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Paula Marie Gardiner MD

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
Phone774-441-6716
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Rohela P, Olendzki B, McGonigal LJ, Villa A, Gardiner P. A Teaching Kitchen Medical Groups Visit with an eHealth Platform for Hypertension and Cardiac Risk Factors: A Qualitative Feasibility Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2021 Aug 05. PMID: 34357790.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Kovell LC, Maxner B, Ayturk D, Moore Simas TA, Harrington CM, McManus DD, Gardiner P, Aurigemma GP, Juraschek SP. Dietary Habits and Medications to Control Hypertension among Women of Child-bearing Age in the United States from 2001-2016. Am J Hypertens. 2021 Mar 08. PMID: 33693539.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gardiner P, Bickmore T, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, Reichert M, Julce C, Sidduri N, Martin-Howard J, Woodhams E, Aryan J, Zhang Z, Fernandez J, Loafman M, Srinivasan J, Cabral H, Jack BW. Using Health Information Technology to Engage African American Women on Nutrition and Supplement Use During the Preconception Period. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020; 11:571705. PMID: 33584534.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Thompson-Lastad A, Gardiner P. Group Medical Visits and Clinician Wellbeing. Glob Adv Health Med. 2020; 9:2164956120973979. PMID: 33282545.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Berry MP, Lutz J, Schuman-Olivier Z, Germer C, Pollak S, Edwards RR, Gardiner P, Desbordes G, Napadow V. Brief Self-Compassion Training Alters Neural Responses to Evoked Pain for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Pilot Study. Pain Med. 2020 10 01; 21(10):2172-2185. PMID: 32783054.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lutz J, Berry MP, Napadow V, Germer C, Pollak S, Gardiner P, Edwards RR, Desbordes G, Schuman-Olivier Z. Neural activations during self-related processing in patients with chronic pain and effects of a brief self-compassion training - A pilot study. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2020 10 30; 304:111155. PMID: 32799058.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Mehta V, D'Amico S, Luo M, Bodner K, Goldstein L, Neri C, Gardiner P. Food Habits, Stressors, and Use of Complementary Medicine Therapies Among Pediatric Patients Who Attend an Integrative Medicine Pediatric Pain Clinic. J Altern Complement Med. 2020 Aug; 26(8):691-700. PMID: 32640830.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gardiner P, D'Amico S, Luo M, Haas N. An Innovative Electronic Health Toolkit (Our Whole Lives for Chronic Pain) to Reduce Chronic Pain in Patients With Health Disparities: Open Clinical Trial. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2020 Mar 30; 8(3):e14768. PMID: 32224487.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Gardiner P, Luo M, D'Amico S, Gergen-Barnett K, White LF, Saper R, Mitchell S, Liebschutz JM. Effectiveness of integrative medicine group visits in chronic pain and depressive symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2019; 14(12):e0225540. PMID: 31851666.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Mazhar H, Foster BC, Necyk C, Gardiner PM, Harris CS, Robaey P. Natural Health Product-Drug Interaction Causality Assessment in Pediatric Adverse Event Reports Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2019 Oct 31. PMID: 31670573.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Keosaian J, Venkatesh T, D'Amico S, Gardiner P, Saper R. Blood Lead Levels of Children Using Traditional Indian Medicine and Cosmetics: A Feasibility Study. Glob Adv Health Med. 2019; 8:2164956119870988. PMID: 31489260.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Gardiner P, Chao M, Burnett M. Improving Access, Integration, and Sustainability: A Reflective Overview of the Special Issue on Innovation in Group-Delivered Services. J Altern Complement Med. 2019 Jul; 25(7):663-665. PMID: 31314568.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Charlot M, D'Amico S, Luo M, Gemei A, Kathuria H, Gardiner P. Feasibility and Acceptability of Mindfulness-Based Group Visits for Smoking Cessation in Low-Socioeconomic Status and Minority Smokers with Cancer. J Altern Complement Med. 2019 Jul; 25(7):762-769. PMID: 31314565.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Parikh M, Rajendran I, D'Amico S, Luo M, Gardiner P. Characteristics and Components of Medical Group Visits for Chronic Health Conditions: A Systematic Scoping Review. J Altern Complement Med. 2019 Jul; 25(7):683-698. PMID: 30945935.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gardiner P, Lestoquoy AS, Negash NL, Luo M, Gergen-Barnett K, Saper R, Penti B, White LF, Liebschutz JM. Lessons Learned and Strategies for Recruitment of Diverse, Low-income Patients into an Integrative Medical Group Visit Clinical Trial. Explore (NY). 2019 Mar 07. PMID: 31056423.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Thompson-Lastad A, Gardiner P, Chao MT. Integrative Group Medical Visits: A National Scoping Survey of Safety-Net Clinics. Health Equity. 2019; 3(1):1-8. PMID: 30706043.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Cheng T, D'Amico S, Luo M, Lestoquoy AS, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, Laird LD, Gardiner PM. Health Disparities in Access to Nonpharmacologic Therapies in an Urban Community. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Sep 20. PMID: 30234363.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Ewen AM, Gardiner PM, Palma S, Whitley K, Schneider JI. We Matter Too! Addressing the Wellness of Program Coordinators in Graduate Medical Education. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2018 Summer; 38(3):165-170. PMID: 29933264.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Vergara-Diaz G, Osypiuk K, Hausdorff JM, Bonato P, Gow BJ, Miranda JG, Sudarsky LR, Tarsy D, Fox MD, Gardiner P, Thomas CA, Macklin EA, Wayne PM. Tai Chi for Reducing Dual-task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk in Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Glob Adv Health Med. 2018; 7:2164956118775385. PMID: 29796338.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Bodner K, D'Amico S, Luo M, Sommers E, Goldstein L, Neri C, Gardiner P. A cross-sectional review of the prevalence of integrative medicine in pediatric pain clinics across the United States. Complement Ther Med. 2018 Jun; 38:79-84. PMID: 29857885.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Lestoquoy AS, Laird LD, Mitchell S, Gergen-Barnett K, Negash NL, McCue K, Enad R, Gardiner P. Living with chronic pain: Evaluating patient experiences with a medical group visit focused on mindfulness and non-pharmacological strategies. Complement Ther Med. 2017 Dec; 35:33-38. PMID: 29154064.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Cornelio-Flores O, Lestoquoy AS, Abdallah S, DeLoureiro A, Lorente K, Pardo B, Olunwa J, Gardiner P. The Latino Integrative Medical Group Visit as a Model for Pain Reduction in Underserved Spanish Speakers. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Feb; 24(2):125-131. PMID: 28885858.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Gill SV, Khetani MA, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, McManus B, Gardiner PM, Tickle-Degnen L. Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR): A Logic Model. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017 Jul; 96(7):479-486. PMID: 28628536.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Saper RB, Lemaster C, Delitto A, Sherman KJ, Herman PM, Sadikova E, Stevans J, Keosaian JE, Cerrada CJ, Femia AL, Roseen EJ, Gardiner P, Gergen Barnett K, Faulkner C, Weinberg J. Yoga, Physical Therapy, or Education for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 18; 167(2):85-94. PMID: 28631003.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Zhou ES, Gardiner P, Bertisch SM. Integrative Medicine for Insomnia. Med Clin North Am. 2017 Sep; 101(5):865-879. PMID: 28802468.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Gardiner PM, McCue KD, Negash LM, Cheng T, White LF, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, Jack BW, Bickmore TW. Engaging women with an embodied conversational agent to deliver mindfulness and lifestyle recommendations: A feasibility randomized control trial. Patient Educ Couns. 2017 Sep; 100(9):1720-1729. PMID: 28495391.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Gardiner P, Lestoquoy AS, Gergen-Barnett K, Penti B, White LF, Saper R, Fredman L, Stillman S, Lily Negash N, Adelstein P, Brackup I, Farrell-Riley C, Kabbara K, Laird L, Mitchell S, Bickmore T, Shamekhi A, Liebschutz JM. Design of the integrative medical group visits randomized control trial for underserved patients with chronic pain and depression. Contemp Clin Trials. 2017 03; 54:25-35. PMID: 27979754.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Probst JC, Barker JC, Enders A, Gardiner P. Current State of Child Health in Rural America: How Context Shapes Children's Health. J Rural Health. 2018 02; 34 Suppl 1:s3-s12. PMID: 27677973.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Budzynska K, Filippelli AC, Sadikova E, Low Dog T, Gardiner P. Use and Factors Associated With Herbal/Botanical and Nonvitamin/Nonmineral Dietary Supplements Among Women of Reproductive Age: An Analysis of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2016 Jul; 61(4):419-26. PMID: 27336953.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Dresner D, Gergen Barnett K, Resnick K, Laird LD, Gardiner P. Listening to Their Words: A Qualitative Analysis of Integrative Medicine Group Visits in an Urban Underserved Medical Setting. Pain Med. 2016 Apr 03. PMID: 27040666.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Kutt A, Girard L, Necyk C, Gardiner P, Boon H, Barnes J, Vohra S. Natural health product-drug interaction tool: A scoping review. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2016 Mar; 149(2):75-82. PMID: 27076818.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Faurot KR, Siega-Riz AM, Gardiner P, Rivera JO, Young LA, Poole C, Whitsel EA, González HM, Chirinos-Medina DA, Talavera GA, Castañeda SF, Daviglus ML, Barnhart J, Giacinto RE, Van Horn L. Comparison of a Medication Inventory and a Dietary Supplement Interview in Assessing Dietary Supplement Use in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Integr Med Insights. 2016; 11:1-10. PMID: 26917949; PMCID: PMC4756859.
    33. Nguyen LT, Kaptchuk TJ, Davis RB, Nguyen G, Pham V, Tringale SM, Loh YL, Gardiner P. The Use of Traditional Vietnamese Medicine Among Vietnamese Immigrants Attending an Urban Community Health Center in the United States. J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Feb; 22(2):145-53. PMID: 26630121; PMCID: PMC4761825 [Available on 02/01/17].
    34. Berz JP, Gergen Barnett KA, Gardiner P, Saper RB. Integrative Medicine in a Preventive Medicine Residency: A Program for the Urban Underserved. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Nov; 49(5 Suppl 3):S290-5. PMID: 26477906.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Gardiner P, Filippelli AC, Kabbara K, Lin SC, Sadikova E, Kaptchuk TJ, Kemper K. Online Education for Improving Communication and Documentation of Dietary Supplements Among Health Professionals Practicing in a Hospital Setting. J Altern Complement Med. 2015 Oct; 21(10):638-44. PMID: 26270001; PMCID: PMC4605355 [Available on 10/01/16].
    36. Jack B, Bickmore T, Hempstead M, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, Sadikova E, Mitchell S, Gardiner P, Adigun F, Penti B, Schulman D, Damus K. Reducing Preconception Risks Among African American Women with Conversational Agent Technology. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015 Jul-Aug; 28(4):441-51. PMID: 26152434; PMCID: PMC4739811.
    37. Holden SC, Gardiner P, Birdee G, Davis RB, Yeh GY. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Women During Pregnancy and Childbearing Years. Birth. 2015 Sep; 42(3):261-9. PMID: 26111221; PMCID: PMC4537684.
    38. Gardiner P, Filippelli AC, Sadikova E, White LF, Jack BW. Medication and Dietary Supplement Interactions among a Low-Income, Hospitalized Patient Population Who Take Cardiac Medications. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015:429826. PMID: 25949262; PMCID: PMC4407526.
    39. Gardiner P, Filippelli AC, Lebensohn P, Bonakdar R. The incorporation of stress management programming into family medicine residencies-results of a national survey of residency directors: a CERA study. Fam Med. 2015 Apr; 47(4):272-8. PMID: 25853597.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Gardiner P, Sadikova E, Filippelli AC, Mitchell S, White LF, Saper R, Kaptchuk TJ, Jack BW, Fredman L. Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques use among underserved inpatients in an inner city hospital. Complement Ther Med. 2015 Jun; 23(3):405-12. PMID: 26051576; PMCID: PMC4460566.
    41. Gardiner P, Sadikova E, Filippelli AC, White LF, Jack BW. Medical reconciliation of dietary supplements: don't ask, don't tell. Patient Educ Couns. 2015 Apr; 98(4):512-7. PMID: 25636694; PMCID: PMC4404157.
    42. Birdee GS, Kemper KJ, Rothman R, Gardiner P. Use of complementary and alternative medicine during pregnancy and the postpartum period: an analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Oct; 23(10):824-9. PMID: 25268759; PMCID: PMC4195350.
    43. Ghauri AJ, Abbott J, Shah P, Gardiner P. Bleeding risks associated with herbal medicine in children. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 Sep; 3(5):5. PMID: 25568817.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Gardiner P, Dresner D, Barnett KG, Sadikova E, Saper R. Medical group visits: a feasibility study to manage patients with chronic pain in an underserved urban clinic. Glob Adv Health Med. 2014 Jul; 3(4):20-6. PMID: 25105072; PMCID: PMC4104558.
    45. Rosen JE, Gardiner P, Saper RB, Pearce EN, Hammer K, Gupta-Lawrence RL, Lee SL. Kelp use in patients with thyroid cancer. Endocrine. 2014 May; 46(1):123-30. PMID: 24573490.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Kemper KJ, Gardiner P, Birdee GS. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among youth with mental health concerns. Acad Pediatr. 2013 Nov-Dec; 13(6):540-5. PMID: 24238680; PMCID: PMC3834537.
    47. Mitchell SE, Gardiner PM, Sadikova E, Martin JM, Jack BW, Hibbard JH, Paasche-Orlow MK. Patient activation and 30-day post-discharge hospital utilization. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Feb; 29(2):349-55. PMID: 24091935; PMCID: PMC3912296.
    48. Gardiner P, Filippelli AC, Lebensohn P, Bonakdar R. Family medicine residency program directors attitudes and knowledge of family medicine CAM competencies. Explore (NY). 2013 Sep-Oct; 9(5):299-307. PMID: 24021471; PMCID: PMC3788635.
    49. Locke AB, Gordon A, Guerrera MP, Gardiner P, Lebensohn P. Recommended integrative medicine competencies for family medicine residents. Explore (NY). 2013 Sep-Oct; 9(5):308-13. PMID: 24021472.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Budzynska K, Gardner ZE, Low Dog T, Gardiner P. Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: advice for clinicians on herbs and breastfeeding. Pediatr Rev. 2013 Aug; 34(8):343-52; quiz 352-3. PMID: 23908361; PMCID: PMC4530286.
    51. Gardiner P, Whelan J, White LF, Filippelli AC, Bharmal N, Kaptchuk TJ. A systematic review of the prevalence of herb usage among racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013 Aug; 15(4):817-28. PMID: 22723252; PMCID: PMC4401997.
    52. Rosen JE, Gardiner P, Saper RB, Filippelli AC, White LF, Pearce EN, Gupta-Lawrence RL, Lee SL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2013 Oct; 23(10):1238-46. PMID: 23350883; PMCID: PMC3783927.
    53. Rosen JE, Gardiner P, Lee SL. Complementary and integrative treatments: thyroid disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2013 Jun; 46(3):423-35. PMID: 23764819.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Gardiner P, Adams D, Filippelli AC, Nasser H, Saper R, White L, Vohra S. A systematic review of the reporting of adverse events associated with medical herb use among children. Glob Adv Health Med. 2013 Mar; 2(2):46-55. PMID: 24416663; PMCID: PMC3833530.
    55. Gardiner P, Jarrett K, Filippelli A, Pecci C, Mauch M, Jack B. Herb use, vitamin use, and diet in low-income, postpartum women. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2013 Mar-Apr; 58(2):150-7. PMID: 23590486; PMCID: PMC3630472.
    56. Rosen J, Lawrence R, Bouchard M, Doros G, Gardiner P, Saper R. Massage for perioperative pain and anxiety in placement of vascular access devices. Adv Mind Body Med. 2013; 27(1):12-23. PMID: 23341418.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Gardiner P, Mitchell S, Filippelli AC, Sadikova E, White LF, Paasche-Orlow MK, Jack BW. Health literacy and complementary and alternative medicine use among underserved inpatients in a safety net hospital. J Health Commun. 2013; 18 Suppl 1:290-7. PMID: 24093362; PMCID: PMC3814611.
    58. Gardiner P, Hempstead MB, Ring L, Bickmore T, Yinusa-Nyahkoon L, Tran H, Paasche-Orlow M, Damus K, Jack B. Reaching women through health information technology: the Gabby preconception care system. Am J Health Promot. 2013 Jan-Feb; 27(3 Suppl):eS11-20. PMID: 23286652; PMCID: PMC3779885.
    59. Filippelli AC, White LF, Spellman LW, Broderick M, Highfield ES, Sommers E, Gardiner P. Non-Insertive Acupuncture and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Case Series from an Inner City Safety Net Hospital. Glob Adv Health Med. 2012 Sep; 1(4):48-52. PMID: 24078899.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Vohra S, Surette S, Mittra D, Rosen LD, Gardiner P, Kemper KJ. Pediatric integrative medicine: pediatrics' newest subspecialty? BMC Pediatr. 2012 Aug 15; 12:123. PMID: 22894682; PMCID: PMC3470978.
    61. Budzynska K, Gardner ZE, Dugoua JJ, Low Dog T, Gardiner P. Systematic review of breastfeeding and herbs. Breastfeed Med. 2012 Dec; 7(6):489-503. PMID: 22686865; PMCID: PMC3523241.
    62. Marles RJ, Barrett ML, Barnes J, Chavez ML, Gardiner P, Ko R, Mahady GB, Low Dog T, Sarma ND, Giancaspro GI, Sharaf M, Griffiths J. United States pharmacopeia safety evaluation of spirulina. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Aug; 51(7):593-604. PMID: 21793723.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Bateman J, Charrois TL, Gardiner P, Vohra S. A descriptive study evaluating Health Canada's risk communications. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2011 Oct; 20(10):1104-9. PMID: 21692140.
      View in: PubMed
    64. MacDuff S, Grodin MA, Gardiner P. The use of complementary and alternative medicine among refugees: a systematic review. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011 Jun; 13(3):585-99. PMID: 20224938.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Kemper K, Bulla S, Krueger D, Ott MJ, McCool JA, Gardiner P. Nurses' experiences, expectations, and preferences for mind-body practices to reduce stress. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Apr 11; 11:26. PMID: 21481259; PMCID: PMC3084171.
    66. Gardiner P, Stargrove MB, Dog TL. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women: an approach to provider preparedness. Maturitas. 2011 Mar; 68(3):251-5. PMID: 21168291; PMCID: PMC3071591.
    67. Dog TL, Marles R, Mahady G, Gardiner P, Ko R, Barnes J, Chavez ML, Griffiths J, Giancaspro G, Sarma ND. Assessing safety of herbal products for menopausal complaints: an international perspective. Maturitas. 2010 Aug; 66(4):355-62. PMID: 20451336.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Louik C, Gardiner P, Kelley K, Mitchell AA. Use of herbal treatments in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 May; 202(5):439.e1-439.e10. PMID: 20452484; PMCID: PMC2867842.
    69. Birdee GS, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Gardiner P. Factors associated with pediatric use of complementary and alternative medicine. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb; 125(2):249-56. PMID: 20100769; PMCID: PMC3057373.
    70. Birdee GS, Yeh GY, Wayne PM, Phillips RS, Davis RB, Gardiner P. Clinical applications of yoga for the pediatric population: a systematic review. Acad Pediatr. 2009 Jul-Aug; 9(4):212-220.e1-9. PMID: 19608122; PMCID: PMC2844096.
    71. Dunlop AL, Gardiner PM, Shellhaas CS, Menard MK, McDiarmid MA. The clinical content of preconception care: the use of medications and supplements among women of reproductive age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec; 199(6 Suppl 2):S367-72. PMID: 19081432.
      View in: PubMed
    72. McDiarmid MA, Gardiner PM, Jack BW. The clinical content of preconception care: environmental exposures. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec; 199(6 Suppl 2):S357-61. PMID: 19081430.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Gardiner PM, Nelson L, Shellhaas CS, Dunlop AL, Long R, Andrist S, Jack BW. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec; 199(6 Suppl 2):S345-56. PMID: 19081429.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Moos MK, Dunlop AL, Jack BW, Nelson L, Coonrod DV, Long R, Boggess K, Gardiner PM. Healthier women, healthier reproductive outcomes: recommendations for the routine care of all women of reproductive age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Dec; 199(6 Suppl 2):S280-9. PMID: 19081422.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Mehta DH, Gardiner PM, Phillips RS, McCarthy EP. Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to health care providers by individuals with chronic conditions. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Dec; 14(10):1263-9. PMID: 19032071; PMCID: PMC2787410.
    76. Gardiner P, Kemper KJ, Legedza A, Phillips RS. Factors associated with herb and dietary supplement use by young adults in the United States. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Nov 30; 7:39. PMID: 18053129; PMCID: PMC2213683.
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