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Stephen O Heard MD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
DepartmentAnesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentAnesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentSurgery


    Collapse Biography 
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    Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, United StatesBSEngineering
    University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Houston, Houston, TX, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 
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    Academic Background

    M.D. University of Texas, Houston, TX, 1978


    Postdoctoral Training

    Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, MA, Residency in Internal Medicine, 1978-1981
    University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Residency in Anesthesiology, 1981-83
    University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, Fellowship in Critical Care Medicine, 1983-84

    Photo: Stephen O. Heard, M.D.I attend in both the operating room and surgical intensive care units, however, my clinical and research interests center on critical care medicine. I enjoy the challenge of caring for the critically-ill patient and receive great satisfaction in seeing a patient for whom I have cared survive such an illness. The surgical intensive care units at UMass Memorial Medical Center provide care for a diverse patient population: cardiothoracic, vascular, trauma, neurosurgical, transplant, urologic, orthopedic, burns and general surgery. In some of these units, “medical” patients are also cared for by the ICU team. This is an exciting time for critical care medicine - both in general and at UMass Memorial. A plethora of prospective, randomized studies pertaining to the care of the critically-ill patient has been conducted and has enabled us to improve the care and outcome of these patients. Furthermore, coordinated care is very important in the treatment of these patients. At UMass Memorial, the administrative structure of critical care was changed. The silo approach to the patient has been abandoned and provision of care is much more coordinated and spans across many departments and divisions. In addition, telemedicine in the form of the eICU allows behind the scenes backup monitoring of all patients. The changes have resulted in documented and gratifying improvements in patient outcomes.

    My research interests include strategies to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), sepsis and septic shock, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and monitoring. Over the past several years, UMass Memorial has been a part of a number clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of catheters impregnated with antibiotics to prevent CRBSI, passive immunotherapy with anti-endotoxin or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a antibodies in patients with sepsis, and alveolar lavage with surfactant in the treatment of patients with ARDS. The department also has an active and vibrant basic science and clinical research effort in noninvasive monitoring headed byDr. Babs Soller with whom I collaborate.

    I believe active involvement in organized medicine is very important. I am a member of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the American Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists, the Massachusetts Society of Anesthesiologists, the Society of Critical Care Medicine, and the American College of Chest Physicians. I have either held leadership positions or served on committees in all of these organizations. In addition, I have lobbied for our specialty at both the state and federal levels. My goal is to help and encourage more physicians to become involved in state and national specialty societies.

    Lastly, the number of patients waiting for an organ far exceeds the number or organs that are donated. UMass Memorial Medical Center is a member of an initiative sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the federal government to increase organ donation. UMass Memorial has been a leader in New England in providing organs following either brain death or cardiac death.



    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Scott JA, Heard SO, Zayaruzny M, Walz JM. Response. Chest. 2020 12; 158(6):2712. PMID: 33280766.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Scott JA, Heard SO, Zayaruzny M, Walz JM. Response. Chest. 2020 06; 157(6):1686-1687. PMID: 32505319.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Scott JA, Heard SO, Zayaruzny M, Walz JM. Airway Management in Critical Illness: An Update. Chest. 2020 04; 157(4):877-887. PMID: 31711987.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Civitarese AM, Ruggieri E, Walz JM, Mack DA, Heard SO, Mitchell M, Lilly CM, Landry KE, Ellison RT. RE: Preventability of hospital onset bacterermia and fungemia: A pilot study of potential healthcare-associated infection outcome measure, by Dantes et al (2019). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 10; 40(10):1209-1210. PMID: 31340877.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Brown HE, Freudenreich O, Fan X, Heard SO, Goff D, Petrides G, Harrington AL, Kane JM, Judge H, Hoeppner B, Fava M, Perlis RH. Efficacy and Tolerability of Adjunctive Intravenous Sodium Nitroprusside Treatment for Outpatients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 07 01; 76(7):691-699. PMID: 30916714.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Scott JA, Walz JM, Heard SO. Should the Ramped Position Be "Sniffed at" in the ICU? Chest. 2017 10; 152(4):693-694. PMID: 28991539.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Kapoor A, Matheos T, Walz M, McDonough C, Maheswaran A, Ruppell E, Mohamud D, Shaffer N, Zhou Y, Kaur S, Heard S, Crawford S, Cabral H, White DK, Santry H, Jette A, Fielding R, Silliman RA, Gurwitz J. Self-Reported Function More Informative than Frailty Phenotype in Predicting Adverse Postoperative Course in Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Nov; 65(11):2522-2528. PMID: 28926087.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Civitarese AM, Ruggieri E, Walz JM, Mack DA, Heard SO, Mitchell M, Lilly CM, Landry KE, Ellison RT. A 10-Year Review of Total Hospital-Onset ICU Bloodstream Infections at an Academic Medical Center. Chest. 2017 05; 151(5):1011-1017. PMID: 28215789.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Walz JM, Stundner O, Girardi FP, Barton BA, Koll-Desrosiers AR, Heard SO, Memtsoudis SG. Microvascular response to transfusion in elective spine surgery. World J Orthop. 2017 Jan 18; 8(1):49-56. PMID: 28144579.
      Citations:    
    10. Koff MD, Brown JR, Marshall EJ, O'Malley AJ, Jensen JT, Heard SO, Longtine K, O'Neill M, Longtine J, Houston D, Robison C, Moulton E, Patel HM, Loftus RW. Frequency of Hand Decontamination of Intraoperative Providers and Reduction of Postoperative Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Novel Hand Hygiene System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2016 08; 37(8):888-895. PMID: 27267310.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    11. Ahlawat A, Carandang R, Heard SO, Muehlschlegel S. The Modified Apnea Test During Brain Death Determination: An Alternative in Patients With Hypoxia. J Intensive Care Med. 2016 Jan; 31(1):66-9. PMID: 26574562.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Kuza C, Matheos T, Kathman D, Heard SO. Life after acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: a case report of a patient 30 months after diagnosis and review of the literature. J Crit Care. 2016 Feb; 31(1):255-61. PMID: 26578116.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    13. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Garey KW, Alangaden GJ, Vazquez JA, Groeger JS, Judson MA, Vinagre YM, Heard SO, Zervou FN, Zacharioudakis IM, Kontoyiannis DP, Pappas PG. Reply to Bauer and Goff. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 01; 61(3):487-8. PMID: 25944341.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    14. Loftus RW, Brown JR, Patel HM, Koff MD, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Dodds TM, Beach ML, Yeager MP. Transmission dynamics of gram-negative bacterial pathogens in the anesthesia work area. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):819-26. PMID: 25790209.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    15. Loftus RW, Koff MD, Brown JR, Patel HM, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Yeager MP, Dodds TM. The dynamics of Enterococcus transmission from bacterial reservoirs commonly encountered by anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):827-36. PMID: 24937346.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    16. Fernandez PG, Loftus RW, Dodds TM, Koff MD, Reddy S, Heard SO, Beach ML, Yeager MP, Brown JR. Hand hygiene knowledge and perceptions among anesthesia providers. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):837-43. PMID: 25383717.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    17. Walz JM, Ellison RT, Mack DA, Flaherty HM, McIlwaine JK, Whyte KG, Landry KE, Baker SP, Heard SO. The bundle "plus": the effect of a multidisciplinary team approach to eradicate central line-associated bloodstream infections. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):868-76. PMID: 24149581.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    18. Loftus RW, Koff MD, Brown JR, Patel HM, Jensen JT, Reddy S, Ruoff KL, Heard SO, Yeager MP, Dodds TM. The epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus transmission in the anesthesia work area. Anesth Analg. 2015 Apr; 120(4):807-18. PMID: 24937345.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    19. Memtsoudis SG, Danninger T, Stundner O, Yoo D, Girardi FP, Boettner F, Kao I, Fields KG, Urban MK, Heard SO, Walz JM. Blood Transfusions May Have Limited Effect on Muscle Oxygenation After Total Knee Arthroplasty. HSS J. 2015 Jul; 11(2):136-42. PMID: 26140033.
      Citations:    
    20. Mylonakis E, Clancy CJ, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Garey KW, Alangaden GJ, Vazquez JA, Groeger JS, Judson MA, Vinagre YM, Heard SO, Zervou FN, Zacharioudakis IM, Kontoyiannis DP, Pappas PG. T2 magnetic resonance assay for the rapid diagnosis of candidemia in whole blood: a clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Mar 15; 60(6):892-9. PMID: 25586686.
      Citations: 112     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCTClinical Trials
    21. Zhao H, Heard SO, Mullen MT, Crawford S, Goldberg RJ, Frendl G, Lilly CM. An evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the 1991 American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine and the 2001 Society of Critical Care Medicine/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/American College of Chest Physicians/American Thoracic Society/Surgical Infection Society sepsis definition. Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun; 40(6):1700-6. PMID: 22610176.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Loftus RW, Brown JR, Koff MD, Reddy S, Heard SO, Patel HM, Fernandez PG, Beach ML, Corwin HL, Jensen JT, Kispert D, Huysman B, Dodds TM, Ruoff KL, Yeager MP. Multiple reservoirs contribute to intraoperative bacterial transmission. Anesth Analg. 2012 Jun; 114(6):1236-48. PMID: 22467892.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    23. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2011 May; 39(4 Suppl 1):S1-34. PMID: 21511081.
      Citations: 231     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    24. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Summary of recommendations: Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-related Infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):1087-99. PMID: 21467014.
      Citations: 83     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    25. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 May; 52(9):e162-93. PMID: 21460264.
      Citations: 368     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    26. Walz JM, Avelar RL, Longtine KJ, Carter KL, Mermel LA, Heard SO. Anti-infective external coating of central venous catheters: a randomized, noninferiority trial comparing 5-fluorouracil with chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine in preventing catheter colonization. Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov; 38(11):2095-102. PMID: 20711070.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Watson NC, Heard SO. The use of lactate as a biomarker. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 Sep; 25(5):301-2. PMID: 20810447.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Jones N, Cocchiarella A, Faris K, Heard SO. Pancreatitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a patient chronically treated with corticosteroids. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):172-4. PMID: 20444734.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    29. Matheos T, Walz JM, Adams JP, Johnson K, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill M, Heard SO. Comparison of the duration of antimicrobial activity of 2 different antimicrobial central venous catheters. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Mar; 31(3):295-7. PMID: 20100086.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    30. Walz JM, Memtsoudis SG, Heard SO. Prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections. J Intensive Care Med. 2010 May-Jun; 25(3):131-8. PMID: 20089527.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    31. Soller BR, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Heard SO, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Convertino VA, Cooke WH, Crookes BA. Near infrared spectroscopy. Crit Care Med. 2009 Jan; 37(1):385. PMID: 19318822.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    32. Walz JM, Faris K, Heard SO. Who let the bugs in? Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep; 36(9):2689-90. PMID: 18728484.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:PHPublic Health
    33. Soller BR, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Cooke WH, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Crookes BA, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Oxygen saturation determined from deep muscle, not thenar tissue, is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan; 36(1):176-82. PMID: 18090350.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Soller BR, Yang Y, Soyemi OO, Ryan KL, Rickards CA, Walz JM, Heard SO, Convertino VA. Noninvasively determined muscle oxygen saturation is an early indicator of central hypovolemia in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008 Feb; 104(2):475-81. PMID: 18006869.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    35. Corwin HL, Gettinger A, Fabian TC, May A, Pearl RG, Heard S, An R, Bowers PJ, Burton P, Klausner MA, Corwin MJ. Efficacy and safety of epoetin alfa in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 06; 357(10):965-76. PMID: 17804841.
      Citations: 133     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Soller BR, Hagan RD, Shear M, Walz JM, Landry M, Anunciacion D, Orquiola A, Heard SO. Comparison of intramuscular and venous blood pH, PCO(2) and PO(2) during rhythmic handgrip exercise. Physiol Meas. 2007 Jun; 28(6):639-49. PMID: 17664618.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    37. Walz JM, Zayaruzny M, Heard SO. Airway management in critical illness. Chest. 2007 Feb; 131(2):608-20. PMID: 17296669.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Walz JM, Paterson CA, Seligowski JM, Heard SO. Surgical site infection following bowel surgery: a retrospective analysis of 1446 patients. Arch Surg. 2006 Oct; 141(10):1014-8; discussion 1018. PMID: 17043280.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Walz JM, Heard SO. Making tracheal intubation safer in the critically ill patient. Crit Care Med. 2005 Nov; 33(11):2716-7. PMID: 16276220.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    40. Waxman AB, Ward N, Thompson T, Lilly CM, Lisbon A, Hill N, Nasraway SA, Heard S, Corwin H, Levy M. Roundtable debate: Controversies in the management of the septic patient--desperately seeking consensus. Crit Care. 2005 Aug 20; 9(1):E1. PMID: 15693960.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO. Care of the injured Jehovah's Witness patient: case report and review of the literature. J Clin Anesth. 2004 Nov; 16(7):548-53. PMID: 15590263.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Munson EL, Heard SO, Doern GV. In vitro exposure of bacteria to antimicrobial impregnated-central venous catheters does not directly lead to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Chest. 2004 Nov; 126(5):1628-35. PMID: 15539737.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:CellsPHPublic Health
    43. Hollenberg SM, Ahrens TS, Annane D, Astiz ME, Chalfin DB, Dasta JF, Heard SO, Martin C, Napolitano LM, Susla GM, Totaro R, Vincent JL, Zanotti-Cavazzoni S. Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients: 2004 update. Crit Care Med. 2004 Sep; 32(9):1928-48. PMID: 15343024.
      Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    44. Soller BR, Khan T, Favreau J, Hsi C, Puyana JC, Heard SO. Investigation of muscle pH as an indicator of liver pH and injury from hemorrhagic shock. J Surg Res. 2003 Oct; 114(2):195-201. PMID: 14559446.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    45. Dickson EW, Doern GV, Trevino L, Mazzoni M, Heard SO. Prevention of descending pneumonia in rts with perflubron-delivered tobramycin. Acad Emerg Med. 2003 Oct; 10(10):1019-23. PMID: 14525730.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Soller BR, Idwasi PO, Balaguer J, Levin S, Simsir SA, Vander Salm TJ, Collette H, Heard SO. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 2003 Sep; 31(9):2324-31. PMID: 14501963.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Heard SO. Gastric tonometry: the hemodynamic monitor of choice (Pro). Chest. 2003 May; 123(5 Suppl):469S-74S. PMID: 12740231.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. O'grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Am J Infect Control. 2002 Dec; 30(8):476-89. PMID: 12461511.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    49. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Dec; 23(12):759-69. PMID: 12517020.
      Citations: 74     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov; 110(5):e51. PMID: 12415057.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    51. Kulvatunyou N, Heard SO, Bankey PE. A subclavian artery injury, secondary to internal jugular vein cannulation, is a predictable right-sided phenomenon. Anesth Analg. 2002 Sep; 95(3):564-6, table of contents. PMID: 12198037.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    52. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, Gerberding JL, Heard SO, Maki DG, Masur H, McCormick RD, Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad II, Randolph A, Weinstein RA. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2002 Aug 09; 51(RR-10):1-29. PMID: 12233868.
      Citations: 231     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    53. Smyrnios NA, Connolly A, Wilson MM, Curley FJ, French CT, Heard SO, Irwin RS. Effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide quality improvement program on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jun; 30(6):1224-30. PMID: 12072672.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Dickson EW, Heard SO, Tarara TE, Weers JG, Brueggemann AB, Doern GV. Liquid ventilation with perflubron in the treatment of rats with pneumococcal pneumonia. Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb; 30(2):393-5. PMID: 11889317.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Heard SO. Catheter-related infection: diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Ann Acad Med Singap. 2001 Jul; 30(4):419-29. PMID: 11503552.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
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