SR, Rich SM, Piesman J, Spielman A. Norway rats as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes on Monhegan Island, Maine. J Infect Dis. 1993 Sep; 168(3):687-91. PMID: 8354910.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    63. Rand PW, Lacombe EH, Smith RP, Rich SM, Kilpatrick CW, Dragoni CA, Caporale D. Competence of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as a reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetares: Spirochaetaceae) in the wild. J Med Entomol. 1993 May; 30(3):614-8. PMID: 8510121.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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