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Sanjay Ram MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMedicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
364 Plantation Street, LRB-322
Worcester MA 01605
Phone508-856-6269
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases And Immunology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology


    Collapse Biography 
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    Seth G.S. Medical College, Mumbai, MH, IndiaMBBSMedicine and Surgery

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    The focus of our group is to elucidate how the complement system (an arm of innate immune defenses) interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the bacteria that cause gonorrhea) and N. meningitidis (the agent of bacterial meningitis).  This knowledge is being used to develop novel immunotherapeutics against multidrug-resistant gonorrhea.  Gonococci scavenge host complement inhibitors to escape killing by complement.  The first approach being investigated includes fusing the microbial binding region of complement inhibitors with the Fc region of antibody, which enhances complement-dependent lysis of bacteria.  A key aspect of gonococcal pathogenesis is its ability to use a sugar called sialic acid from the host to escape immune defenses.  In the second approach, we are investigating the use of analogs of sialic acid that are taken up by the bacteria, but unlike the ‘physiological’ form of sialic acid, fail to protect the bacteria against host defenses and results in faster clearance of bacteria in the murine model of gonorrhea.





     




    Collapse Bibliographic 
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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Lewis LA, Panicker S, DeOliveira RB, Parry GC, Ram S. Effect of a C1s Inhibitor on the Efficacy of Anti-Capsular Antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunohorizons. 2019 Nov 05; 3(11):519-530. PMID: 31690560.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gulati S, Pennington MW, Czerwinski A, Carter D, Zheng B, Nowak NA, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Reed GW, Ram S, Rice PA. Preclinical Efficacy of a Lipooligosaccharide Peptide Mimic Candidate Gonococcal Vaccine. MBio. 2019 Nov 05; 10(6). PMID: 31690678.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Bettoni S, Shaughnessy J, Maziarz K, Ermert D, Gulati S, Zheng B, Mörgelin M, Jacobsson S, Riesbeck K, Unemo M, Ram S, Blom AM. C4BP-IgM protein as a novel therapeutic approach to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. JCI Insight. 2019 Oct 29. PMID: 31661468.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ermert D, Ram S, Laabei M. The hijackers guide to escaping complement: Lessons learned from pathogens. Mol Immunol. 2019 Jul 20; 114:49-61. PMID: 31336249.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Gulati S, Beurskens FJ, de Kreuk BJ, Roza M, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Shaughnessy J, Nowak NA, Taylor RP, Botto M, He X, Ingalls RR, Woodruff TM, Song WC, Schuurman J, Rice PA, Ram S. Complement alone drives efficacy of a chimeric antigonococcal monoclonal antibody. PLoS Biol. 2019 Jun 19; 17(6):e3000323. PMID: 31216278.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ermert D, Laabei M, Weckel A, Mörgelin M, Lundqvist M, Björck L, Ram S, Linse S, Blom AM. The Molecular Basis of Human IgG-Mediated Enhancement of C4b-Binding Protein Recruitment to Group A Streptococcus. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:1230. PMID: 31214187.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Gulati S, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Rice PA. Targeting Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) for a Gonococcal Vaccine. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:321. PMID: 30873172.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Singel KL, Emmons TR, Khan ANH, Mayor PC, Shen S, Wong JT, Morrell K, Eng KH, Mark J, Bankert RB, Matsuzaki J, Koya RC, Blom AM, McLeish KR, Qu J, Ram S, Moysich KB, Abrams SI, Odunsi K, Zsiros E, Segal BH. Mature neutrophils suppress T cell immunity in ovarian cancer microenvironment. JCI Insight. 2019 Feb 07. PMID: 30730851.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kenno S, Speth C, Rambach G, Binder U, Chatterjee S, Caramalho R, Haas H, Lass-Flörl C, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Gow NAR, Orth-Höller D, Würzner R. Candida albicans Factor H Binding Molecule Hgt1p - A Low Glucose-Induced Transmembrane Protein Is Trafficked to the Cell Wall and Impairs Phagocytosis and Killing by Human Neutrophils. Front Microbiol. 2018; 9:3319. PMID: 30697200.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Marcinkiewicz AL, Dupuis AP, Zamba-Campero M, Nowak N, Kraiczy P, Ram S, Kramer LD, Lin YP. Blood treatment of Lyme borreliae demonstrates the mechanism of CspZ-mediated complement evasion to promote systemic infection in vertebrate hosts. Cell Microbiol. 2019 Feb; 21(2):e12998. PMID: 30571845.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Landig CS, Hazel A, Kellman BP, Fong JJ, Schwarz F, Agarwal S, Varki N, Massari P, Lewis NE, Ram S, Varki A. Evolution of the exclusively human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Human-specific engagement of immunoregulatory Siglecs. Evol Appl. 2019 Feb; 12(2):337-349. PMID: 30697344.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Rice PA. Biology of the Gonococcus: Disease and Pathogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1997:1-27. PMID: 31119614.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Gulati S, Rice PA, Ram S. Complement-Dependent Serum Bactericidal Assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1997:267-280. PMID: 31119629.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Lewis LA, Rice PA, Ram S. The role of gonococcal Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) in serum resistance and comparison of its factor H binding properties with that of its meningococcal counterpart. Infect Immun. 2018 Dec 03. PMID: 30510105.
      View in: PubMed
    15. McQuillen DP, Ram S. No good deed goes unpunished: eculizumab and invasive neisserial infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 12. PMID: 30418552.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Beernink PT, Ispasanie E, Lewis LA, Ram S, Moe GR, Granoff DM. A meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine with attenuated endotoxin and overexpressed Factor H binding protein elicits gonococcal bactericidal antibodies. J Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 20. PMID: 30346576.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Zheng B, Carr C, Bass I, Gulati S, DeOliveira RB, Gose S, Reed GW, Botto M, Rice PA, Ram S. Human Factor H Domains 6 and 7 Fused to IgG1 Fc Are Immunotherapeutic against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2018 Sep 28. PMID: 30266769.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hart T, Nguyen NTT, Nowak NA, Zhang F, Linhardt RJ, Diuk-Wasser M, Ram S, Kraiczy P, Lin YP. Polymorphic factor H-binding activity of CspA protects Lyme borreliae from the host complement in feeding ticks to facilitate tick-to-host transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2018 05; 14(5):e1007106. PMID: 29813137.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Ram S, Gulati S, Lewis LA, Chakraborti S, Zheng B, DeOliveira RB, Reed GW, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Stupak J, Su XH, Saha S, Landig CS, Varki A, Rice PA. A novel sialylation site on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide links heptose II lactose expression with pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 2018 May 29. PMID: 29844237.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Ermert D, Weckel A, Magda M, Mörgelin M, Shaughnessy J, Rice PA, Björck L, Ram S, Blom AM. Human IgG Increases Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes through Complement Evasion. J Immunol. 2018 Apr 06. PMID: 29626087.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Ray TD, Mekasha S, Liang Y, Lu B, Ram S, Ingalls RR. Species-specific differences in regulation of macrophage inflammation by the C3a-C3a receptor axis. Innate Immun. 2018 Jan; 24(1):66-78. PMID: 29297237.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Blom AM, Magda M, Kohl L, Shaughnessy J, Lambris JD, Ram S, Ermert D. Factor H-IgG Chimeric Proteins as a Therapeutic Approach against the Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. J Immunol. 2017 12 01; 199(11):3828-3839. PMID: 29084837.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Rice PA, Shafer WM, Ram S, Jerse AE. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Drug Resistance, Mouse Models, and Vaccine Development. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2017 Sep 08; 71:665-686. PMID: 28886683.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Ram S, Shaughnessy J, de Oliveira RB, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA. Gonococcal lipooligosaccharide sialylation: virulence factor and target for novel immunotherapeutics. Pathog Dis. 2017 Jun 01; 75(4). PMID: 28460033.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Lujan E, Partridge E, Giuntini S, Ram S, Granoff DM. Breadth and Duration of Meningococcal Serum Bactericidal Activity in Healthcare Workers and Microbiologists Immunized with the MenB-FHbp Vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 May 31. PMID: 28566335.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Tsyrkunou A, Agarwal S, Koirala B, Finberg RW, Nath R, Barton B, Levitz SM, Wang JP, Ram S. Properdin Levels in Individuals with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017; 4(1):ofw250. PMID: 28480246.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Ram S, Shaughnessy J, DeOliveira RB, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA. Utilizing complement evasion strategies to design complement-based antibacterial immunotherapeutics: Lessons from the pathogenic Neisseriae. Immunobiology. 2016 Oct; 221(10):1110-23. PMID: 27297292.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Chakraborti S, Lewis LA, Cox AD, St Michael F, Li J, Rice PA, Ram S. Phase-Variable Heptose I Glycan Extensions Modulate Efficacy of 2C7 Vaccine Antibody Directed against Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide. J Immunol. 2016 Jun 1; 196(11):4576-86. PMID: 27183633.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Wong SM, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Akerley BJ. Defining the Binding Region in Factor H to Develop a Therapeutic Factor H-Fc Fusion Protein against Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016; 6:40. PMID: 27148489.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Shaughnessy J, Gulati S, Agarwal S, Unemo M, Ohnishi M, Su XH, Monks BG, Visintin A, Madico G, Lewis LA, Golenbock DT, Reed GW, Rice PA, Ram S. A Novel Factor H-Fc Chimeric Immunotherapeutic Molecule against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2016 Feb 15; 196(4):1732-40. PMID: 26773149.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Gulati S, Schoenhofen IC, Whitfield DM, Cox AD, Li J, St Michael F, Vinogradov EV, Stupak J, Zheng B, Ohnishi M, Unemo M, Lewis LA, Taylor RE, Landig CS, Diaz S, Reed GW, Varki A, Rice PA, Ram S. Utilizing CMP-Sialic Acid Analogs to Unravel Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide-Mediated Complement Resistance and Design Novel Therapeutics. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005290. PMID: 26630657.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Hirako IC, Gallego-Marin C, Ataide MA, Andrade WA, Gravina H, Rocha BC, de Oliveira RB, Pereira DB, Vinetz J, Diamond B, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. DNA-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly and Release of Pyrogenic Cytokines by CD14+ CD16+ CD64high CD32low Inflammatory Monocytes from Malaria Patients. MBio. 2015 Nov 17; 6(6):e01605-15. PMID: 26578679.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bartra SS, Ding Y, Fujimoto LM, Ring JG, Jain V, Ram S, Marassi FM, Plano GV. Yersinia pestis uses the Ail outer membrane protein to recruit vitronectin. Microbiology. 2015 Nov; 161(11):2174-83. PMID: 26377177.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Ermert D, Shaughnessy J, Joeris T, Kaplan J, Pang CJ, Kurt-Jones EA, Rice PA, Ram S, Blom AM. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul; 11(7):e1005043. PMID: 26200783.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Lewis LA, Gulati S, Burrowes E, Zheng B, Ram S, Rice PA. a-2,3-sialyltransferase expression level impacts the kinetics of lipooligosaccharide sialylation, complement resistance, and the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to colonize the murine genital tract. MBio. 2015 Feb 03; 6(1). PMID: 25650401.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Giuntini S, Pajon R, Ram S, Granoff DM. Binding of complement factor H to PorB3 and NspA enhances resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to anti-factor H binding protein bactericidal activity. Infect Immun. 2015 Apr; 83(4):1536-45. PMID: 25644002.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Gulati S, Mu X, Zheng B, Reed GW, Ram S, Rice PA. Antibody to reduction modifiable protein increases the bacterial burden and the duration of gonococcal infection in a mouse model. J Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 15; 212(2):311-5. PMID: 25596304.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Stefek H, Ram S, Granoff DM. Heterogeneity in rhesus macaque complement factor H binding to meningococcal factor H binding protein (FHbp) informs selection of primates to assess immunogenicity of FHbp-based vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Nov; 21(11):1505-11. PMID: 25185576.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Shaughnessy J, Vu DM, Punjabi R, Serra-Pladevall J, DeOliveira RB, Granoff DM, Ram S. Fusion protein comprising factor H domains 6 and 7 and human IgG1 Fc as an antibacterial immunotherapeutic. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Oct; 21(10):1452-9. PMID: 25143339.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Agarwal S, Vasudhev S, DeOliveira RB, Ram S. Inhibition of the classical pathway of complement by meningococcal capsular polysaccharides. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1855-63. PMID: 25015832.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lewis LA, Vu DM, Granoff DM, Ram S. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of nonhuman infant complement by porin B2 contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis in the infant rat model. Infect Immun. 2014 Jun; 82(6):2574-84. PMID: 24686052.
      View in: PubMed
    42. de Oliveira RB, Wang JP, Ram S, Gazzinelli RT, Finberg RW, Golenbock DT. Increased survival in B-cell-deficient mice during experimental cerebral malaria suggests a role for circulating immune complexes. MBio. 2014 Mar 18; 5(2):e00949-14. PMID: 24643866.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Del Tordello E, Vacca I, Ram S, Rappuoli R, Serruto D. Neisseria meningitidis NalP cleaves human complement C3, facilitating degradation of C3b and survival in human serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 7; 111(1):427-32. PMID: 24367091.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Rosadini CV, Ram S, Akerley BJ. Outer membrane protein P5 is required for resistance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to both the classical and alternative complement pathways. Infect Immun. 2014 Feb; 82(2):640-9. PMID: 24478079.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Lewis LA, Vu DM, Vasudhev S, Shaughnessy J, Granoff DM, Ram S. Factor H-dependent alternative pathway inhibition mediated by porin B contributes to virulence of Neisseria meningitidis. MBio. 2013 Oct 15; 4(5):e00339-13. PMID: 24129254.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Lewis LA, Ram S. Meningococcal disease and the complement system. Virulence. 2014 Jan 1; 5(1):98-126. PMID: 24104403.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Gulati S, Zheng B, Reed GW, Su X, Cox AD, St Michael F, Stupak J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA. Immunization against a saccharide epitope accelerates clearance of experimental gonococcal infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(8):e1003559. PMID: 24009500.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Granoff DM, Ram S, Beernink PT. Does binding of complement factor H to the meningococcal vaccine antigen, factor H binding protein, decrease protective serum antibody responses? Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013 Aug; 20(8):1099-107. PMID: 23740919.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Brookes C, Kuisma E, Alexander F, Allen L, Tipton T, Ram S, Gorringe A, Taylor S. Development of a large scale human complement source for use in bacterial immunoassays. J Immunol Methods. 2013 May 31; 391(1-2):39-49. PMID: 23485926.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Lewis LA, Shafer WM, Dutta Ray T, Ram S, Rice PA. Phosphoethanolamine residues on the lipid A moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide modulate binding of complement inhibitors and resistance to complement killing. Infect Immun. 2013 Jan; 81(1):33-42. PMID: 23071134.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Huang H, Ostroff GR, Lee CK, Agarwal S, Ram S, Rice PA, Specht CA, Levitz SM. Relative contributions of dectin-1 and complement to immune responses to particulate ß-glucans. J Immunol. 2012 Jul 1; 189(1):312-7. PMID: 22649195.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Serruto D, Bottomley MJ, Ram S, Giuliani MM, Rappuoli R. The new multicomponent vaccine against meningococcal serogroup B, 4CMenB: immunological, functional and structural characterization of the antigens. Vaccine. 2012 May 30; 30 Suppl 2:B87-97. PMID: 22607904.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Pajon R, Braga EM, Ram S, Granoff DM. The effect of human factor H on immunogenicity of meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccines with over-expressed factor H binding protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(5):e1002688. PMID: 22589720.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Lewis LA, Carter M, Ram S. The relative roles of factor H binding protein, neisserial surface protein A, and lipooligosaccharide sialylation in regulation of the alternative pathway of complement on meningococci. J Immunol. 2012 May 15; 188(10):5063-72. PMID: 22504643.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Gulati S, Agarwal S, Vasudhev S, Rice PA, Ram S. Properdin is critical for antibody-dependent bactericidal activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae that recruit C4b-binding protein. J Immunol. 2012 Apr 1; 188(7):3416-25. PMID: 22368277.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Vu DM, Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Ram S, Rice PA, Granoff DM. Enhanced bacteremia in human factor H transgenic rats infected by Neisseria meningitidis. Infect Immun. 2012 Feb; 80(2):643-50. PMID: 22104107.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Agarwal S, Specht CA, Haibin H, Ostroff GR, Ram S, Rice PA, Levitz SM. Linkage specificity and role of properdin in activation of the alternative complement pathway by fungal glycans. MBio. 2011; 2(5). PMID: 21878570.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Bhattacharjee A, Pedrosa J, Tran C, Horvath G, Monks B, Visintin A, Jokiranta TS, Rice PA. Molecular characterization of the interaction between sialylated Neisseria gonorrhoeae and factor H. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24; 286(25):22235-42. PMID: 21531728.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Ray TD, Lewis LA, Gulati S, Rice PA, Ram S. Novel blocking human IgG directed against the pentapeptide repeat motifs of Neisseria meningitidis Lip/H.8 and Laz lipoproteins. J Immunol. 2011 Apr 15; 186(8):4881-94. PMID: 21402895.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Wong SM, St Michael F, Cox A, Ram S, Akerley BJ. ArcA-regulated glycosyltransferase lic2B promotes complement evasion and pathogenesis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Infect Immun. 2011 May; 79(5):1971-83. PMID: 21357723.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Braga EM, Liu Q, Rice PA, Ram S, Granoff DM. A meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant that eliminates factor H binding enhances protective antibody responses to vaccination. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 15; 186(6):3606-14. PMID: 21325619.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Ram S, Lewis LA, Agarwal S. Meningococcal group W-135 and Y capsular polysaccharides paradoxically enhance activation of the alternative pathway of complement. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 11; 286(10):8297-307. PMID: 21245150.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Ram S, Lewis LA, Rice PA. Infections of people with complement deficiencies and patients who have undergone splenectomy. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Oct; 23(4):740-80. PMID: 20930072.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Agarwal S, Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Zipfel PF, Rice PA. Factor H facilitates adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to complement receptor 3 on eukaryotic cells. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 1; 185(7):4344-53. PMID: 20826755.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Lewis LA, Ngampasutadol J, Wallace R, Reid JE, Vogel U, Ram S. The meningococcal vaccine candidate neisserial surface protein A (NspA) binds to factor H and enhances meningococcal resistance to complement. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Jul 29; 6(7):e1001027. PMID: 20686663.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Agarwal S, Ferreira VP, Cortes C, Pangburn MK, Rice PA, Ram S. An evaluation of the role of properdin in alternative pathway activation on Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Immunol. 2010 Jul 1; 185(1):507-16. PMID: 20530262.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Beernink PT, Shaughnessy J, Ram S, Granoff DM. Impaired immunogenicity of a meningococcal factor H-binding protein vaccine engineered to eliminate factor h binding. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jul; 17(7):1074-8. PMID: 20519444.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Serruto D, Spadafina T, Ciucchi L, Lewis LA, Ram S, Tontini M, Santini L, Biolchi A, Seib KL, Giuliani MM, Donnelly JJ, Berti F, Savino S, Scarselli M, Costantino P, Kroll JS, O'Dwyer C, Qiu J, Plaut AG, Moxon R, Rappuoli R, Pizza M, Aricò B. Neisseria meningitidis GNA2132, a heparin-binding protein that induces protective immunity in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 23; 107(8):3770-5. PMID: 20133713.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Shaughnessy J, Lewis LA, Jarva H, Ram S. Functional comparison of the binding of factor H short consensus repeat 6 (SCR 6) to factor H binding protein from Neisseria meningitidis and the binding of factor H SCR 18 to 20 to Neisseria gonorrhoeae porin. Infect Immun. 2009 May; 77(5):2094-103. PMID: 19273554.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Sabharwal V, Ram S, Figueira M, Park IH, Pelton SI. Role of complement in host defense against pneumococcal otitis media. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar; 77(3):1121-7. PMID: 19139190.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Jongerius I, Ram S, Rooijakkers S. Bacterial complement escape. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009; 666:32-48. PMID: 20054973.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Blom AM, Ram S. Contribution of interactions between complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein and pathogens to their ability to establish infection with particular emphasis on Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I49-55. PMID: 19388165.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Ngampasutadol J, Tran C, Gulati S, Blom AM, Jerse EA, Ram S, Rice PA. Species-specificity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection: do human complement regulators contribute? Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I62-6. PMID: 19388167.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Welsch JA, Ram S. Factor H and neisserial pathogenesis. Vaccine. 2008 Dec 30; 26 Suppl 8:I40-5. PMID: 19388163.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Lewis LA, Choudhury B, Balthazar JT, Martin LE, Ram S, Rice PA, Stephens DS, Carlson R, Shafer WM. Phosphoethanolamine substitution of lipid A and resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to cationic antimicrobial peptides and complement-mediated killing by normal human serum. Infect Immun. 2009 Mar; 77(3):1112-20. PMID: 19114544.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Granoff DM, Welsch JA, Ram S. Binding of complement factor H (fH) to Neisseria meningitidis is specific for human fH and inhibits complement activation by rat and rabbit sera. Infect Immun. 2009 Feb; 77(2):764-9. PMID: 19047406.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Garvin LE, Bash MC, Keys C, Warner DM, Ram S, Shafer WM, Jerse AE. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that express frequently recovered PorB PIA variable region types suggest that certain P1a porin sequences confer a selective advantage for urogenital tract infection. Infect Immun. 2008 Aug; 76(8):3700-9. PMID: 18541655.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Welsch JA, Ram S, Koeberling O, Granoff DM. Complement-dependent synergistic bactericidal activity of antibodies against factor H-binding protein, a sparsely distributed meningococcal vaccine antigen. J Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1; 197(7):1053-61. PMID: 18419542.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Gulati S, Agarwal S, Li C, Visintin A, Monks B, Madico G, Rice PA. Human factor H interacts selectively with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific complement evasion. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1; 180(5):3426-35. PMID: 18292569.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Jain V, Halle A, Halmen KA, Lien E, Charrel-Dennis M, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Visintin A. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of MD-2 opsonized gram-negative bacteria depend on TLR4 signaling. Blood. 2008 May 01; 111(9):4637-45. PMID: 18203953.
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    81. Lewis LA, Ram S, Prasad A, Gulati S, Getzlaff S, Blom AM, Vogel U, Rice PA. Defining targets for complement components C4b and C3b on the pathogenic neisseriae. Infect Immun. 2008 Jan; 76(1):339-50. PMID: 17984207.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Jarva H, Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Rice PA, Villoutreix BO, Blom AM. Molecular characterization of the interaction between porins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C4b-binding protein. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 1; 179(1):540-7. PMID: 17579075.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Wong SM, Alugupalli KR, Ram S, Akerley BJ. The ArcA regulon and oxidative stress resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jun; 64(5):1375-90. PMID: 17542927.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Ram S, Ngampasutadol J, Cox AD, Blom AM, Lewis LA, St Michael F, Stupak J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Heptose I glycan substitutions on Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide influence C4b-binding protein binding and serum resistance. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4071-81. PMID: 17526744.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Leroy M, Cabral H, Figueira M, Bouchet V, Huot H, Ram S, Pelton SI, Goldstein R. Multiple consecutive lavage samplings reveal greater burden of disease and provide direct access to the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm in experimental otitis media. Infect Immun. 2007 Aug; 75(8):4158-72. PMID: 17517860.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Madico G, Ngampasutadol J, Gulati S, Vogel U, Rice PA, Ram S. Factor H binding and function in sialylated pathogenic neisseriae is influenced by gonococcal, but not meningococcal, porin. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 1; 178(7):4489-97. PMID: 17372007.
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    87. Schneider MC, Exley RM, Ram S, Sim RB, Tang CM. Interactions between Neisseria meningitidis and the complement system. Trends Microbiol. 2007 May; 15(5):233-40. PMID: 17398100.
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    88. Ho DK, Ram S, Nelson KL, Bonthuis PJ, Smith AL. lgtC expression modulates resistance to C4b deposition on an invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1002-12. PMID: 17202363.
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    89. Figueira MA, Ram S, Goldstein R, Hood DW, Moxon ER, Pelton SI. Role of complement in defense of the middle ear revealed by restoring the virulence of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae siaB mutants. Infect Immun. 2007 Jan; 75(1):325-33. PMID: 17088344.
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    90. Madico G, Welsch JA, Lewis LA, McNaughton A, Perlman DH, Costello CE, Ngampasutadol J, Vogel U, Granoff DM, Ram S. The meningococcal vaccine candidate GNA1870 binds the complement regulatory protein factor H and enhances serum resistance. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 1; 177(1):501-10. PMID: 16785547.
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    91. Attia AS, Ram S, Rice PA, Hansen EJ. Binding of vitronectin by the Moraxella catarrhalis UspA2 protein interferes with late stages of the complement cascade. Infect Immun. 2006 Mar; 74(3):1597-611. PMID: 16495531.
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    92. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Blom AM, Jarva H, Jerse AE, Lien E, Goguen J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Human C4b-binding protein selectively interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 102(47):17142-7. PMID: 16275906.
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    93. Gulati S, Cox A, Lewis LA, Michael FS, Li J, Boden R, Ram S, Rice PA. Enhanced factor H binding to sialylated Gonococci is restricted to the sialylated lacto-N-neotetraose lipooligosaccharide species: implications for serum resistance and evidence for a bifunctional lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase in Gonococci. Infect Immun. 2005 Nov; 73(11):7390-7. PMID: 16239538.
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    94. Abdullah M, Nepluev I, Afonina G, Ram S, Rice P, Cade W, Elkins C. Killing of dsrA mutants of Haemophilus ducreyi by normal human serum occurs via the classical complement pathway and is initiated by immunoglobulin M binding. Infect Immun. 2005 Jun; 73(6):3431-9. PMID: 15908371.
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    95. Jarva H, Ram S, Vogel U, Blom AM, Meri S. Binding of the complement inhibitor C4bp to serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis. J Immunol. 2005 May 15; 174(10):6299-307. PMID: 15879129.
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    96. Ram S, Cox AD, Wright JC, Vogel U, Getzlaff S, Boden R, Li J, Plested JS, Meri S, Gulati S, Stein DC, Richards JC, Moxon ER, Rice PA. Neisserial lipooligosaccharide is a target for complement component C4b. Inner core phosphoethanolamine residues define C4b linkage specificity. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 19; 278(51):50853-62. PMID: 14525973.
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    97. Fisette PL, Ram S, Andersen JM, Guo W, Ingalls RR. The Lip lipoprotein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae stimulates cytokine release and NF-kappaB activation in epithelial cells in a Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 21; 278(47):46252-60. PMID: 12966099.
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    98. Massari P, Ram S, Macleod H, Wetzler LM. The role of porins in neisserial pathogenesis and immunity. Trends Microbiol. 2003 Feb; 11(2):87-93. PMID: 12598131.
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    99. Gulati S, Sastry K, Jensenius JC, Rice PA, Ram S. Regulation of the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement on Neisseria gonorrhoeae by C1-inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin. J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):4078-86. PMID: 11937567.
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    100. Teupe C, Takeuchi M, Ram SP, Pandian NG. Three-dimensional echocardiography: in-vitro validation of a new, voxel-based method for rapid quantification of ventricular volume in normal and aneurysmal left ventricles. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2001 Apr; 17(2):99-105. PMID: 11558977.
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