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Stephen O Heard MD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentAnesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentAnesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentSurgery

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentClinical Population Health Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United StatesBSEngineering
    University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Houston, TX, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Academic Background

    M.D. University of Texas, Houston, TX, 1978


    Postdoctoral Training

    Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, Residency in Internal Medicine, 1978-1981
    University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Residency in Anesthesiology, 1981-83
    University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Fellowship in Critical Care Medicine, 1983-84

    Photo: Stephen O. Heard, M.D.I attend in both the operating room and surgical intensive care units, however, my clinical and research interests center on critical care medicine. I enjoy the challenge of caring for the critically-ill patient and receive great satisfaction in seeing a patient for whom I have cared survive such an illness. The surgical intensive care units at UMass Memorial Medical Center provide care for a diverse patient population: cardiothoracic, vascular, trauma, neurosurgical, transplant, urologic, orthopedic, burns and general surgery. In some of these units, “medical” patients are also cared for by the ICU team. This is an exciting time for critical care medicine - both in general and at UMass Memorial. A plethora of prospective, randomized studies pertaining to the care of the critically-ill patient has been conducted and has enabled us to improve the care and outcome of these patients. Furthermore, coordinated care is very important in the treatment of these patients. At UMass Memorial, the administrative structure of critical care was changed. The silo approach to the patient has been abandoned and provision of care is much more coordinated and spans across many departments and divisions. In addition, telemedicine in the form of the eICU allows behind the scenes backup monitoring of all patients. The changes have resulted in documented and gratifying improvements in patient outcomes.

    My research interests include strategies to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), sepsis and septic shock, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and monitoring. Over the past several years, UMass Memorial has been a part of a number clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of catheters impregnated with antibiotics to prevent CRBSI, passive immunotherapy with anti-endotoxin or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a antibodies in patients with sepsis, and alveolar lavage with surfactant in the treatment of patients with ARDS. The department also has an active and vibrant basic science and clinical research effort in noninvasive monitoring headed byDr. Babs Soller with whom I collaborate.

    I believe active involvement in organized medicine is very important. I am a member of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, the Massachusetts Society of Anesthesiologists, the Society of Critical Care Medicine, and the American College of Chest Physicians. I have either held leadership positions or served on committees in all of these organizations. In addition, I have lobbied for our specialty at both the state and federal levels. My goal is to help and encourage more physicians to become involved in state and national specialty societies.

    Lastly, the number of patients waiting for an organ far exceeds the number or organs that are donated. UMass Memorial Medical Center is a member of an initiative sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the federal government to increase organ donation. UMass Memorial has been a leader in New England in providing organs following either brain death or cardiac death.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Civitarese AM, Ruggieri E, Walz JM, Mack DA, Heard SO, Mitchell M, Lilly CM, Landry KE, Ellison RT. RE: Preventability of hospital onset bacterermia and fungemia: A pilot study of potential healthcare-associated infection outcome measure, by Dantes et al (2019). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 25; 1. PMID: 31340877.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Brown HE, Freudenreich O, Fan X, Heard SO, Goff D, Petrides G, Harrington AL, Kane JM, Judge H, Hoeppner B, Fava M, Perlis RH. Efficacy and Tolerability of Adjunctive Intravenous Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment for Outpatients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30916714.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Scott JA, Walz JM, Heard SO. Should the Ramped Position Be "Sniffed at" in the ICU? Chest. 2017 Oct; 152(4):693-694. PMID: 28991539.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kapoor A, Matheos T, Walz M, McDonough C, Maheswaran A, Ruppell E, Mohamud D, Shaffer N, Zhou Y, Kaur S, Heard S, Crawford S, Cabral H, White DK, Santry H, Jette A, Fielding R, Silliman RA, Gurwitz J. Self-Reported Function More Informative than Frailty Phenotype in Predicting Adverse Postoperative Course in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Nov; 65(11):2522-2528. PMID: 28926087.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Civitarese AM, Ruggieri E, Walz JM, Mack DA, Heard SO, Mitchell M, Lilly CM, Landry KE, Ellison RT. A ten-year review of total hospital onset intensive care unit bloodstream infections at an Academic Medical Center. Chest. 2017 Feb 16. PMID: 28215789.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Walz JM, Stundner O, Girardi FP, Barton BA, Koll-Desrosiers AR, Heard SO, Memtsoudis SG. Microvascular response to transfusion in elective spine surgery. World J Orthop. 2017 Jan 18; 8(1):49-56. PMID: 28144579.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Koff MD, Brown JR, Marshall EJ, O'Malley AJ, Jensen JT, Heard SO, Longtine K, O'Neill M, Longtine J, Houston D, Robison C, Moulton E, Patel HM, Loftus RW. Frequency of Hand Decontamination of Intraoperative Providers and Reduction of Postoperative Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Novel Hand Hygiene System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016 Aug; 37(8):888-95. PMID: 27267310.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ahlawat A, Carandang R, Heard SO, Muehlschlegel S. The Modified Apnea Test During Brain Death Determination: An Alternative in Patients With Hypoxia. J Intensive Care Med. 2016 Jan; 31(1):66-9. PMID: 26574562.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kuza C, Matheos T, Kathman D, Heard SO. Life after acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: a case report of a patient 30 months after diagnosis and review of the literature. J Crit Care. 2016 Feb; 31(1):255-61. PMID: 26578116.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Garey KW, Alangaden GJ, Vazquez JA, Groeger JS, Judson MA, Vinagre YM, Heard SO, Zervou FN, Zacharioudakis IM, Kontoyiannis DP, Pappas PG. Reply to Bauer and Goff. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 1; 61(3):487-8. PMID: 25944341.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Loftus RW, Brown JR, Patel HM, Koff MD, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Dodds TM, Beach ML, Yeager MP. Transmission dynamics of gram-negative bacterial pathogens in the anesthesia work area. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):819-26. PMID: 25790209.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Loftus RW, Koff MD, Brown JR, Patel HM, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Yeager MP, Dodds TM. The dynamics of Enterococcus transmission from bacterial reservoirs commonly encountered by anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):827-36. PMID: 24937346.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Fernandez PG, Loftus RW, Dodds TM, Koff MD, Reddy S, Heard SO, Beach ML, Yeager MP, Brown JR. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):837-43. PMID: 25383717.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Walz JM, Ellison RT, Mack DA, Flaherty HM, McIlwaine JK, Whyte KG, Landry KE, Baker SP, Heard SO. The bundle "plus": the effect of a multidisciplinary team approach to eradicate central line-associated bloodstream infections. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):868-76. PMID: 24149581.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Loftus RW, Koff MD, Brown JR, Patel HM, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Yeager MP, Dodds TM. The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus transmission in the anesthesia work area. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):807-18. PMID: 24937345.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Memtsoudis SG, Danninger T, Stundner O, Yoo D, Girardi FP, Boettner F, Kao I, Fields KG, Urban MK, Heard SO, Walz JM. Blood Transfusions May Have Limited Effect on Muscle Oxygenation After Total Knee Arthroplasty. HSS J. 2015 Jul; 11(2):136-42. PMID: 26140033.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Garey KW, Alangaden GJ, Vazquez JA, Groeger JS, Judson MA, Vinagre YM, Heard SO, Zervou FN, Zacharioudakis IM, Kontoyiannis DP, Pappas PG. T2 magnetic resonance assay for the rapid diagnosis of candidemia in whole blood: a clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15; 60(6):892-9. PMID: 25586686.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Zhao H, Heard SO, Mullen MT, Crawford S, Goldberg RJ, Frendl G, Lilly CM. An evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the 1991 American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine and the 2001 Society of Critical Care Medicine/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/American College of Chest Physicians/American Thoracic Society/Surgical Infection Society sepsis definition. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun; 40(6):1700-6. PMID: 22610176.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Loftus RW, Brown JR, Koff MD, Reddy S, Heard SO, Patel HM, Fernandez PG, Beach ML, Corwin HL, Jensen JT, Kispert D, Huysman B, Dodds TM, Ruoff KL, Yeager MP. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jun; 114(6):1236-48. PMID: 22467892.
      View in: PubMed
    20. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Summary of recommendations: Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-related Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):1087-99. PMID: 21467014.
      View in: PubMed
    21. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2011 May; 39(4 Suppl 1):S1-34. PMID: 21511081.
      View in: PubMed
    22. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):e162-93. PMID: 21460264.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Walz JM, Avelar RL, Longtine KJ, Carter KL, Mermel LA, Heard SO. Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine in preventing catheter colonization. Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov; 38(11):2095-102. PMID: 20711070.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Watson NC, Heard SO. The use of lactate as a biomarker. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 Sep; 25(5):301-2. PMID: 20810447.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Jones N, Cocchiarella A, Faris K, Heard SO. Pancreatitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient chronically treated with corticosteroids. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):172-4. PMID: 20444734.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Matheos T, Walz JM, Adams JP, Johnson K, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill M, Heard SO. Comparison of the duration of antimicrobial activity of 2 different antimicrobial central venous catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Mar; 31(3):295-7. PMID: 20100086.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Walz JM, Memtsoudis SG, Heard SO. Prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):131-8. PMID: 20089527.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Soller BR, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Heard SO, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Convertino VA, Cooke WH, Crookes BA. Near infrared spectroscopy. Crit Care Med. 2009 Jan; 37(1):385. PMID: 19318822.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Walz JM, Faris K, Heard SO. Who let the bugs in? Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep; 36(9):2689-90. PMID: 18728484.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Soller BR, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Cooke WH, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Crookes BA, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Oxygen saturation determined from deep muscle, not thenar tissue, is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan; 36(1):176-82. PMID: 18090350.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Soller BR, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Walz JM, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Noninvasively determined muscle oxygen saturation is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Feb; 104(2):475-81. PMID: 18006869.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, May A, Pearl RG, Heard S, An R, Bowers PJ, Burton P, Klausner MA, Corwin MJ. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 6; 357(10):965-76. PMID: 17804841.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Soller BR, Hagan RD, Shear M, Walz JM, Landry M, Anunciacion D, Orquiola A, Heard SO. Comparison of intramuscular and venous blood pH, PCO(2) and PO(2) during rhythmic handgrip exercise. Physiol Meas. 2007 Jun; 28(6):639-49. PMID: 17664618.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Walz JM, Zayaruzny M, Heard SO. Airway management in critical illness. Chest. 2007 Feb; 131(2):608-20. PMID: 17296669.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Walz JM, Paterson CA, Seligowski JM, Heard SO. Surgical site infection following bowel surgery: a retrospective analysis of 1446 patients. Arch Surg. 2006 Oct; 141(10):1014-8; discussion 1018. PMID: 17043280.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Walz JM, Heard SO. Making tracheal intubation safer in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov; 33(11):2716-7. PMID: 16276220.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Waxman AB, Ward N, Thompson T, Lilly CM, Lisbon A, Hill N, Nasraway SA, Heard S, Corwin H, Levy M. Roundtable debate: Controversies in the management of the septic patient--desperately seeking consensus. Crit Care. 2005 Aug 20; 9(1):E1. PMID: 15693960.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Munson EL, Heard SO, Doern GV. In vitro exposure of bacteria to antimicrobial impregnated-central venous catheters does not directly lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Chest. 2004 Nov; 126(5):1628-35. PMID: 15539737.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO. Care of the injured Jehovah's Witness patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2004 Nov; 16(7):548-53. PMID: 15590263.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, Astiz ME, Chalfin DB, Dasta JF, Heard SO, Martin C, Napolitano LM, Susla GM, Totaro R, Vincent JL, Zanotti-Cavazzoni S. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep; 32(9):1928-48. PMID: 15343024.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Soller BR, Khan T, Favreau J, Hsi C, Puyana JC, Heard SO. Investigation of muscle pH as an indicator of liver pH and injury from hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2003 Oct; 114(2):195-201. PMID: 14559446.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Dickson EW, Doern GV, Trevino L, Mazzoni M, Heard SO. Prevention of descending pneumonia in rts with perflubron-delivered tobramycin. Acad Emerg Med. 2003 Oct; 10(10):1019-23. PMID: 14525730.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Soller BR, Idwasi PO, Balaguer J, Levin S, Simsir SA, Vander Salm TJ, Collette H, Heard SO. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 2003 Sep; 31(9):2324-31. PMID: 14501963.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Heard SO. Gastric tonometry: the hemodynamic monitor of choice (Pro). Chest. 2003 May; 123(5 Suppl):469S-74S. PMID: 12740231.
      View in: PubMed
    45. O'grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2002 Dec; 30(8):476-89. PMID: 12461511.
      View in: PubMed
    46. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Dec; 23(12):759-69. PMID: 12517020.
      View in: PubMed
    47. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov; 110(5):e51. PMID: 12415057.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO, Bankey PE. A subclavian artery injury, secondary to internal jugular vein cannulation, is a predictable right-sided phenomenon. Anesth Analg. 2002 Sep; 95(3):564-6, table of contents. PMID: 12198037.
      View in: PubMed
    49. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 Aug 9; 51(RR-10):1-29. PMID: 12233868.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Smyrnios NA, Connolly A, Wilson MM, Curley FJ, French CT, Heard SO, Irwin RS. Effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide quality improvement program on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun; 30(6):1224-30. PMID: 12072672.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Dickson EW, Heard SO, Tarara TE, Weers JG, Brueggemann AB, Doern GV. Liquid ventilation with perflubron in the treatment of rats with pneumococcal pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb; 30(2):393-5. PMID: 11889317.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Heard SO. Catheter-related infection: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2001 Jul; 30(4):419-29. PMID: 11503552.
      View in: PubMed
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