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Arthur M Krieg MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentRNA Therapeutics Institute
AddressCheckmate Pharmaceuticals
One Broadway, 4th Floor
Cambridge MA 02142
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentRNA Therapeutics Institute


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Haverford College, Haverford, PA, United StatesBSBiology
    Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United StatesMD

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Aartsma-Rus A, Krieg AM. FDA Approves Eteplirsen for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: The Next Chapter in the Eteplirsen Saga. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2017 Feb; 27(1):1-3. PMID: 27929755.
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    2. Subramanian RR, Wysk MA, Ogilvie KM, Bhat A, Kuang B, Rockel TD, Weber M, Uhlmann E, Krieg AM. Enhancing antisense efficacy with multimers and multi-targeting oligonucleotides (MTOs) using cleavable linkers. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015 Oct 30; 43(19):9123-32. PMID: 26446989; PMCID: PMC4627098.
    3. Kole R, Krieg AM. Exon skipping therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2015 Jun 29; 87:104-7. PMID: 25980936.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Favretto ME, Krieg A, Schubert S, Schubert US, Brock R. Multifunctional poly(methacrylate) polyplex libraries: A platform for gene delivery inspired by nature. J Control Release. 2015 Jul 10; 209:1-11. PMID: 25862514.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cupisti K, Lehwald N, Anlauf M, Riemer J, Werner TA, Krieg A, Witte J, Chanab A, Baldus SE, Krausch M, Raffel A, Herdter C, Schott M, Knoefel WT. Encapsulation status of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas is associated with the risk of lymph node metastases and tumor multifocality. Horm Metab Res. 2014 Feb; 46(2):138-44. PMID: 24356791.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Fourcade J, Sun Z, Pagliano O, Chauvin JM, Sander C, Janjic B, Tarhini AA, Tawbi HA, Kirkwood JM, Moschos S, Wang H, Guillaume P, Luescher IF, Krieg A, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Zarour HM. PD-1 and Tim-3 regulate the expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8? T cells induced by melanoma vaccines. Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 15; 74(4):1045-55. PMID: 24343228; PMCID: PMC3952491.
    7. Rees DG, Phillpotts RJ, Griffin KF, Lukaszewski RA, Laws TR, Atkins HS, Krieg AM, Titball RW. CpG oligonucleotides protect against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in a route-dependent manner. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013 Dec; 42(6):587-8. PMID: 24210643.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Rees DG, Hartley MG, Green M, Lukaszewski RA, Griffin KF, Atkins HS, Lyons R, Krieg AM, Titball RW. The ability of CpG oligonucleotides to protect mice against Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain but not fully virulent F. tularensis subspecies holarctica is reflected in cell-based assays. Microb Pathog. 2013 Oct; 63:16-8. PMID: 23707360.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Krausch M, Raffel A, Anlauf M, Schott M, Lehwald N, Krieg A, Kröpil F, Cupisti K, Knoefel WT. Secondary malignancy in patients with sporadic neuroendocrine neoplasia. Endocrine. 2013 Oct; 44(2):510-6. PMID: 23494366.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Nguyen DN, Mahon KP, Chikh G, Kim P, Chung H, Vicari AP, Love KT, Goldberg M, Chen S, Krieg AM, Chen J, Langer R, Anderson DG. Lipid-derived nanoparticles for immunostimulatory RNA adjuvant delivery. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 03; 109(14):E797-803. PMID: 22421433; PMCID: PMC3325698.
    11. La Rosa C, Longmate J, Lacey SF, Kaltcheva T, Sharan R, Marsano D, Kwon P, Drake J, Williams B, Denison S, Broyer S, Couture L, Nakamura R, Dadwal S, Kelsey MI, Krieg AM, Diamond DJ, Zaia JA. Clinical evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of PADRE-cytomegalovirus (CMV) and tetanus-CMV fusion peptide vaccines with or without PF03512676 adjuvant. J Infect Dis. 2012 Apr 15; 205(8):1294-304. PMID: 22402037; PMCID: PMC3308906.
    12. Krieg AM. CpG still rocks! Update on an accidental drug. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2012 Apr; 22(2):77-89. PMID: 22352814.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Krieg AM. Targeting LDL Cholesterol With LNA. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2012 Jan 31; 1:e6. PMID: 23344623; PMCID: PMC3381597.
    14. Knoefel WT, Alexander A, Tustas RY, Schmelzle M, Klein HM, Krieg A, Topp SA, Eisenberger CF, Fuerst G, Schulte am Esch J. [Stem cell-induced liver regeneration]. Zentralbl Chir. 2013 Apr; 138(2):166-72. PMID: 22086774.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Easton A, Haque A, Chu K, Patel N, Lukaszewski RA, Krieg AM, Titball RW, Bancroft GJ. Combining vaccination and postexposure CpG therapy provides optimal protection against lethal sepsis in a biodefense model of human melioidosis. J Infect Dis. 2011 Aug 15; 204(4):636-44. PMID: 21791666; PMCID: PMC3144166.
    16. Krieg AM. Is RNAi dead? Mol Ther. 2011 Jun; 19(6):1001-2. PMID: 21629254; PMCID: PMC3129789.
    17. Jurk M, Chikh G, Schulte B, Kritzler A, Richardt-Pargmann D, Lampron C, Luu R, Krieg AM, Vicari AP, Vollmer J. Immunostimulatory potential of silencing RNAs can be mediated by a non-uridine-rich toll-like receptor 7 motif. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2011 Jun; 21(3):201-14. PMID: 21749297.
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    18. Nichani AK, Dar MA, Mirakhur KK, Krieg AM, Booth JS, Townsend HG, Potter AA, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. Subcutaneous, but not intratracheal administration of the TLR9 agonist, CpG DNA transiently reduces parainfluenza-3 virus shedding in newborn lambs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Dec; 33(6):e111-7. PMID: 20619456.
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    19. Demaria S, Pikarsky E, Karin M, Coussens LM, Chen YC, El-Omar EM, Trinchieri G, Dubinett SM, Mao JT, Szabo E, Krieg A, Weiner GJ, Fox BA, Coukos G, Wang E, Abraham RT, Carbone M, Lotze MT. Cancer and inflammation: promise for biologic therapy. J Immunother. 2010 May; 33(4):335-51. PMID: 20386472; PMCID: PMC2941912.
    20. Krieg AM. AIMing 2 defend against intracellular pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2010 May; 11(5):367-9. PMID: 20404848.
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    21. Richardt-Pargmann D, Wechsler M, Krieg AM, Vollmer J, Jurk M. Positive T cell co-stimulation by TLR7/8 ligands is dependent on the cellular environment. Immunobiology. 2011 Jan-Feb; 216(1-2):12-23. PMID: 20542588; PMCID: PMC2964431.
    22. Samulowitz U, Weber M, Weeratna R, Uhlmann E, Noll B, Krieg AM, Vollmer J. A novel class of immune-stimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides unifies high potency in type I interferon induction with preferred structural properties. Oligonucleotides. 2010 Apr; 20(2):93-101. PMID: 20384481.
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    23. Krieg AM. AIMing 2 detect foreign DNA. Sci Signal. 2009 Jun 30; 2(77):pe39. PMID: 19567913.
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    24. Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Krieg AM. Early development of the Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, PF-3512676, for the treatment of patients with advanced cancers. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2009 May; 4(5):587-603. PMID: 23485088.
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    25. Tluk S, Jurk M, Forsbach A, Weeratna R, Samulowitz U, Krieg AM, Bauer S, Vollmer J. Sequences derived from self-RNA containing certain natural modifications act as suppressors of RNA-mediated inflammatory immune responses. Int Immunol. 2009 May; 21(5):607-19. PMID: 19332442; PMCID: PMC2733840.
    26. Wang Y, Blozis SA, Lederman M, Krieg A, Landay A, Miller CJ. Enhanced antibody responses elicited by a CpG adjuvant do not improve the protective effect of an aldrithiol-2-inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus therapeutic AIDS vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 Apr; 16(4):499-505. PMID: 19225080; PMCID: PMC2668268.
    27. Amemiya K, Meyers JL, Rogers TE, Fast RL, Bassett AD, Worsham PL, Powell BS, Norris SL, Krieg AM, Adamovicz JJ. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides augment the murine immune response to the Yersinia pestis F1-V vaccine in bubonic and pneumonic models of plague. Vaccine. 2009 Apr 06; 27(16):2220-9. PMID: 19428836.
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    28. Vollmer J, Krieg AM. Immunotherapeutic applications of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonists. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009 Mar 28; 61(3):195-204. PMID: 19211030.
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    29. Elkins KL, Colombini SM, Krieg AM, De Pascalis R. NK cells activated in vivo by bacterial DNA control the intracellular growth of Francisella tularensis LVS. Microbes Infect. 2009 Jan; 11(1):49-56. PMID: 18992838.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Kline JN, Krieg AM. Toll-like receptor 9 activation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides for asthma therapy. Drug News Perspect. 2008 Oct; 21(8):434-9. PMID: 19034349.
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    31. Fourcade J, Kudela P, Andrade Filho PA, Janjic B, Land SR, Sander C, Krieg A, Donnenberg A, Shen H, Kirkwood JM, Zarour HM. Immunization with analog peptide in combination with CpG and montanide expands tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients. J Immunother. 2008 Oct; 31(8):781-91. PMID: 18779741; PMCID: PMC3901357.
    32. Vicari AP, Luu R, Zhang N, Patel S, Makinen SR, Hanson DC, Weeratna RD, Krieg AM. Paclitaxel reduces regulatory T cell numbers and inhibitory function and enhances the anti-tumor effects of the TLR9 agonist PF-3512676 in the mouse. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009 Apr; 58(4):615-28. PMID: 18802696.
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    33. Buza J, Benjamin P, Zhu J, Wilson HL, Lipford G, Krieg AM, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. CD14+ cells are required for IL-12 response in bovine blood mononuclear cells activated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8 ligands. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008 Dec 15; 126(3-4):273-82. PMID: 18789542.
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    34. Manegold C, Gravenor D, Woytowitz D, Mezger J, Hirsh V, Albert G, Al-Adhami M, Readett D, Krieg AM, Leichman CG. Randomized phase II trial of a toll-like receptor 9 agonist oligodeoxynucleotide, PF-3512676, in combination with first-line taxane plus platinum chemotherapy for advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 20; 26(24):3979-86. PMID: 18711188.
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    35. Fukuiwa T, Sekine S, Kobayashi R, Suzuki H, Kataoka K, Gilbert RS, Kurono Y, Boyaka PN, Krieg AM, McGhee JR, Fujihashi K. A combination of Flt3 ligand cDNA and CpG ODN as nasal adjuvant elicits NALT dendritic cells for prolonged mucosal immunity. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 02; 26(37):4849-59. PMID: 18625280; PMCID: PMC2601556.
    36. Taylor PA, Ehrhardt MJ, Lees CJ, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Krieg AM, Sharpe AH, Murphy WJ, Serody JS, Hemmi H, Akira S, Levy RB, Blazar BR. TLR agonists regulate alloresponses and uncover a critical role for donor APCs in allogeneic bone marrow rejection. Blood. 2008 Oct 15; 112(8):3508-16. PMID: 18614760; PMCID: PMC2569186.
    37. Cooper CL, Ahluwalia NK, Efler SM, Vollmer J, Krieg AM, Davis HL. Immunostimulatory effects of three classes of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on PBMC from HCV chronic carriers. J Immune Based Ther Vaccines. 2008 Jun 09; 6:3. PMID: 18541039; PMCID: PMC2430961.
    38. Fourcade JJ, Kudela P, Andrade Filho PA, Janjic BM, Land SR, Sander C, Krieg AM, Donnenberg AD, Shen H, Kirkwood JM, Zarour HM. Phase I study of immunization with the analogue peptide NY-ESO-1 157-165V in combination with CpG (PF-3512676) and Montanide ISA 720 in patients with stage III/IV melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008 May 20; 26(15_suppl):20011. PMID: 27947814.
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    39. Bhan U, Trujillo G, Lyn-Kew K, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Hogaboam CM, Krieg AM, Standiford TJ. Toll-like receptor 9 regulates the lung macrophage phenotype and host immunity in murine pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Infect Immun. 2008 Jul; 76(7):2895-904. PMID: 18426877; PMCID: PMC2446723.
    40. Forsbach A, Nemorin JG, Montino C, Müller C, Samulowitz U, Vicari AP, Jurk M, Mutwiri GK, Krieg AM, Lipford GB, Vollmer J. Identification of RNA sequence motifs stimulating sequence-specific TLR8-dependent immune responses. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 15; 180(6):3729-38. PMID: 18322178.
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    41. Martinson JA, Roman-Gonzalez A, Tenorio AR, Montoya CJ, Gichinga CN, Rugeles MT, Tomai M, Krieg AM, Ghanekar S, Baum LL, Landay AL. Dendritic cells from HIV-1 infected individuals are less responsive to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Cell Immunol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 250(1-2):75-84. PMID: 18334250; PMCID: PMC2838175.
    42. Dar A, Nichani AK, Benjamin P, Lai K, Soita H, Krieg AM, Potter A, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. Attenuated cytokine responses in porcine lymph node cells stimulated with CpG DNA are associated with low frequency of IFNalpha-producing cells and TLR9 mRNA expression. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008 Jun 15; 123(3-4):324-36. PMID: 18367252.
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    43. Krieg AM, Lipford GB. Immunology. The toll of cathepsin K deficiency. Science. 2008 Feb 01; 319(5863):576-7. PMID: 18239112.
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    44. Krieg AM. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists in the treatment of cancer. Oncogene. 2008 Jan 07; 27(2):161-7. PMID: 18176597.
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    45. Matthaei H, Boelke E, Eisenberger CF, Alldinger I, Krieg A, Schmelzle M, Poremba C, Schellhammer F, Knoefel WT, Budach W, Peiper M. Interdisciplinary treatment of primary hepatic angiosarcoma: emergency tumor embolization followed by elective surgery. Eur J Med Res. 2007 Dec 14; 12(12):591-4. PMID: 18024270.
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    46. Stewart VA, McGrath S, Krieg AM, Larson NS, Angov E, Smith CL, Brewer TG, Heppner DG. Activation of innate immunity in healthy Macaca mulatta macaques by a single subcutaneous dose of GMP CpG 7909: safety data and interferon-inducible protein-10 kinetics for humans and macaques. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008 Feb; 15(2):221-6. PMID: 18077623; PMCID: PMC2238060.
    47. Krieg AM, Vollmer J. Toll-like receptors 7, 8, and 9: linking innate immunity to autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. 2007 Dec; 220:251-69. PMID: 17979852.
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    48. Krieg AM. The toll of too much TLR7. Immunity. 2007 Nov; 27(5):695-7. PMID: 18031693.
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    49. Leonard JP, Link BK, Emmanouilides C, Gregory SA, Weisdorf D, Andrey J, Hainsworth J, Sparano JA, Tsai DE, Horning S, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. Phase I trial of toll-like receptor 9 agonist PF-3512676 with and following rituximab in patients with recurrent indolent and aggressive non Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Oct 15; 13(20):6168-74. PMID: 17947483.
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    50. Karan D, Krieg AM, Lubaroff DM. Paradoxical enhancement of CD8 T cell-dependent anti-tumor protection despite reduced CD8 T cell responses with addition of a TLR9 agonist to a tumor vaccine. Int J Cancer. 2007 Oct 01; 121(7):1520-8. PMID: 17565748.
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    51. Bhan U, Lukacs NW, Osterholzer JJ, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Moore TA, McMillan TR, Krieg AM, Akira S, Standiford TJ. TLR9 is required for protective innate immunity in Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia: role of dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15; 179(6):3937-46. PMID: 17785831.
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    52. Li J, Song W, Czerwinski DK, Varghese B, Uematsu S, Akira S, Krieg AM, Levy R. Lymphoma immunotherapy with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides requires TLR9 either in the host or in the tumor itself. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15; 179(4):2493-500. PMID: 17675511.
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    53. Krieg AM. Antiinfective applications of toll-like receptor 9 agonists. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007 Jul; 4(3):289-94. PMID: 17607015; PMCID: PMC2647632.
    54. Krieg AM. TLR9 and DNA 'feel' RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007 May; 8(5):475-7. PMID: 17440455.
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    55. Krieg AM. Development of TLR9 agonists for cancer therapy. J Clin Invest. 2007 May; 117(5):1184-94. PMID: 17476348; PMCID: PMC1857270.
    56. Martinson JA, Tenorio AR, Montoya CJ, Al-Harthi L, Gichinga CN, Krieg AM, Baum LL, Landay AL. Impact of class A, B and C CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides on in vitro activation of innate immune cells in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected individuals. Immunology. 2007 Apr; 120(4):526-35. PMID: 17343615; PMCID: PMC2265902.
    57. Krieg AM. Toll-free vaccines? Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Mar; 25(3):303-5. PMID: 17344883.
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    58. Vicari AP, Schmalbach T, Lekstrom-Himes J, Morris ML, Al-Adhami MJ, Laframboise C, Leese P, Krieg AM, Efler SM, Davis HL. Safety, pharmacokinetics and immune effects in normal volunteers of CPG 10101 (ACTILON), an investigational synthetic toll-like receptor 9 agonist. Antivir Ther. 2007; 12(5):741-51. PMID: 17713157.
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    59. Pashenkov M, Goëss G, Wagner C, Hörmann M, Jandl T, Moser A, Britten CM, Smolle J, Koller S, Mauch C, Tantcheva-Poor I, Grabbe S, Loquai C, Esser S, Franckson T, Schneeberger A, Haarmann C, Krieg AM, Stingl G, Wagner SN. Phase II trial of a toll-like receptor 9-activating oligonucleotide in patients with metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec 20; 24(36):5716-24. PMID: 17179105.
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    60. Popovic PJ, DeMarco R, Lotze MT, Winikoff SE, Bartlett DL, Krieg AM, Guo ZS, Brown CK, Tracey KJ, Zeh HJ. High mobility group B1 protein suppresses the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell response to TLR9 agonists. J Immunol. 2006 Dec 15; 177(12):8701-7. PMID: 17142771.
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    61. Nichani AK, Dar MA, Krieg AM, Mirakhur KK, Kaushik RS, Griebel PJ, Manuja A, Townsend HG, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. Systemic innate immune responses following intrapulmonary delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in sheep. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007 Feb 15; 115(3-4):357-68. PMID: 17194483.
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    62. Weigel BJ, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Diers M, Garcia M, Lees C, Krieg AM, Chen W, Blazar BR. Dendritic cells pulsed or fused with AML cellular antigen provide comparable in vivo antitumor protective responses. Exp Hematol. 2006 Oct; 34(10):1403-12. PMID: 16982333.
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    63. Booth JS, Nichani AK, Benjamin P, Dar A, Krieg AM, Babiuk LA, Mutwiri GK. Innate immune responses induced by classes of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in ovine lymph node and blood mononuclear cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007 Jan 15; 115(1-2):24-34. PMID: 17067685.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Jurk M, Kritzler A, Debelak H, Vollmer J, Krieg AM, Uhlmann E. Structure-activity relationship studies on the immune stimulatory effects of base-modified CpG toll-like receptor 9 agonists. ChemMedChem. 2006 Sep; 1(9):1007-14. PMID: 16952134.
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    65. Link BK, Ballas ZK, Weisdorf D, Wooldridge JE, Bossler AD, Shannon M, Rasmussen WL, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. Oligodeoxynucleotide CpG 7909 delivered as intravenous infusion demonstrates immunologic modulation in patients with previously treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Immunother. 2006 Sep-Oct; 29(5):558-68. PMID: 16971811.
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    66. Ohashi K, Kobayashi G, Fang S, Zhu X, Antonia SJ, Krieg AM, Sandler AD. Surgical excision combined with autologous whole tumor cell vaccination is an effective therapy for murine neuroblastoma. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Aug; 41(8):1361-8. PMID: 16863838.
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    67. Appay V, Jandus C, Voelter V, Reynard S, Coupland SE, Rimoldi D, Lienard D, Guillaume P, Krieg AM, Cerottini JC, Romero P, Leyvraz S, Rufer N, Speiser DE. New generation vaccine induces effective melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells in the circulation but not in the tumor site. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1670-8. PMID: 16849476.
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    68. Montoya CJ, Jie HB, Al-Harthi L, Mulder C, Patiño PJ, Rugeles MT, Krieg AM, Landay AL, Wilson SB. Activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with TLR9 agonists initiates invariant NKT cell-mediated cross-talk with myeloid dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 15; 177(2):1028-39. PMID: 16818759.
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    69. Jurk M, Kritzler A, Schulte B, Tluk S, Schetter C, Krieg AM, Vollmer J. Modulating responsiveness of human TLR7 and 8 to small molecule ligands with T-rich phosphorothiate oligodeoxynucleotides. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Jul; 36(7):1815-26. PMID: 16783850.
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    70. Krieg AM. Therapeutic potential of Toll-like receptor 9 activation. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Jun; 5(6):471-84. PMID: 16763660.
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    71. Lubaroff DM, Karan D, Andrews MP, Acosta A, Abouassaly C, Sharma M, Krieg AM. Decreased cytotoxic T cell activity generated by co-administration of PSA vaccine and CpG ODN is associated with increased tumor protection in a mouse model of prostate cancer. Vaccine. 2006 Aug 28; 24(35-36):6155-62. PMID: 16876291.
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    72. Waag DM, McCluskie MJ, Zhang N, Krieg AM. A CpG oligonucleotide can protect mice from a low aerosol challenge dose of Burkholderia mallei. Infect Immun. 2006 Mar; 74(3):1944-8. PMID: 16495571; PMCID: PMC1418646.
    73. Nichani AK, Mena A, Kaushik RS, Mutwiri GK, Townsend HG, Hecker R, Krieg AM, Babiuk LA, Griebel PJ. Stimulation of innate immune responses by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in newborn lambs can reduce bovine herpesvirus-1 shedding. Oligonucleotides. 2006; 16(1):58-67. PMID: 16584295.
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    74. McCluskie MJ, Krieg AM. Enhancement of infectious disease vaccines through TLR9-dependent recognition of CpG DNA. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006; 311:155-78. PMID: 17048708.
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    75. Vollmer J, Tluk S, Schmitz C, Hamm S, Jurk M, Forsbach A, Akira S, Kelly KM, Reeves WH, Bauer S, Krieg AM. Immune stimulation mediated by autoantigen binding sites within small nuclear RNAs involves Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. J Exp Med. 2005 Dec 05; 202(11):1575-85. PMID: 16330816; PMCID: PMC2213330.
    76. Butler JE, Francis DH, Freeling J, Weber P, Krieg AM. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. IX. Three pathogen-associated molecular patterns act synergistically to allow germfree piglets to respond to type 2 thymus-independent and thymus-dependent antigens. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15; 175(10):6772-85. PMID: 16272334.
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    77. Wang Y, Abel K, Lantz K, Krieg AM, McChesney MB, Miller CJ. The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist, imiquimod, and the TLR9 agonist, CpG ODN, induce antiviral cytokines and chemokines but do not prevent vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus when applied intravaginally to rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2005 Nov; 79(22):14355-70. PMID: 16254370; PMCID: PMC1280235.
    78. Cooper CL, Davis HL, Angel JB, Morris ML, Elfer SM, Seguin I, Krieg AM, Cameron DW. CPG 7909 adjuvant improves hepatitis B virus vaccine seroprotection in antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected adults. AIDS. 2005 Sep 23; 19(14):1473-9. PMID: 16135900.
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    79. Saha A, Baral RN, Chatterjee SK, Mohanty K, Pal S, Foon KA, Primus FJ, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ, Bhattacharya-Chatterjee M. CpG oligonucleotides enhance the tumor antigen-specific immune response of an anti-idiotype antibody-based vaccine strategy in CEA transgenic mice. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2006 May; 55(5):515-27. PMID: 16044253.
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    80. Abel K, Wang Y, Fritts L, Sanchez E, Chung E, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P, Krieg AM, Miller CJ. Deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine oligonucleotide classes A, B, and C induce distinct cytokine gene expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells and distinct alpha interferon responses in TLR9-expressing rhesus monkey plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005 May; 12(5):606-21. PMID: 15879022; PMCID: PMC1112080.
    81. Noll BO, McCluskie MJ, Sniatala T, Lohner A, Yuill S, Krieg AM, Schetter C, Davis HL, Uhlmann E. Biodistribution and metabolism of immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide CPG 7909 in mouse and rat tissues following subcutaneous administration. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Mar 15; 69(6):981-91. PMID: 15748709.
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    82. Speiser DE, Liénard D, Rufer N, Rubio-Godoy V, Rimoldi D, Lejeune F, Krieg AM, Cerottini JC, Romero P. Rapid and strong human CD8+ T cell responses to vaccination with peptide, IFA, and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 7909. J Clin Invest. 2005 Mar; 115(3):739-46. PMID: 15696196; PMCID: PMC546459.
    83. Rees DG, Gates AJ, Green M, Eastaugh L, Lukaszewski RA, Griffin KF, Krieg AM, Titball RW. CpG-DNA protects against a lethal orthopoxvirus infection in a murine model. Antiviral Res. 2005 Feb; 65(2):87-95. PMID: 15708635.
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    84. Mason KA, Ariga H, Neal R, Valdecanas D, Hunter N, Krieg AM, Whisnant JK, Milas L. Targeting toll-like receptor 9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhances tumor response to fractionated radiotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Jan 01; 11(1):361-9. PMID: 15671567.
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    85. Edwards L, Williams AE, Krieg AM, Rae AJ, Snelgrove RJ, Hussell T. Stimulation via Toll-like receptor 9 reduces Cryptococcus neoformans-induced pulmonary inflammation in an IL-12-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2005 Jan; 35(1):273-81. PMID: 15597328.
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    86. Cooper CL, Davis HL, Morris ML, Efler SM, Adhami MA, Krieg AM, Cameron DW, Heathcote J. CPG 7909, an immunostimulatory TLR9 agonist oligodeoxynucleotide, as adjuvant to Engerix-B HBV vaccine in healthy adults: a double-blind phase I/II study. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Nov; 24(6):693-701. PMID: 15622454.
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    87. Krieg AM, Efler SM, Wittpoth M, Al Adhami MJ, Davis HL. Induction of systemic TH1-like innate immunity in normal volunteers following subcutaneous but not intravenous administration of CPG 7909, a synthetic B-class CpG oligodeoxynucleotide TLR9 agonist. J Immunother. 2004 Nov-Dec; 27(6):460-71. PMID: 15534490.
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    88. Deng JC, Moore TA, Newstead MW, Zeng X, Krieg AM, Standiford TJ. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides stimulate protective innate immunity against pulmonary Klebsiella infection. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 15; 173(8):5148-55. PMID: 15470059; PMCID: PMC3001228.
    89. Vollmer J, Weeratna RD, Jurk M, Samulowitz U, McCluskie MJ, Payette P, Davis HL, Schetter C, Krieg AM. Oligodeoxynucleotides lacking CpG dinucleotides mediate Toll-like receptor 9 dependent T helper type 2 biased immune stimulation. Immunology. 2004 Oct; 113(2):212-23. PMID: 15379982; PMCID: PMC1782571.
    90. Moseman EA, Liang X, Dawson AJ, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Krieg AM, Liu YJ, Blazar BR, Chen W. Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells activated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induce the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 01; 173(7):4433-42. PMID: 15383574.
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    91. Cooper CL, Davis HL, Morris ML, Efler SM, Krieg AM, Li Y, Laframboise C, Al Adhami MJ, Khaliq Y, Seguin I, Cameron DW. Safety and immunogenicity of CPG 7909 injection as an adjuvant to Fluarix influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2004 Aug 13; 22(23-24):3136-43. PMID: 15297066.
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    92. Wongratanacheewin S, Kespichayawattana W, Intachote P, Pichyangkul S, Sermswan RW, Krieg AM, Sirisinha S. Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotide confers protection in a murine model of infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei. Infect Immun. 2004 Aug; 72(8):4494-502. PMID: 15271908; PMCID: PMC470634.
    93. Milas L, Mason KA, Ariga H, Hunter N, Neal R, Valdecanas D, Krieg AM, Whisnant JK. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances tumor response to radiation. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 01; 64(15):5074-7. PMID: 15289307.
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    94. Wang Y, Krieg AM. Induction of autoantibody production but not autoimmune disease in HEL transgenic mice vaccinated with HEL in combination with CpG or control oligodeoxynucleotides. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 30; 22(20):2641-50. PMID: 15193390.
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    95. Vollmer J, Weeratna RD, Jurk M, Davis HL, Schetter C, Wüllner M, Wader T, Liu M, Kritzler A, Krieg AM. Impact of modifications of heterocyclic bases in CpG dinucleotides on their immune-modulatory activity. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Sep; 76(3):585-93. PMID: 15218053.
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    96. Vollmer J, Rankin R, Hartmann H, Jurk M, Samulowitz U, Wader T, Janosch A, Schetter C, Krieg AM. Immunopharmacology of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and ribavirin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Jun; 48(6):2314-7. PMID: 15155243; PMCID: PMC415599.
    97. Pichyangkul S, Yongvanitchit K, Kum-arb U, Hemmi H, Akira S, Krieg AM, Heppner DG, Stewart VA, Hasegawa H, Looareesuwan S, Shanks GD, Miller RS. Malaria blood stage parasites activate human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and murine dendritic cells through a Toll-like receptor 9-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 2004 Apr 15; 172(8):4926-33. PMID: 15067072.
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    98. Krieg AM. Antitumor applications of stimulating toll-like receptor 9 with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Curr Oncol Rep. 2004 Mar; 6(2):88-95. PMID: 14751085.
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    99. Zhu X, Coleman RA, Alber C, Ballas ZK, Waldschmidt TJ, Ray NB, Krieg AM, Cook RT. Chronic ethanol ingestion by mice increases expression of CD80 and CD86 by activated macrophages. Alcohol. 2004 Feb; 32(2):91-100. PMID: 15163560.
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    100. Kumar S, Jones TR, Oakley MS, Zheng H, Kuppusamy SP, Taye A, Krieg AM, Stowers AW, Kaslow DC, Hoffman SL. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and Montanide ISA 51 adjuvant combination enhanced the protective efficacy of a subunit malaria vaccine. Infect Immun. 2004 Feb; 72(2):949-57. PMID: 14742540; PMCID: PMC321633.
    101. Vollmer J, Jurk M, Samulowitz U, Lipford G, Forsbach A, Wüllner M, Tluk S, Hartmann H, Kritzler A, Müller C, Schetter C, Krieg AM. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides stimulate IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 production in human B cells. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(6):431-8. PMID: 15588427.
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    102. Jurk M, Schulte B, Kritzler A, Noll B, Uhlmann E, Wader T, Schetter C, Krieg AM, Vollmer J. C-Class CpG ODN: sequence requirements and characterization of immunostimulatory activities on mRNA level. Immunobiology. 2004; 209(1-2):141-54. PMID: 15481148.
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    103. Marshak-Rothstein A, Busconi L, Lau CM, Tabor AS, Leadbetter EA, Akira S, Krieg AM, Lipford GB, Viglianti GA, Rifkin IR. Comparison of CpG s-ODNs, chromatin immune complexes, and dsDNA fragment immune complexes in the TLR9-dependent activation of rheumatoid factor B cells. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(4):247-51. PMID: 15373969.
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    104. Vollmer J, Weeratna R, Payette P, Jurk M, Schetter C, Laucht M, Wader T, Tluk S, Liu M, Davis HL, Krieg AM. Characterization of three CpG oligodeoxynucleotide classes with distinct immunostimulatory activities. Eur J Immunol. 2004 Jan; 34(1):251-62. PMID: 14971051.
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    105. Vollmer J, Jepsen JS, Uhlmann E, Schetter C, Jurk M, Wader T, Wüllner M, Krieg AM. Modulation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated immune stimulation by locked nucleic acid (LNA). Oligonucleotides. 2004; 14(1):23-31. PMID: 15104893.
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    106. Ray NB, Krieg AM. Oral pretreatment of mice with CpG DNA reduces susceptibility to oral or intraperitoneal challenge with virulent Listeria monocytogenes. Infect Immun. 2003 Aug; 71(8):4398-404. PMID: 12874318; PMCID: PMC166041.
    107. Weigel BJ, Rodeberg DA, Krieg AM, Blazar BR. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides potentiate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy or tumor resection in an orthotopic murine model of rhabdomyosarcoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 01; 9(8):3105-14. PMID: 12912962.
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    108. Krieg AM. CpG motifs: the active ingredient in bacterial extracts? Nat Med. 2003 Jul; 9(7):831-5. PMID: 12835699.
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    109. Hirunpetcharat C, Wipasa J, Sakkhachornphop S, Nitkumhan T, Zheng YZ, Pichyangkul S, Krieg AM, Walsh DS, Heppner DG, Good MF. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhances immunity against blood-stage malaria infection in mice parenterally immunized with a yeast-expressed 19 kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment of Plasmodium yoelii merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1(19)) formulated in oil-based Montanides. Vaccine. 2003 Jun 20; 21(21-22):2923-32. PMID: 12798636.
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    110. Ramp U, Caliskan E, Mahotka C, Krieg A, Heikaus S, Gabbert HE, Gerharz CD. Apoptosis induction in renal cell carcinoma by TRAIL and gamma-radiation is impaired by deficient caspase-9 cleavage. Br J Cancer. 2003 Jun 02; 88(11):1800-7. PMID: 12771998; PMCID: PMC2377130.
    111. Yi AK, Yoon JG, Krieg AM. Convergence of CpG DNA- and BCR-mediated signals at the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-kappaB activation pathways: regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinases. Int Immunol. 2003 May; 15(5):577-91. PMID: 12697659.
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    112. Blackwell SE, Krieg AM. CpG-A-induced monocyte IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 production is regulated by plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived IFN-alpha. J Immunol. 2003 Apr 15; 170(8):4061-8. PMID: 12682235.
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    113. Utaisincharoen P, Kespichayawattana W, Anuntagool N, Chaisuriya P, Pichyangkul S, Krieg AM, Sirisinha S. CpG ODN enhances uptake of bacteria by mouse macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003 Apr; 132(1):70-5. PMID: 12653838; PMCID: PMC1808663.
    114. Krieg A, Krieg T, Wenzel M, Schmitt M, Ramp U, Fang B, Gabbert HE, Gerharz CD, Mahotka C. TRAIL-beta and TRAIL-gamma: two novel splice variants of the human TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) without apoptotic potential. Br J Cancer. 2003 Mar 24; 88(6):918-27. PMID: 12644830; PMCID: PMC2377072.
    115. Baral RN, Saha A, Chatterjee S, Foon KA, Krieg A, Weiner GJ, Bhattacharya-Chatterjee M. Immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides enhance the immune response of anti-idiotype vaccine that mimics carcinoembryonic antigen. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2003 May; 52(5):317-27. PMID: 12700947.
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    116. Wang Y, Krieg AM. Synergy between CpG- or non-CpG DNA and specific antigen for B cell activation. Int Immunol. 2003 Feb; 15(2):223-31. PMID: 12578852.
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    117. Sandler AD, Chihara H, Kobayashi G, Zhu X, Miller MA, Scott DL, Krieg AM. CpG oligonucleotides enhance the tumor antigen-specific immune response of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-based vaccine strategy in neuroblastoma. Cancer Res. 2003 Jan 15; 63(2):394-9. PMID: 12543793.
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    118. Lenert P, Yi AK, Krieg AM, Stunz LL, Ashman RF. Inhibitory oligonucleotides block the induction of AP-1 transcription factor by stimulatory CpG oligonucleotides in B cells. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2003; 13(3):143-50. PMID: 12954114.
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    119. Krieg AM, Guga P, Stec W. P-chirality-dependent immune activation by phosphorothioate CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Oligonucleotides. 2003; 13(6):491-9. PMID: 15025915.
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    120. Krieg AM. CpG DNA: trigger of sepsis, mediator of protection, or both? Scand J Infect Dis. 2003; 35(9):653-9. PMID: 14620150.
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    121. Kirsch JD, Yi AK, Spitz DR, Krieg AM. Accumulation of glutathione disulfide mediates NF-kappaB activation during immune stimulation with CpG DNA. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2002 Oct; 12(5):327-40. PMID: 12477282.
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    122. Weigel BJ, Nath N, Taylor PA, Panoskaltsis-Mortari A, Chen W, Krieg AM, Brasel K, Blazar BR. Comparative analysis of murine marrow-derived dendritic cells generated by Flt3L or GM-CSF/IL-4 and matured with immune stimulatory agents on the in vivo induction of antileukemia responses. Blood. 2002 Dec 01; 100(12):4169-76. PMID: 12393694.
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    123. Schlueter AJ, Krieg AM, De Vries P, Li X. B cells express Ly-6C in a Th1 but not Th2 cytokine environment. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002 Jul; 22(7):799-806. PMID: 12184918.
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    124. Gierynska M, Kumaraguru U, Eo SK, Lee S, Krieg A, Rouse BT. Induction of CD8 T-cell-specific systemic and mucosal immunity against herpes simplex virus with CpG-peptide complexes. J Virol. 2002 Jul; 76(13):6568-76. PMID: 12050369; PMCID: PMC136257.
    125. Shen W, Waldschmidt M, Zhao X, Ratliff T, Krieg AM. Antitumor mechanisms of oligodeoxynucleotides with CpG and polyG motifs in murine prostate cancer cells: decrease of NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding activities and induction of apoptosis. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2002 Jun; 12(3):155-64. PMID: 12162698.
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    126. Jurk M, Heil F, Vollmer J, Schetter C, Krieg AM, Wagner H, Lipford G, Bauer S. Human TLR7 or TLR8 independently confer responsiveness to the antiviral compound R-848. Nat Immunol. 2002 Jun; 3(6):499. PMID: 12032557.
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    127. Vollmer J, Janosch A, Laucht M, Ballas ZK, Schetter C, Krieg AM. Highly immunostimulatory CpG-free oligodeoxynucleotides for activation of human leukocytes. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2002 Jun; 12(3):165-75. PMID: 12162699.
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    128. Krieg AM. A role for Toll in autoimmunity. Nat Immunol. 2002 May; 3(5):423-4. PMID: 11976718.
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    129. Stunz LL, Lenert P, Peckham D, Yi AK, Haxhinasto S, Chang M, Krieg AM, Ashman RF. Inhibitory oligonucleotides specifically block effects of stimulatory CpG oligonucleotides in B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2002 May; 32(5):1212-22. PMID: 11981808.
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    130. Yi AK, Yoon JG, Yeo SJ, Hong SC, English BK, Krieg AM. Role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in CpG DNA-mediated IL-10 and IL-12 production: central role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the negative feedback loop of the CpG DNA-mediated Th1 response. J Immunol. 2002 May 01; 168(9):4711-20. PMID: 11971021.
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    131. Krieg AM. From A to Z on CpG. Trends Immunol. 2002 Feb; 23(2):64-5. PMID: 11929127.
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    132. Miconnet I, Koenig S, Speiser D, Krieg A, Guillaume P, Cerottini JC, Romero P. CpG are efficient adjuvants for specific CTL induction against tumor antigen-derived peptide. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 01; 168(3):1212-8. PMID: 11801657.
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    133. Pontarollo RA, Rankin R, Babiuk LA, Godson DL, Griebel PJ, Hecker R, Krieg AM, van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S. Monocytes are required for optimum in vitro stimulation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells by non-methylated CpG motifs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2002 Jan 01; 84(1-2):43-59. PMID: 11825597.
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    134. Rothenfusser S, Hornung V, Krug A, Towarowski A, Krieg AM, Endres S, Hartmann G. Distinct CpG oligonucleotide sequences activate human gamma delta T cells via interferon-alpha/-beta. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Dec; 31(12):3525-34. PMID: 11745372.
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    135. Hunter SK, Andracki ME, Krieg AM. Biodegradable microspheres containing group B Streptococcus vaccine: immune response in mice. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Nov; 185(5):1174-9. PMID: 11717653.
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    136. Ballas ZK, Krieg AM, Warren T, Rasmussen W, Davis HL, Waldschmidt M, Weiner GJ. Divergent therapeutic and immunologic effects of oligodeoxynucleotides with distinct CpG motifs. J Immunol. 2001 Nov 01; 167(9):4878-86. PMID: 11673492.
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    137. Yi AK, Yoon JG, Hong SC, Redford TW, Krieg AM. Lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA synergize for tumor necrosis factor-alpha production through activation of NF-kappaB. Int Immunol. 2001 Nov; 13(11):1391-404. PMID: 11675371.
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    138. Krieg AM. CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects. Annu Rev Immunol. 2002; 20:709-60. PMID: 11861616.
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    139. Rankin R, Pontarollo R, Ioannou X, Krieg AM, Hecker R, Babiuk LA, van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S. CpG motif identification for veterinary and laboratory species demonstrates that sequence recognition is highly conserved. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2001 Oct; 11(5):333-40. PMID: 11763350.
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    140. Krug A, Towarowski A, Britsch S, Rothenfusser S, Hornung V, Bals R, Giese T, Engelmann H, Endres S, Krieg AM, Hartmann G. Toll-like receptor expression reveals CpG DNA as a unique microbial stimulus for plasmacytoid dendritic cells which synergizes with CD40 ligand to induce high amounts of IL-12. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Oct; 31(10):3026-37. PMID: 11592079.
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    141. Britigan BE, Lewis TS, Waldschmidt M, McCormick ML, Krieg AM. Lactoferrin binds CpG-containing oligonucleotides and inhibits their immunostimulatory effects on human B cells. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 01; 167(5):2921-8. PMID: 11509640.
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    142. Blazar BR, Krieg AM, Taylor PA. Synthetic unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides are potent stimulators of antileukemia responses in naive and bone marrow transplant recipients. Blood. 2001 Aug 15; 98(4):1217-25. PMID: 11493473.
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    143. Chen Y, Zhang J, Moore SA, Ballas ZK, Portanova JP, Krieg AM, Berg DJ. CpG DNA induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin production. Int Immunol. 2001 Aug; 13(8):1013-20. PMID: 11470771.
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    144. Lenert P, Stunz L, YI AK, Krieg AM, Ashman RF. CpG stimulation of primary mouse B cells is blocked by inhibitory oligodeoxyribonucleotides at a site proximal to NF-kappaB activation. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2001 Aug; 11(4):247-56. PMID: 11572601.
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    145. Schlueter AJ, Krieg AM, de Vries P, Li X. Type I interferon is the primary regulator of inducible Ly-6C expression on T cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001 Aug; 21(8):621-9. PMID: 11559440.
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    146. Myers LP, Krieg AM, Pruett SB. Bacterial DNA does not increase serum corticosterone concentration or prevent increases induced by other stimuli. Int Immunopharmacol. 2001 Aug; 1(8):1605-14. PMID: 11515823.
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    147. Chen Y, Lenert P, Weeratna R, McCluskie M, Wu T, Davis HL, Krieg AM. Identification of methylated CpG motifs as inhibitors of the immune stimulatory CpG motifs. Gene Ther. 2001 Jul; 8(13):1024-32. PMID: 11438837.
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    148. Krug A, Rothenfusser S, Hornung V, Jahrsdörfer B, Blackwell S, Ballas ZK, Endres S, Krieg AM, Hartmann G. Identification of CpG oligonucleotide sequences with high induction of IFN-alpha/beta in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Jul; 31(7):2154-63. PMID: 11449369.
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    149. Krieg AM. From bugs to drugs: therapeutic immunomodulation with oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG sequences from bacterial DNA. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 2001 Jun; 11(3):181-8. PMID: 11446594.
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    150. Krieg AM. Now I know my CpGs. Trends Microbiol. 2001 Jun; 9(6):249-52. PMID: 11390225.
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    151. Gramzinski RA, Doolan DL, Sedegah M, Davis HL, Krieg AM, Hoffman SL. Interleukin-12- and gamma interferon-dependent protection against malaria conferred by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in mice. Infect Immun. 2001 Mar; 69(3):1643-9. PMID: 11179339; PMCID: PMC98068.
    152. Krieg AM, Davis HL. Enhancing vaccines with immune stimulatory CpG DNA. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2001 Feb; 3(1):15-24. PMID: 11249727.
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    153. Jahrsdörfer B, Hartmann G, Racila E, Jackson W, Mühlenhoff L, Meinhardt G, Endres S, Link BK, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. CpG DNA increases primary malignant B cell expression of costimulatory molecules and target antigens. J Leukoc Biol. 2001 Jan; 69(1):81-8. PMID: 11200072.
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    154. Kovarik J, Bozzotti P, Tougne C, Davis HL, Lambert PH, Krieg AM, Siegrist CA. Adjuvant effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on responses against T-independent type 2 antigens. Immunology. 2001 Jan; 102(1):67-76. PMID: 11168639; PMCID: PMC1783157.
    155. Pichyangkul S, Yongvanitchit K, Kum-arb U, Krieg AM, Heppner DG, Walsh DS. Whole blood cultures to assess the immunostimulatory activities of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Jan 01; 247(1-2):83-94. PMID: 11150539.
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    156. Askew D, Chu RS, Krieg AM, Harding CV. CpG DNA induces maturation of dendritic cells with distinct effects on nascent and recycling MHC-II antigen-processing mechanisms. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 15; 165(12):6889-95. PMID: 11120813.
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    157. Brunner C, Seiderer J, Schlamp A, Bidlingmaier M, Eigler A, Haimerl W, Lehr HA, Krieg AM, Hartmann G, Endres S. Enhanced dendritic cell maturation by TNF-alpha or cytidine-phosphate-guanosine DNA drives T cell activation in vitro and therapeutic anti-tumor immune responses in vivo. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 01; 165(11):6278-86. PMID: 11086063.
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    158. Warren TL, Bhatia SK, Acosta AM, Dahle CE, Ratliff TL, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. APC stimulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide enhance activation of MHC class I-restricted T cells. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 01; 165(11):6244-51. PMID: 11086059.
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    159. McCluskie MJ, Weeratna RD, Krieg AM, Davis HL. CpG DNA is an effective oral adjuvant to protein antigens in mice. Vaccine. 2000 Nov 22; 19(7-8):950-7. PMID: 11115721.
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    160. Krieg AM. Immune effects and mechanisms of action of CpG motifs. Vaccine. 2000 Nov 08; 19(6):618-22. PMID: 11090712.
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    161. Déjosez M, Ramp U, Mahotka C, Krieg A, Walczak H, Gabbert HE, Gerharz CD. Sensitivity to TRAIL/APO-2L-mediated apoptosis in human renal cell carcinomas and its enhancement by topotecan. Cell Death Differ. 2000 Nov; 7(11):1127-36. PMID: 11139287.
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    162. Krieg AM, Wagner H. Causing a commotion in the blood: immunotherapy progresses from bacteria to bacterial DNA. Immunol Today. 2000 Oct; 21(10):521-6. PMID: 11071532.
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    163. Krieg AM, Kline JN. Immune effects and therapeutic applications of CpG motifs in bacterial DNA. Immunopharmacology. 2000 Jul 25; 48(3):303-5. PMID: 10960672.
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    164. Wenzel M, Mahotka C, Krieg A, Bachmann A, Schmitt M, Gabbert HE, Gerharz CD. Novel survivin-related members of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family. Cell Death Differ. 2000 Jul; 7(7):682-3. PMID: 11023343.
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    165. Davis HL, Suparto II, Weeratna RR. CpG DNA overcomes hyporesponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine in orangutans. Vaccine. 2000 Mar 17; 18(18):1920-4. PMID: 10699341.
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    166. Krieg AM. Minding the Cs and Gs. Mol Ther. 2000 Mar; 1(3):209-10. PMID: 10933935.
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    167. Krieg AM. DNA-based immune enhancers. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel. 2000 Mar; 3(2):214-21. PMID: 19649852.
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    168. Hartmann G, Weeratna RD, Ballas ZK, Payette P, Blackwell S, Suparto I, Rasmussen WL, Waldschmidt M, Sajuthi D, Purcell RH, Davis HL, Krieg AM. Delineation of a CpG phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide for activating primate immune responses in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 01; 164(3):1617-24. PMID: 10640783.
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    169. Krieg AM. The role of CpG motifs in innate immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2000 Feb; 12(1):35-43. PMID: 10679406.
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    170. Hartmann G, Krieg AM. Mechanism and function of a newly identified CpG DNA motif in human primary B cells. J Immunol. 2000 Jan 15; 164(2):944-53. PMID: 10623843.
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    171. Krieg AM. Signal transduction induced by immunostimulatory CpG DNA. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2000; 22(1-2):97-105. PMID: 10944804.
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    172. Krieg AM, Yi AK. Rescue of B cells from apoptosis by immune stimulatory CpG DNA. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2000; 22(1-2):55-61. PMID: 10944800.
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    173. Krieg AM, Hartmann G, Yi AK. Mechanism of action of CpG DNA. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000; 247:1-21. PMID: 10689776.
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    174. Weeratna R, Krieg AM, Davis HL. Immunostimulatory CpG motifs and DNA vaccines. Methods Mol Med. 2000; 29:169-72. PMID: 21374318.
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    175. Krieg AM. CpG oligonucleotides as immune adjuvants. Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop. 2000; (30):105-18. PMID: 10943319.
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    176. Krieg AM. Mechanisms and applications of immune stimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Dec 10; 1489(1):107-16. PMID: 10807001.
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    177. Older SA, Battafarano DF, Enzenauer RJ, Krieg AM. Can immunization precipitate connective tissue disease? Report of five cases of systemic lupus erythematosus and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Dec; 29(3):131-9. PMID: 10622677.
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    178. Yi AK, Peckham DW, Ashman RF, Krieg AM. CpG DNA rescues B cells from apoptosis by activating NFkappaB and preventing mitochondrial membrane potential disruption via a chloroquine-sensitive pathway. Int Immunol. 1999 Dec; 11(12):2015-24. PMID: 10590267.
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    179. Kline JN, Krieg AM, Waldschmidt TJ, Ballas ZK, Jain V, Businga TR. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides do not require TH1 cytokines to prevent eosinophilic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Dec; 104(6):1258-64. PMID: 10589010.
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    180. Huang L, Krieg AM, Eller N, Scott DE. Induction and regulation of Th1-inducing cytokines by bacterial DNA, lipopolysaccharide, and heat-inactivated bacteria. Infect Immun. 1999 Dec; 67(12):6257-63. PMID: 10569735; PMCID: PMC97027.
    181. Krieg AM, Yi AK, Hartmann G. Mechanisms and therapeutic applications of immune stimulatory cpG DNA. Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Nov; 84(2):113-20. PMID: 10596901.
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    182. Krieg AM. A possible cause of joint destruction in septic arthritis. Arthritis Res. 1999; 1(1):3-4. PMID: 11094405; PMCID: PMC128861.
    183. Jones TR, Obaldia N, Gramzinski RA, Charoenvit Y, Kolodny N, Kitov S, Davis HL, Krieg AM, Hoffman SL. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs enhance immunogenicity of a peptide malaria vaccine in Aotus monkeys. Vaccine. 1999 Aug 06; 17(23-24):3065-71. PMID: 10462241.
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    184. Hartmann G, Weiner GJ, Krieg AM. CpG DNA: a potent signal for growth, activation, and maturation of human dendritic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 03; 96(16):9305-10. PMID: 10430938; PMCID: PMC17777.
    185. Chu RS, Askew D, Noss EH, Tobian A, Krieg AM, Harding CV. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides down-regulate macrophage class II MHC antigen processing. J Immunol. 1999 Aug 01; 163(3):1188-94. PMID: 10415013.
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    186. Schwartz DA, Wohlford-Lenane CL, Quinn TJ, Krieg AM. Bacterial DNA or oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG motifs can minimize lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in the lower respiratory tract through an IL-12-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 1999 Jul 01; 163(1):224-31. PMID: 10384120.
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    187. Walker PS, Scharton-Kersten T, Krieg AM, Love-Homan L, Rowton ED, Udey MC, Vogel JC. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides promote protective immunity and provide systemic therapy for leishmaniasis via IL-12- and IFN-gamma-dependent mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jun 08; 96(12):6970-5. PMID: 10359823; PMCID: PMC22026.
    188. Hartmann G, Krieg AM. CpG DNA and LPS induce distinct patterns of activation in human monocytes. Gene Ther. 1999 May; 6(5):893-903. PMID: 10505115.
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    189. Ramachandra L, Chu RS, Askew D, Noss EH, Canaday DH, Potter NS, Johnsen A, Krieg AM, Nedrud JG, Boom WH, Harding CV. Phagocytic antigen processing and effects of microbial products on antigen processing and T-cell responses. Immunol Rev. 1999 Apr; 168:217-39. PMID: 10399077.
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    190. Krieg AM. CpG DNA: a novel immunomodulator. Trends Microbiol. 1999 Feb; 7(2):64-5. PMID: 10081082.
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    191. Jakob T, Walker PS, Krieg AM, von Stebut E, Udey MC, Vogel JC. Bacterial DNA and CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides activate cutaneous dendritic cells and induce IL-12 production: implications for the augmentation of Th1 responses. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1999 Feb-Apr; 118(2-4):457-61. PMID: 10224474.
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    192. Kovarik J, Bozzotti P, Love-Homan L, Pihlgren M, Davis HL, Lambert PH, Krieg AM, Siegrist CA. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides can circumvent the Th2 polarization of neonatal responses to vaccines but may fail to fully redirect Th2 responses established by neonatal priming. J Immunol. 1999 Feb 01; 162(3):1611-7. PMID: 9973420.
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    193. Krieg AM. Direct immunologic activities of CpG DNA and implications for gene therapy. J Gene Med. 1999 Jan-Feb; 1(1):56-63. PMID: 10738585.
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    194. Brazolot Millan CL, Weeratna R, Krieg AM, Siegrist CA, Davis HL. CpG DNA can induce strong Th1 humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in young mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Dec 22; 95(26):15553-8. PMID: 9861007; PMCID: PMC28081.
    195. Liu HM, Newbrough SE, Bhatia SK, Dahle CE, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides enhance the immune response to vaccine strategies involving granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood. 1998 Nov 15; 92(10):3730-6. PMID: 9808567.
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    196. Krieg AM. The CpG motif: implications for clinical immunology. BioDrugs. 1998 Nov; 10(5):341-6. PMID: 18020606.
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    197. Yi AK, Krieg AM. Rapid induction of mitogen-activated protein kinases by immune stimulatory CpG DNA. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 01; 161(9):4493-7. PMID: 9794373.
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    198. Redford TW, Yi AK, Ward CT, Krieg AM. Cyclosporin A enhances IL-12 production by CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol. 1998 Oct 15; 161(8):3930-5. PMID: 9780160.
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    199. Krieg AM, Wu T, Weeratna R, Efler SM, Love-Homan L, Yang L, Yi AK, Short D, Davis HL. Sequence motifs in adenoviral DNA block immune activation by stimulatory CpG motifs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Oct 13; 95(21):12631-6. PMID: 9770537; PMCID: PMC22882.
    200. Jakob T, Walker PS, Krieg AM, Udey MC, Vogel JC. Activation of cutaneous dendritic cells by CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides: a role for dendritic cells in the augmentation of Th1 responses by immunostimulatory DNA. J Immunol. 1998 Sep 15; 161(6):3042-9. PMID: 9743369.
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    201. Krieg AM, Love-Homan L, Yi AK, Harty JT. CpG DNA induces sustained IL-12 expression in vivo and resistance to Listeria monocytogenes challenge. J Immunol. 1998 Sep 01; 161(5):2428-34. PMID: 9725240.
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    202. Weeratna R, Brazolot Millan CL, Krieg AM, Davis HL. Reduction of antigen expression from DNA vaccines by coadministered oligodeoxynucleotides. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1998 Aug; 8(4):351-6. PMID: 9743472.
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    203. Moldoveanu Z, Love-Homan L, Huang WQ, Krieg AM. CpG DNA, a novel immune enhancer for systemic and mucosal immunization with influenza virus. Vaccine. 1998 Jul; 16(11-12):1216-24. PMID: 9682382.
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    204. Yi AK, Chang M, Peckham DW, Krieg AM, Ashman RF. CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides rescue mature spleen B cells from spontaneous apoptosis and promote cell cycle entry. J Immunol. 1998 Jun 15; 160(12):5898-906. PMID: 9637502.
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    205. Yi AK, Tuetken R, Redford T, Waldschmidt M, Kirsch J, Krieg AM. CpG motifs in bacterial DNA activate leukocytes through the pH-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. J Immunol. 1998 May 15; 160(10):4755-61. PMID: 9590221.
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    206. Kline JN, Waldschmidt TJ, Businga TR, Lemish JE, Weinstock JV, Thorne PS, Krieg AM. Modulation of airway inflammation by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in a murine model of asthma. J Immunol. 1998 Mar 15; 160(6):2555-9. PMID: 9510150.
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    207. Yi AK, Krieg AM. CpG DNA rescue from anti-IgM-induced WEHI-231 B lymphoma apoptosis via modulation of I kappa B alpha and I kappa B beta and sustained activation of nuclear factor-kappa B/c-Rel. J Immunol. 1998 Feb 01; 160(3):1240-5. PMID: 9570540.
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    208. Davis HL, Weeratna R, Waldschmidt TJ, Tygrett L, Schorr J, Krieg AM, Weeranta R. CpG DNA is a potent enhancer of specific immunity in mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 15; 160(2):870-6. PMID: 9551923.
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    209. Krieg AM, Yi AK, Schorr J, Davis HL. The role of CpG dinucleotides in DNA vaccines. Trends Microbiol. 1998 Jan; 6(1):23-7. PMID: 9481820.
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    210. Anitescu M, Chace JH, Tuetken R, Yi AK, Berg DJ, Krieg AM, Cowdery JS. Interleukin-10 functions in vitro and in vivo to inhibit bacterial DNA-induced secretion of interleukin-12. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1997 Dec; 17(12):781-8. PMID: 9452366.
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    211. Chu RS, Targoni OS, Krieg AM, Lehmann PV, Harding CV. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides act as adjuvants that switch on T helper 1 (Th1) immunity. J Exp Med. 1997 Nov 17; 186(10):1623-31. PMID: 9362523; PMCID: PMC2199137.
    212. Weiner GJ, Liu HM, Wooldridge JE, Dahle CE, Krieg AM. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif are effective as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 30; 94(20):10833-7. PMID: 9380720; PMCID: PMC23500.
    213. Macfarlane DE, Manzel L, Krieg AM. Unmethylated CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit apoptosis in WEHI 231 B lymphocytes induced by several agents: evidence for blockade of apoptosis at a distal signalling step. Immunology. 1997 Aug; 91(4):586-93. PMID: 9378499; PMCID: PMC1363880.
    214. Chace JH, Hooker NA, Mildenstein KL, Krieg AM, Cowdery JS. Bacterial DNA-induced NK cell IFN-gamma production is dependent on macrophage secretion of IL-12. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1997 Aug; 84(2):185-93. PMID: 9245551.
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    215. Schwartz DA, Quinn TJ, Thorne PS, Sayeed S, Yi AK, Krieg AM. CpG motifs in bacterial DNA cause inflammation in the lower respiratory tract. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jul 01; 100(1):68-73. PMID: 9202058; PMCID: PMC508166.
    216. Wooldridge JE, Ballas Z, Krieg AM, Weiner GJ. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs enhance the efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy of lymphoma. Blood. 1997 Apr 15; 89(8):2994-8. PMID: 9108420.
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    217. Krieg AM, Matson S, Cheng K, Fisher E, Koretzky GA, Koland JG. Identification of an oligodeoxynucleotide sequence motif that specifically inhibits phosphorylation by protein tyrosine kinases. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1997 Apr; 7(2):115-23. PMID: 9149847.
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    218. Yi AK, Klinman DM, Martin TL, Matson S, Krieg AM. Rapid immune activation by CpG motifs in bacterial DNA. Systemic induction of IL-6 transcription through an antioxidant-sensitive pathway. J Immunol. 1996 Dec 15; 157(12):5394-402. PMID: 8955187.
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    219. Yi AK, Hornbeck P, Lafrenz DE, Krieg AM. CpG DNA rescue of murine B lymphoma cells from anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and programmed cell death is associated with increased expression of c-myc and bcl-xL. J Immunol. 1996 Dec 01; 157(11):4918-25. PMID: 8943396.
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    220. Zhao Q, Song X, Waldschmidt T, Fisher E, Krieg AM. Oligonucleotide uptake in human hematopoietic cells is increased in leukemia and is related to cellular activation. Blood. 1996 Sep 01; 88(5):1788-95. PMID: 8781436.
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    221. Ballas ZK, Rasmussen WL, Krieg AM. Induction of NK activity in murine and human cells by CpG motifs in oligodeoxynucleotides and bacterial DNA. J Immunol. 1996 Sep 01; 157(5):1840-5. PMID: 8757300.
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    222. Krieg AM. An innate immune defense mechanism based on the recognition of CpG motifs in microbial DNA. J Lab Clin Med. 1996 Aug; 128(2):128-33. PMID: 8765208.
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    223. Cowdery JS, Chace JH, Yi AK, Krieg AM. Bacterial DNA induces NK cells to produce IFN-gamma in vivo and increases the toxicity of lipopolysaccharides. J Immunol. 1996 Jun 15; 156(12):4570-5. PMID: 8648098.
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    224. Klinman DM, Yi AK, Beaucage SL, Conover J, Krieg AM. CpG motifs present in bacteria DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interferon gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 02; 93(7):2879-83. PMID: 8610135; PMCID: PMC39727.
    225. Krieg AM. Lymphocyte activation by CpG dinucleotide motifs in prokaryotic DNA. Trends Microbiol. 1996 Feb; 4(2):73-6. PMID: 8820571.
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    226. Yi AK, Chace JH, Cowdery JS, Krieg AM. IFN-gamma promotes IL-6 and IgM secretion in response to CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides. J Immunol. 1996 Jan 15; 156(2):558-64. PMID: 8543806.
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    227. Eckstein F, Krieg AM, Stein CA, Agrawal S, Beaucage S, Cook PD, Crooke S, Gait MJ, Gewirtz A, Hélène C, Miller P, Narayanan R, Nicolin A, Nielsen P, Ohtsuka E, Seliger H, Stec W, Tidd D, Wagner R, Zon J. On the quality control of antisense oligonucleotides. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1996; 6(3):149. PMID: 8915496.
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    228. Krieg AM, Matson S, Fisher E. Oligodeoxynucleotide modifications determine the magnitude of B cell stimulation by CpG motifs. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1996; 6(2):133-9. PMID: 8843328.
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    229. Bishop WP, Lin J, Stein CA, Krieg AM. Interruption of a transforming growth factor alpha autocrine loop in Caco-2 cells by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Gastroenterology. 1995 Dec; 109(6):1882-9. PMID: 7498653.
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    230. Krieg AM. CpG DNA: a pathogenic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus? J Clin Immunol. 1995 Nov; 15(6):284-92. PMID: 8576314.
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    231. Krieg AM, Yi AK, Matson S, Waldschmidt TJ, Bishop GA, Teasdale R, Koretzky GA, Klinman DM. CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation. Nature. 1995 Apr 06; 374(6522):546-9. PMID: 7700380.
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    232. Ishigatsubo Y, Steinberg AD, Krieg A, Klinman DM. Increased utilization of polyreactive B cells during periods of generalized immune activation. Autoimmunity. 1995; 22(2):113-9. PMID: 8722581.
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    233. Krieg AM, Stein CA. Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides: antisense or anti-protein? Antisense Res Dev. 1995; 5(4):241. PMID: 8746772.
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    234. Fathi R, Huang Q, Coppola G, Delaney W, Teasdale R, Krieg AM, Cook AF. Oligonucleotides with novel, cationic backbone substituents: aminoethylphosphonates. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Dec 11; 22(24):5416-24. PMID: 7816633; PMCID: PMC332091.
    235. Zhao Q, Waldschmidt T, Fisher E, Herrera CJ, Krieg AM. Stage-specific oligonucleotide uptake in murine bone marrow B-cell precursors. Blood. 1994 Dec 01; 84(11):3660-6. PMID: 7949121.
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    236. Gourley MF, Kisch WJ, Mojcik CF, King LB, Krieg AM, Steinberg AD. Role of endogenous retroviruses in autoimmune diseases. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1994 May; 173(1):105-14. PMID: 7809902.
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    237. Teasdale RM, Matson SJ, Fisher E, Krieg AM. Inhibition of T4 polynucleotide kinase activity by phosphorothioate and chimeric oligodeoxynucleotides. Antisense Res Dev. 1994; 4(4):295-7. PMID: 7734945.
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    238. Mojcik CF, Gourley MF, Klinman DM, Krieg AM, Gmelig-Meyling F, Steinberg AD. Administration of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide antisense to murine endogenous retroviral MCF env causes immune effects in vivo in a sequence-specific manner. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1993 May; 67(2):130-6. PMID: 7686091.
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    239. Krieg AM, Tonkinson J, Matson S, Zhao Q, Saxon M, Zhang LM, Bhanja U, Yakubov L, Stein CA. Modification of antisense phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotides by a 5' cholesteryl moiety increases cellular association and improves efficacy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 01; 90(3):1048-52. PMID: 8430072; PMCID: PMC45808.
    240. Louie SW, Ramirez LM, Krieg AM, Maliszewski CR, Bishop GA. Endogenous secretion of IL-4 maintains growth and Thy-1 expression of a transformed B cell clone. J Immunol. 1993 Jan 15; 150(2):399-406. PMID: 8093458.
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    241. Zhao Q, Matson S, Herrera CJ, Fisher E, Yu H, Krieg AM. Comparison of cellular binding and uptake of antisense phosphodiester, phosphorothioate, and mixed phosphorothioate and methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. Antisense Res Dev. 1993; 3(1):53-66. PMID: 8495106.
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    242. Krieg AM, Gourley MF, Klinman DM, Perl A, Steinberg AD. Heterogeneous expression and coordinate regulation of endogenous retroviral sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Dec; 8(12):1991-8. PMID: 1493049.
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    243. Krieg AM, Gourley MF, Perl A. Endogenous retroviruses: potential etiologic agents in autoimmunity. FASEB J. 1992 May; 6(8):2537-44. PMID: 1592206.
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    244. Steinberg AD, Krieg AM, Takashi T, Gourley MF. Timing of immunosuppression in the natural history of autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 1992 Apr; 5 Suppl A:197-203. PMID: 1503612.
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    245. Matson S, Krieg AM. Nonspecific suppression of [3H]thymidine incorporation by "control" oligonucleotides. Antisense Res Dev. 1992; 2(4):325-30. PMID: 1292780.
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    246. Klinman DM, Krieg A, Conover J, Ussery MA, Black PL. Effect of cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation, and zidovudine on retrovirus proliferation and disease progression in murine AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Jan; 8(1):101-6. PMID: 1310603.
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    247. Steinberg AD, Gourley MF, Klinman DM, Tsokos GC, Scott DE, Krieg AM. NIH conference. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Oct 01; 115(7):548-59. PMID: 1883125.
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    248. Krieg AM, Gourley MF, Steinberg AD. Association of murine lupus and thymic full-length endogenous retroviral expression maps to a bone marrow stem cell. J Immunol. 1991 May 01; 146(9):3002-5. PMID: 2016535.
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    249. Krieg AM, Gmelig-Meyling F, Gourley MF, Kisch WJ, Chrisey LA, Steinberg AD. Uptake of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by lymphoid cells is heterogeneous and inducible. Antisense Res Dev. 1991; 1(2):161-71. PMID: 1841658.
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    250. Steinberg AD, Krieg AM, Gourley MF, Klinman DM. Theoretical and experimental approaches to generalized autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. 1990 Dec; 118:129-63. PMID: 2079325.
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    251. Krieg AM, Steinberg AD. Analysis of thymic endogenous retroviral expression in murine lupus. Genetic and immune studies. J Clin Invest. 1990 Sep; 86(3):809-16. PMID: 2203823; PMCID: PMC296796.
    252. Gourley MF, Krieg AM, Steinberg AD. Preferential nuclear compartmentalization of endogenous mink cell focus-forming-related retroviral transcripts. J Exp Med. 1990 May 01; 171(5):1443-52. PMID: 2159049; PMCID: PMC2187912.
    253. Krieg AM, Steinberg AD. Retroviruses and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. 1990 Apr; 3(2):137-66. PMID: 2160242.
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    254. Krieg AM, Gause WC, Gourley MF, Steinberg AD. A role for endogenous retroviral sequences in the regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Immunol. 1989 Oct 15; 143(8):2448-51. PMID: 2477442.
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    255. Krieg AM, Khan AS, Steinberg AD. Expression of an endogenous retroviral transcript is associated with murine lupus. Arthritis Rheum. 1989 Mar; 32(3):322-9. PMID: 2539166.
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    256. Flanagan JR, Krieg AM, Max EE, Khan AS. Negative control region at the 5' end of murine leukemia virus long terminal repeats. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Feb; 9(2):739-46. PMID: 2540425; PMCID: PMC362651.
    257. Krieg AM, Khan AS, Steinberg AD. Multiple endogenous xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts are induced by polyclonal immune activators. J Virol. 1988 Oct; 62(10):3545-50. PMID: 2843657; PMCID: PMC253492.
    258. Krieg AM, Steinberg AD, Khan AS. Increased expression of novel full-length endogenous mink cell focus-forming-related transcripts in autoimmune mouse strains. Virology. 1988 Jan; 162(1):274-6. PMID: 2827386.
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