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    Douglas T Golenbock MD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB-208
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-5982
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
      DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMD/PhD Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMillennium MD/PhD Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentCenter for AIDS Research

        Overview 
        Narrative

        Academic Background

        B.S.   (1975)  University of Michigan

        M.D.  (1980)   University of Michigan

        Internship and Residency, Internal Medicine (1980-1983) 

                                 George Washington University Hospital

        Infectious Diseases Fellowship (1984-1986)

                     University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics

        Post-doctoral Fellowship (1986-1988)

                     University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics

                     (Christian R.H. Raetz, mentor)

        Post-doctoral Fellowship (1989-1990)

                     Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ

                     (Christian R.H. Raetz, mentor)

        Assistant Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases (1990- 1995)

                     Boston University School of Medicine

        Associate Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases (1995-1999)

                     Boston University School of Medicine

        Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases (1999-2001)

                     Boston University School of Medicine

        Professor of Medicine and Infectious Diseases (2001-present)

                      UMass Medical School

                     Tenure award:  2004

                   

        Innate immunity and Infectious Diseases.Douglas Golenbock, MD

        Dr. Douglas Golenbock is Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology in the Department of Medicine. He holds a joint appointment in the Department of Microbiology and Physiological Systems. The goal of his laboratory is to characterize phagocytic receptors that recognize the presence of microbes in the context of infectious illnesses. As the mechanisms of inflammation in infectious diseases are similar to those associated with sterile inflammation, we also study Alzheimer's Disease.    Virtually all of our work focuses on two groups of receptors: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) in the context of the inflammasome.

         Our entry into the TLR field was heralded by the discovery that TLR4, and MD-2 mediate responses to bacterial endotoxin, a major cause of sepsis. More recently, we have begun to focus on intracellular nucleic acid receptors as regulators of IL-1 production and type I interferons. There are six major projects in the laboratory:

        1. Defining the response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). LPS immunologically potent amphipathic glycolipid on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria. It is thought to be responsible for Gram-negative sepsis. This project involves detailed studies of TLR4/MD-2 and adapter molecules that transduce an activation signal. The work is funded via an NIH merit award to Dr. Golenbock.

        2. Characterizing the role of the LPS receptor system, in pelvic inflammatory disease. This project is based upon the realization that Neisseria gonorrhoeae mediates much of its inflammation via the TLR4/MD-2 signaling pathway and is funded via an NIH U19 award that includes other infectious diseases faculty, including Drs. Peter Rice (program PI) and Sanjay Ram.

        3. Defining the innate immune response to P. falciparum malaria. Very little is known about how P. falciparum causes inflammation. We have developed several projects in this area, including basic investigations into nucleic acid receptors and inflammasomes. This is a large project that is a collaboration with two other UMass investigators, Drs. Kate Fitzgerald and Ricardo Gazzinelli. The project is funded via an RO1 to Drs. Golenbock and Fitzgerald.

        4. Defining the innate immune response to Group B streptococcus. We have previously demonstrated that Group B streptococcus activates type I interferon production as a result of hemolysin expression, which allows DNA access to the phagocyte cytosolic compartment. Recent studies also implicate hemolysin as a mediator of NLRP3 activation via the effects of bacterial RNA. This project is a three way collaboration with a bacterial genetics group at the Institut Pasteur (France) headed by Dr. Patrick Trieu-Cuot and a cell biology group at the University of Freiburg (Germany) run by Dr. Philipp Henneke, a former Golenbock post-doctoral fellow, and is funded by an RO1 grant to Dr. Golenbock.

        5. Defining a role for PSTPIP1. PSTPIP1 is a protein that causes an autoinflammatory disorder known as PAPA syndrome: Pogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma gangrenosum and Acne. The disease is due to dysregulation of IL-1 production that probably results from the activation on pyrin, the gene product associated with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Dr. Donghai Wang, a member of the Golenbock laboratory, has engineered mice that are either deficient in PSTPIP1, or that carry the known lesions of PAPA syndrome. It is funded by an R21 grant to Drs. Wang and Golenbock.

        6. Examining the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in Alzheimers Disease. Alzheimer (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that causes premature dementia and death. It appears to be caused, in part, by -amyloid, an insoluble protein that activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglial cells, resulting in neuronal cell death.

        One of the major goals of the Golenbock lab and the Division of Infectious Diseases is to promote UMass immunology and the field of innate immunity in general. The Division has organized the state of the art meetng in the field of innate immunity. We have now had four Toll meetings: Toll2004 (Taormina, Italy), Toll2006 (Salvador, Brazil; www.toll2006.org), Toll2008 (Cascais, Portugal; www.toll2008.org) and Toll2011 (Riva del Garda, Italy; www.toll2011.org). Virtually all of the research faculty, students and post-docs in Infectious Diseases attend the Toll meetings, which typically involve ~ 600 participants.

        For More information on Toll related meetings please see

         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rqQOmkiL5o

        For More information on Targeting a new therapy for Alzheimer's pleas see:

         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5LXshrNFkXA




        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
        List All   |   Timeline
        1. Sheedy FJ, Grebe A, Rayner KJ, Kalantari P, Ramkhelawon B, Carpenter SB, Becker CE, Ediriweera HN, Mullick AE, Golenbock DT, Stuart LM, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Moore KJ. CD36 coordinates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by facilitating intracellular nucleation of soluble ligands into particulate ligands in sterile inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):812-20.
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        2. Cywes-Bentley C, Skurnik D, Zaidi T, Roux D, Deoliveira RB, Garrett WS, Lu X, O'Malley J, Kinzel K, Zaidi T, Rey A, Perrin C, Fichorova RN, Kayatani AK, Maira-Litràn T, Gening ML, Tsvetkov YE, Nifantiev NE, Bakaletz LO, Pelton SI, Golenbock DT, Pier GB. Antibody to a conserved antigenic target is protective against diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):E2209-18.
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        3. O'Neill LA, Golenbock D, Bowie AG. The history of Toll-like receptors - redefining innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jun; 13(6):453-60.
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        4. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Parlato M, de Oliveira RB, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald K, Shalova IN, Biswas SK, Cavaillon JM, Adib-Conquy M. Interferon-? and Granulocyte/Monocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Production by Natural Killer Cells Involves Different Signaling Pathways and the Adaptor Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12; 288(15):10715-21.
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        5. Firon A, Tazi A, Da Cunha V, Brinster S, Sauvage E, Dramsi S, Golenbock DT, Glaser P, Poyart C, Trieu-Cuot P. The Abi-domain Protein Abx1 Interacts with the CovS Histidine Kinase to Control Virulence Gene Expression in Group B Streptococcus. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Feb; 9(2):e1003179.
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        6. Schamber-Reis BL, Petritus PM, Caetano BC, Martinez ER, Okuda K, Golenbock D, Scott P, Gazzinelli RT. UNC93B1 and Nucleic Acid-sensing Toll-like Receptors Mediate Host Resistance to Infection with Leishmania major. J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 8; 288(10):7127-36.
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        7. Wang D, Höing S, Patterson HC, Ahmad UM, Rathinam VA, Rajewsky K, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Inflammation in Mice Ectopically Expressing Human Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA) Syndrome-associated PSTPIP1 A230T Mutant Proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 15; 288(7):4594-601.
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        8. Andrade WA, Souza Mdo C, Ramos-Martinez E, Nagpal K, Dutra MS, Melo MB, Bartholomeu DC, Ghosh S, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Combined Action of Nucleic Acid-Sensing Toll-like Receptors and TLR11/TLR12 Heterodimers Imparts Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in Mice. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Jan 16; 13(1):42-53.
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        9. Elfawal MA, Towler MJ, Reich NG, Golenbock D, Weathers PJ, Rich SM. Dried Whole Plant Artemisia annua as an Antimalarial Therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52746.
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        10. Heneka MT, Kummer MP, Stutz A, Delekate A, Schwartz S, Vieira-Saecker A, Griep A, Axt D, Remus A, Tzeng TC, Gelpi E, Halle A, Korte M, Latz E, Golenbock DT. NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Nature. 2013 Jan 31; 493(7434):674-8.
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        11. Basset A, Zhang F, Benes C, Sayeed S, Herd M, Thompson C, Golenbock DT, Camilli A, Malley R. Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 Mediates Inflammatory Responses to Oligomerized RrgA Pneumococcal Pilus Type 1 Protein. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 25; 288(4):2665-75.
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        12. Ramirez A, Rathinam V, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Mathew A. Defective pro-IL-1ß responses in macrophages from aged mice. Immun Ageing. 2012; 9(1):27.
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        13. Hafner-Bratkovic I, Bencina M, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Jerala R. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophage cell lines by prion protein fibrils as the source of IL-1ß and neuronal toxicity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Dec; 69(24):4215-28.
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        14. Leoratti FM, Trevelin SC, Cunha FQ, Rocha BC, Costa PA, Gravina HD, Tada MS, Pereira DB, Golenbock DT, do Valle Antonelli LR, Gazzinelli RT. Neutrophil Paralysis in Plasmodium vivax Malaria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Jun; 6(6):e1710.
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        15. Lehmann SM, Krüger C, Park B, Derkow K, Rosenberger K, Baumgart J, Trimbuch T, Eom G, Hinz M, Kaul D, Habbel P, Kälin R, Franzoni E, Rybak A, Nguyen D, Veh R, Ninnemann O, Peters O, Nitsch R, Heppner FL, Golenbock D, Schott E, Ploegh HL, Wulczyn FG, Lehnardt S. An unconventional role for miRNA: let-7 activates Toll-like receptor 7 and causes neurodegeneration. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Jun; 15(6):827-35.
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        16. Jabara HH, McDonald DR, Janssen E, Massaad MJ, Ramesh N, Borzutzky A, Rauter I, Benson H, Schneider L, Baxi S, Recher M, Notarangelo LD, Wakim R, Dbaibo G, Dasouki M, Al-Herz W, Barlan I, Baris S, Kutukculer N, Ochs HD, Plebani A, Kanariou M, Lefranc G, Reisli I, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Manis J, Keles S, Ceja R, Chatila TA, Geha RS. DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links TLR-MyD88 signaling to B cell activation. Nat Immunol. 2012; 13(6):612-20.
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        17. Levitz SM, Golenbock DT. Beyond Empiricism: Informing Vaccine Development through Innate Immunity Research. Cell. 2012 Mar 16; 148(6):1284-92.
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        18. Fortes GB, Alves LS, de Oliveira R, Dutra FF, Rodrigues D, Fernandez PL, Souto-Padron T, De Rosa MJ, Kelliher M, Golenbock D, Chan FK, Bozza MT. Heme induces programmed necrosis on macrophages through autocrine TNF and ROS production. Blood. 2012 Mar 8; 119(10):2368-75.
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        19. Costa A, Gupta R, Signorino G, Malara A, Cardile F, Biondo C, Midiri A, Galbo R, Trieu-Cuot P, Papasergi S, Teti G, Henneke P, Mancuso G, Golenbock DT, Beninati C. Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome by Group B Streptococci. J Immunol. 2012 Feb 15; 188(4):1953-60.
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        20. Deshmukh SD, Müller S, Hese K, Rauch KS, Wennekamp J, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. NO Is a Macrophage Autonomous Modifier of the Cytokine Response to Streptococcal Single-Stranded RNA. J Immunol. 2012 Jan 15; 188(2):774-80.
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        21. Meng J, Gong M, Björkbacka H, Golenbock DT. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling and Mutagenesis Studies Reveal that Lipopolysaccharide Responsiveness Appears To Be Absolutely Dependent on TLR4 and MD-2 Expression and Is Dependent upon Intermolecular Ionic Interactions. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 1; 187(7):3683-93.
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        22. Sharma S, Deoliveira RB, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Chan J, Bartholomeu DC, Lauw F, Hall JP, Barber GN, Gazzinelli RT, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Innate Immune Recognition of an AT-Rich Stem-Loop DNA Motif in the Plasmodium falciparum Genome. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):194-207.
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        23. Caetano BC, Carmo BB, Melo MB, Cerny A, Dos Santos SL, Bartholomeu DC, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Requirement of UNC93B1 Reveals a Critical Role for TLR7 in Host Resistance to Primary Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2011 Aug 15; 187(4):1903-11.
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        24. Gallego C, Golenbock D, Gomez MA, Saravia NG. Toll-Like Receptors Participate in Macrophage Activation and Intracellular Control of Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis. Infect Immun. 2011 Jul; 79(7):2871-9.
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        25. Zhang Q, Feng X, Nie W, Golenbock DT, Mayanja-Kizza H, Tzipori S, Feng H. MyD88-dependent pathway is essential for the innate immunity to Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Parasite Immunol. 2011 Apr; 33(4):217-25.
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        26. Nagpal K, Plantinga TS, Sirois CM, Monks BG, Latz E, Netea MG, Golenbock DT. Natural Loss-of-function Mutation of Myeloid Differentiation Protein 88 Disrupts Its Ability to Form Myddosomes. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 1; 286(13):11875-82.
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        27. Franklin BS, Ishizaka ST, Lamphier M, Gusovsky F, Hansen H, Rose J, Zheng W, Ataíde MA, de Oliveira RB, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Therapeutical targeting of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors prevents experimental cerebral malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 1; 108(9):3689-94.
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        28. Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng SG, O'Shea A, Sharp FA, Lambe EM, Creagh EM, Golenbock DT, Tschopp J, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Lavelle EC. Autophagy Controls IL-1{beta} Secretion by Targeting Pro-IL-1{beta} for Degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 18; 286(11):9587-97.
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        29. Deshmukh SD, Kremer B, Freudenberg M, Bauer S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Macrophages recognize streptococci through bacterial single-stranded RNA. EMBO Rep. 2011 Jan 4; 12(1):71-6.
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        30. Seimon TA, Nadolski MJ, Liao X, Magallon J, Nguyen M, Feric NT, Koschinsky ML, Harkewicz R, Witztum JL, Tsimikas S, Golenbock D, Moore KJ, Tabas I. Atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins trigger CD36-TLR2-dependent apoptosis in macrophages undergoing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell Metab. 2010 Nov 3; 12(5):467-82.
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        31. Siednienko J, Halle A, Nagpal K, Golenbock DT, Miggin SM. TLR3-mediated IFN-ß gene induction is negatively regulated by the TLR adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Nov; 40(11):3150-60.
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        32. Lysakova-Devine T, Keogh B, Harrington B, Nagpal K, Halle A, Golenbock DT, Monie T, Bowie AG. Viral inhibitory peptide of TLR4, a peptide derived from vaccinia protein A46, specifically inhibits TLR4 by directly targeting MyD88 adaptor-like and TRIF-related adaptor molecule. J Immunol. 2010 Oct 1; 185(7):4261-71.
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        33. Melo MB, Kasperkovitz P, Cerny A, Könen-Waisman S, Kurt-Jones EA, Lien E, Beutler B, Howard JC, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(8).
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        34. Meng J, Drolet JR, Monks BG, Golenbock DT. MD-2 residues tyrosine 42, arginine 69, aspartic acid 122, and leucine 125 provide species specificity for lipid IVA. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 3; 285(36):27935-43.
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        35. Strunk T, Power Coombs MR, Currie AJ, Richmond P, Golenbock DT, Stoler-Barak L, Gallington LC, Otto M, Burgner D, Levy O. TLR2 mediates recognition of live Staphylococcus epidermidis and clearance of bacteremia. PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10111.
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        36. Stewart CR, Stuart LM, Wilkinson K, van Gils JM, Deng J, Halle A, Rayner KJ, Boyer L, Zhong R, Frazier WA, Lacy-Hulbert A, El Khoury J, Golenbock DT, Moore KJ. CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer. Nat Immunol. 2010 Feb; 11(2):155-61.
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        37. Meng J, Lien E, Golenbock DT. MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 19; 285(12):8695-702.
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        38. Auerbuch V, Golenbock DT, Isberg RR. Innate immune recognition of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis type III secretion. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Dec; 5(12):e1000686.
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        39. Stutz A, Golenbock DT, Latz E. Inflammasomes: too big to miss. J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec; 119(12):3502-11.
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        40. Hamm S, Latz E, Hangel D, Müller T, Yu P, Golenbock D, Sparwasser T, Wagner H, Bauer S. Alternating 2'-O-ribose methylation is a universal approach for generating non-stimulatory siRNA by acting as TLR7 antagonist. Immunobiology. 2010 Jul; 215(7):559-69.
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        41. Kenny EF, Talbot S, Gong M, Golenbock DT, Bryant CE, O'Neill LA. MyD88 adaptor-like is not essential for TLR2 signaling and inhibits signaling by TLR3. J Immunol. 2009 Sep 15; 183(6):3642-51.
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        42. Verstak B, Nagpal K, Bottomley SP, Golenbock DT, Hertzog PJ, Mansell A. MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP interaction with TRAF6 is critical for TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB proinflammatory responses. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 4; 284(36):24192-203.
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        43. Santos-Sierra S, Deshmukh SD, Kalnitski J, Küenzi P, Wymann MP, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Mal connects TLR2 to PI3Kinase activation and phagocyte polarization. EMBO J. 2009 Jul 22; 28(14):2018-27.
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        44. Nagpal K, Plantinga TS, Wong J, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Netea MG, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):25742-8.
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        45. Diczfalusy U, Olofsson KE, Carlsson AM, Gong M, Golenbock DT, Rooyackers O, Fläring U, Björkbacka H. Marked upregulation of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase expression by lipopolysaccharide. J Lipid Res. 2009 Nov; 50(11):2258-64.
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        46. Palsson-McDermott EM, Doyle SL, McGettrick AF, Hardy M, Husebye H, Banahan K, Gong M, Golenbock D, Espevik T, O'Neill LA. TAG, a splice variant of the adaptor TRAM, negatively regulates the adaptor MyD88-independent TLR4 pathway. Nat Immunol. 2009 Jun; 10(6):579-86.
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        47. Drage MG, Pecora ND, Hise AG, Febbraio M, Silverstein RL, Golenbock DT, Boom WH, Harding CV. TLR2 and its co-receptors determine responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to lipoproteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 2009; 258(1):29-37.
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        48. He Y, Barker SJ, MacDonald AJ, Yu Y, Cao L, Li J, Parhar R, Heck S, Hartmann S, Golenbock DT, Jiang S, Libri NA, Semper AE, Rosenberg WM, Lustigman S. Recombinant Ov-ASP-1, a Th1-biased protein adjuvant derived from the helminth Onchocerca volvulus, can directly bind and activate antigen-presenting cells. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 1; 182(7):4005-16.
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        49. Kenzel S, Santos-Sierra S, Deshmukh SD, Moeller I, Ergin B, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Role of p38 and early growth response factor 1 in the macrophage response to group B streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun; 77(6):2474-81.
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        50. Franklin BS, Parroche P, Ataíde MA, Lauw F, Ropert C, de Oliveira RB, Pereira D, Tada MS, Nogueira P, da Silva LH, Bjorkbacka H, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Malaria primes the innate immune response due to interferon-gamma induced enhancement of toll-like receptor expression and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 7; 106(14):5789-94.
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        51. Rhee KJ, Wu S, Wu X, Huso DL, Karim B, Franco AA, Rabizadeh S, Golub JE, Mathews LE, Shin J, Sartor RB, Golenbock D, Hamad AR, Gan CM, Housseau F, Sears CL. Induction of persistent colitis by a human commensal, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis, in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Infect Immun. 2009 Apr; 77(4):1708-18.
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        52. Sandanger Ø, Ryan L, Bohnhorst J, Iversen AC, Husebye H, Halaas Ø, Landrø L, Aukrust P, Frøland SS, Elson G, Visintin A, Øktedalen O, Damås JK, Sundan A, Golenbock D, Espevik T. IL-10 enhances MD-2 and CD14 expression in monocytes and the proteins are increased and correlated in HIV-infected patients. J Immunol. 2009 Jan 1; 182(1):588-95.
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        53. Charrel-Dennis M, Latz E, Halmen KA, Trieu-Cuot P, Fitzgerald KA, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. TLR-independent type I interferon induction in response to an extracellular bacterial pathogen via intracellular recognition of its DNA. Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Dec 11; 4(6):543-54.
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        54. Bartholomeu DC, Ropert C, Melo MB, Parroche P, Junqueira CF, Teixeira SM, Sirois C, Kasperkovitz P, Knetter CF, Lien E, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15; 181(2):1333-44.
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        55. Halle A, Hornung V, Petzold GC, Stewart CR, Monks BG, Reinheckel T, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Moore KJ, Golenbock DT. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008 Aug; 9(8):857-65.
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        56. Henneke P, Dramsi S, Mancuso G, Chraibi K, Pellegrini E, Theilacker C, Hübner J, Santos-Sierra S, Teti G, Golenbock DT, Poyart C, Trieu-Cuot P. Lipoproteins are critical TLR2 activating toxins in group B streptococcal sepsis. J Immunol. 2008 May 1; 180(9):6149-58.
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        57. Yoshioka H, Yoshimura A, Kaneko T, Golenbock DT, Hara Y. Analysis of the activity to induce toll-like receptor (TLR)2- and TLR4-mediated stimulation of supragingival plaque. J Periodontol. 2008 May; 79(5):920-8.
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        58. Knapp S, von Aulock S, Leendertse M, Haslinger I, Draing C, Golenbock DT, van der Poll T. Lipoteichoic acid-induced lung inflammation depends on TLR2 and the concerted action of TLR4 and the platelet-activating factor receptor. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1; 180(5):3478-84.
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        59. Davey M, Liu X, Ukai T, Jain V, Gudino C, Gibson FC, Golenbock D, Visintin A, Genco CA. Bacterial fimbriae stimulate proinflammatory activation in the endothelium through distinct TLRs. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 15; 180(4):2187-95.
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        60. Asagiri M, Hirai T, Kunigami T, Kamano S, Gober HJ, Okamoto K, Nishikawa K, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Aoki K, Ohya K, Imai Y, Morishita Y, Miyazono K, Kato S, Saftig P, Takayanagi H. Cathepsin K-dependent toll-like receptor 9 signaling revealed in experimental arthritis. Science. 2008 Feb 1; 319(5863):624-7.
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        61. Zhou S, Halle A, Kurt-Jones EA, Cerny AM, Porpiglia E, Rogers M, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of CNS glial cells results in TLR2-MyD88/Mal-dependent inflammatory responses. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Feb; 194(1-2):70-82.
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        62. Jain V, Halle A, Halmen KA, Lien E, Charrel-Dennis M, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Visintin A. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of MD-2 opsonized gram-negative bacteria depend on TLR4 signaling. Blood. 2008 May 1; 111(9):4637-45.
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        63. Ueno K, Koga T, Kato K, Golenbock DT, Gendler SJ, Kai H, Kim KC. MUC1 mucin is a negative regulator of toll-like receptor signaling. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008 Mar; 38(3):263-8.
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        64. Meng J, Parroche P, Golenbock DT, McKnight CJ. The differential impact of disulfide bonds and N-linked glycosylation on the stability and function of CD14. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 8; 283(6):3376-84.
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        65. Nordone SK, Ignacio GA, Su L, Sempowski GD, Golenbock DT, Li L, Dean GA. Failure of TLR4-driven NF-kappa B activation to stimulate virus replication in models of HIV type 1 activation. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 Nov; 23(11):1387-95.
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        66. Debierre-Grockiego F, Campos MA, Azzouz N, Schmidt J, Bieker U, Resende MG, Mansur DS, Weingart R, Schmidt RR, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT, Schwarz RT. Activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by glycosylphosphatidylinositols derived from Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 15; 179(2):1129-37.
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        67. McCall MB, Netea MG, Hermsen CC, Jansen T, Jacobs L, Golenbock D, van der Ven AJ, Sauerwein RW. Plasmodium falciparum infection causes proinflammatory priming of human TLR responses. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 1; 179(1):162-71.
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        68. Sweet CR, Conlon J, Golenbock DT, Goguen J, Silverman N. YopJ targets TRAF proteins to inhibit TLR-mediated NF-kappaB, MAPK and IRF3 signal transduction. Cell Microbiol. 2007 Nov; 9(11):2700-15.
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        69. Chen CJ, Kono H, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock KL. Identification of a key pathway required for the sterile inflammatory response triggered by dying cells. Nat Med. 2007 Jul; 13(7):851-6.
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        70. Latz E, Verma A, Visintin A, Gong M, Sirois CM, Klein DC, Monks BG, McKnight CJ, Lamphier MS, Duprex WP, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Ligand-induced conformational changes allosterically activate Toll-like receptor 9. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul; 8(7):772-9.
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        71. Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Immunology. The shape of things to come. Science. 2007 Jun 15; 316(5831):1574-6.
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        72. Tian J, Avalos AM, Mao SY, Chen B, Senthil K, Wu H, Parroche P, Drabic S, Golenbock D, Sirois C, Hua J, An LL, Audoly L, La Rosa G, Bierhaus A, Naworth P, Marshak-Rothstein A, Crow MK, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Kiener PA, Coyle AJ. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007 May; 8(5):487-96.
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        73. Taylor KR, Yamasaki K, Radek KA, Di Nardo A, Goodarzi H, Golenbock D, Beutler B, Gallo RL. Recognition of hyaluronan released in sterile injury involves a unique receptor complex dependent on Toll-like receptor 4, CD44, and MD-2. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 22; 282(25):18265-75.
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        74. Franklin BS, Rodrigues SO, Antonelli LR, Oliveira RV, Goncalves AM, Sales-Junior PA, Valente EP, Alvarez-Leite JI, Ropert C, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. MyD88-dependent activation of dendritic cells and CD4(+) T lymphocytes mediates symptoms, but is not required for the immunological control of parasites during rodent malaria. Microbes Infect. 2007 Jun; 9(7):881-90.
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        75. Miggin SM, Pålsson-McDermott E, Dunne A, Jefferies C, Pinteaux E, Banahan K, Murphy C, Moynagh P, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Rothwell N, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. NF-kappaB activation by the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain protein MyD88 adapter-like is regulated by caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 27; 104(9):3372-7.
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        76. Parroche P, Lauw FN, Goutagny N, Latz E, Monks BG, Visintin A, Halmen KA, Lamphier M, Olivier M, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT. Malaria hemozoin is immunologically inert but radically enhances innate responses by presenting malaria DNA to Toll-like receptor 9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 6; 104(6):1919-24.
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        77. Hise AG, Daehnel K, Gillette-Ferguson I, Cho E, McGarry HF, Taylor MJ, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA, Kazura JW, Pearlman E. Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, TLR6, MyD88, and Mal, but not TLR4, TRIF, or TRAM. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1068-76.
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        78. Wang Q, McLoughlin RM, Cobb BA, Charrel-Dennis M, Zaleski KJ, Golenbock D, Tzianabos AO, Kasper DL. A bacterial carbohydrate links innate and adaptive responses through Toll-like receptor 2. J Exp Med. 2006 Dec 25; 203(13):2853-63.
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        79. Seimon TA, Obstfeld A, Moore KJ, Golenbock DT, Tabas I. Combinatorial pattern recognition receptor signaling alters the balance of life and death in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Dec 26; 103(52):19794-9.
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        80. Wang JP, Liu P, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW, Libraty DH. Flavivirus activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells delineates key elements of TLR7 signaling beyond endosomal recognition. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15; 177(10):7114-21.
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        81. Lamphier MS, Sirois CM, Verma A, Golenbock DT, Latz E. TLR9 and the recognition of self and non-self nucleic acids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct; 1082:31-43.
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        82. Visintin A, Halmen KA, Khan N, Monks BG, Golenbock DT, Lien E. MD-2 expression is not required for cell surface targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Dec; 80(6):1584-92.
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        83. Yu M, Wang H, Ding A, Golenbock DT, Latz E, Czura CJ, Fenton MJ, Tracey KJ, Yang H. HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2. Shock. 2006 Aug; 26(2):174-9.
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        84. Chen CJ, Shi Y, Hearn A, Fitzgerald K, Golenbock D, Reed G, Akira S, Rock KL. MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals. J Clin Invest. 2006 Aug; 116(8):2262-71.
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        85. Visintin A, Iliev DB, Monks BG, Halmen KA, Golenbock DT. MD-2. Immunobiology. 2006; 211(6-8):437-47.
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        86. Lehnardt S, Henneke P, Lien E, Kasper DL, Volpe JJ, Bechmann I, Nitsch R, Weber JR, Golenbock DT, Vartanian T. A mechanism for neurodegeneration induced by group B streptococci through activation of the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in microglia. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 1; 177(1):583-92.
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        87. McGettrick AF, Brint EK, Palsson-McDermott EM, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT, Gay NJ, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. Trif-related adapter molecule is phosphorylated by PKC{epsilon} during Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 13; 103(24):9196-201.
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        88. Rowe DC, McGettrick AF, Latz E, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Yamamoto M, Akira S, O'Neill LA, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The myristoylation of TRIF-related adaptor molecule is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6299-304.
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        89. Cario E, Golenbock DT, Visintin A, Rünzi M, Gerken G, Podolsky DK. Trypsin-sensitive modulation of intestinal epithelial MD-2 as mechanism of lipopolysaccharide tolerance. J Immunol. 2006 Apr 1; 176(7):4258-66.
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        90. Knapp S, Florquin S, Golenbock DT, van der Poll T. Pulmonary lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein inhibits the LPS-induced lung inflammation in vivo. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):3189-95.
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        91. Kenzel S, Mancuso G, Malley R, Teti G, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. c-Jun kinase is a critical signaling molecule in a neonatal model of group B streptococcal sepsis. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):3181-8.
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        92. Massari P, Visintin A, Gunawardana J, Halmen KA, King CA, Golenbock DT, Wetzler LM. Meningococcal porin PorB binds to TLR2 and requires TLR1 for signaling. J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15; 176(4):2373-80.
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        93. Rogers KA, Rogers AB, Leav BA, Sanchez A, Vannier E, Uematsu S, Akira S, Golenbock D, Ward HD. MyD88-dependent pathways mediate resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2006 Jan; 74(1):549-56.
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        94. Santos-Sierra S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Toll-like receptor-dependent discrimination of streptococci. J Endotoxin Res. 2006; 12(5):307-12.
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        95. Kishimoto M, Yoshimura A, Naito M, Okamoto K, Yamamoto K, Golenbock DT, Hara Y, Nakayama K. Gingipains inactivate a cell surface ligand on Porphyromonas gingivalis that induces TLR2-and TLR4-independent signaling. Microbiol Immunol. 2006; 50(4):315-25.
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        96. Mann PB, Wolfe D, Latz E, Golenbock D, Preston A, Harvill ET. Comparative toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate host defense to Bordetella infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec; 73(12):8144-52.
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        97. Visintin A, Halmen KA, Latz E, Monks BG, Golenbock DT. Pharmacological inhibition of endotoxin responses is achieved by targeting the TLR4 coreceptor, MD-2. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15; 175(10):6465-72.
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        98. Romics L, Dolganiuc A, Velayudham A, Kodys K, Mandrekar P, Golenbock D, Kurt-Jones E, Szabo G. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates inflammatory cytokine induction but not sensitization for liver injury by Propioni- bacterium acnes. J Leukoc Biol. 2005 Dec; 78(6):1255-64.
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        99. Lauw FN, Caffrey DR, Golenbock DT. Of mice and man: TLR11 (finally) finds profilin. Trends Immunol. 2005 Oct; 26(10):509-11.
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        100. Srivastava A, Henneke P, Visintin A, Morse SC, Martin V, Watkins C, Paton JC, Wessels MR, Golenbock DT, Malley R. The apoptotic response to pneumolysin is Toll-like receptor 4 dependent and protects against pneumococcal disease. Infect Immun. 2005 Oct; 73(10):6479-87.
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        101. Yang X, Coriolan D, Schultz K, Golenbock DT, Beasley D. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates persistent chemokine release by Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected vascular smooth muscle cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Nov; 25(11):2308-14.
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        102. Triantafilou K, Orthopoulos G, Vakakis E, Ahmed MA, Golenbock DT, Lepper PM, Triantafilou M. Human cardiac inflammatory responses triggered by Coxsackie B viruses are mainly Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8-dependent. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Aug; 7(8):1117-26.
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        103. Branger J, Leemans JC, Florquin S, Speelman P, Golenbock DT, van der Poll T. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein-deficient mice have a normal defense against pulmonary mycobacterial infection. Clin Immunol. 2005 Aug; 116(2):174-81.
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        104. Boon Hinckley M, Reynolds CM, Ribeiro AA, McGrath SC, Cotter RJ, Lauw FN, Golenbock DT, Raetz CR. A Leptospira interrogans enzyme with similarity to yeast Ste14p that methylates the 1-phosphate group of lipid A. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 26; 280(34):30214-24.
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        105. Henneke P, Morath S, Uematsu S, Weichert S, Pfitzenmaier M, Takeuchi O, Müller A, Poyart C, Akira S, Berner R, Teti G, Geyer A, Hartung T, Trieu-Cuot P, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. Role of lipoteichoic acid in the phagocyte response to group B streptococcus. J Immunol. 2005 May 15; 174(10):6449-55.
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        106. Yang X, Coriolan D, Murthy V, Schultz K, Golenbock DT, Beasley D. Proinflammatory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells: role of efficient Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Sep; 289(3):H1069-76.
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        107. Divanovic S, Trompette A, Atabani SF, Madan R, Golenbock DT, Visintin A, Finberg RW, Tarakhovsky A, Vogel SN, Belkaid Y, Kurt-Jones EA, Karp CL. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by the Toll-like receptor homolog RP105. Nat Immunol. 2005 Jun; 6(6):571-8.
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        108. Zhou S, Kurt-Jones EA, Mandell L, Cerny A, Chan M, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW. MyD88 is critical for the development of innate and adaptive immunity during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2005 Mar; 35(3):822-30.
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        109. Means TK, Latz E, Hayashi F, Murali MR, Golenbock DT, Luster AD. Human lupus autoantibody-DNA complexes activate DCs through cooperation of CD32 and TLR9. J Clin Invest. 2005 Feb; 115(2):407-17.
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        110. Johnson AC, Heinzel FP, Diaconu E, Sun Y, Hise AG, Golenbock D, Lass JH, Pearlman E. Activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, and TLR9 in the mammalian cornea induces MyD88-dependent corneal inflammation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Feb; 46(2):589-95.
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        111. Schoenemeyer A, Barnes BJ, Mancl ME, Latz E, Goutagny N, Pitha PM, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The interferon regulatory factor, IRF5, is a central mediator of toll-like receptor 7 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29; 280(17):17005-12.
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        112. Divanovic S, Trompette A, Atabani SF, Madan R, Golenbock DT, Visintin A, Finberg RW, Tarakhovsky A, Vogel SN, Belkaid Y, Kurt-Jones EA, Karp CL. Inhibition of TLR-4/MD-2 signaling by RP105/MD-1. J Endotoxin Res. 2005; 11(6):363-8.
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        113. Kaneko T, Golenbock D, Silverman N. Peptidoglycan recognition by the Drosophila Imd pathway. J Endotoxin Res. 2005; 11(6):383-9.
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        114. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT. Endotoxin recognition and signal transduction by the TLR4/MD2-complex. Microbes Infect. 2004 Dec; 6(15):1361-7.
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        115. Golenbock DT. Introduction: Toll receptors come of age. Microbes Infect. 2004 Dec; 6(15):1349-50.
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        116. Oliveira AC, Peixoto JR, de Arruda LB, Campos MA, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT, Akira S, Previato JO, Mendonça-Previato L, Nobrega A, Bellio M. Expression of functional TLR4 confers proinflammatory responsiveness to Trypanosoma cruzi glycoinositolphospholipids and higher resistance to infection with T. cruzi. J Immunol. 2004 Nov 1; 173(9):5688-96.
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        117. Dolganiuc A, Oak S, Kodys K, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW, Kurt-Jones E, Szabo G. Hepatitis C core and nonstructural 3 proteins trigger toll-like receptor 2-mediated pathways and inflammatory activation. Gastroenterology. 2004 Nov; 127(5):1513-24.
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        118. Zamboni DS, Campos MA, Torrecilhas AC, Kiss K, Samuel JE, Golenbock DT, Lauw FN, Roy CR, Almeida IC, Gazzinelli RT. Stimulation of toll-like receptor 2 by Coxiella burnetii is required for macrophage production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and resistance to infection. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24; 279(52):54405-15.
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        119. Branger J, Florquin S, Knapp S, Leemans JC, Pater JM, Speelman P, Golenbock DT, van der Poll T. LPS-binding protein-deficient mice have an impaired defense against Gram-negative but not Gram-positive pneumonia. Int Immunol. 2004 Nov; 16(11):1605-11.
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        120. Wieland CW, Knapp S, Florquin S, de Vos AF, Takeda K, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Verbon A, van der Poll T. Non-mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan induces lung inflammation via toll-like receptor 2. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004 Dec 15; 170(12):1367-74.
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        121. Björkbacka H, Fitzgerald KA, Huet F, Li X, Gregory JA, Lee MA, Ordija CM, Dowley NE, Golenbock DT, Freeman MW. The induction of macrophage gene expression by LPS predominantly utilizes Myd88-independent signaling cascades. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Nov 17; 19(3):319-30.
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        122. Darrah PA, Monaco MC, Jain S, Hondalus MK, Golenbock DT, Mosser DM. Innate immune responses to Rhodococcus equi. J Immunol. 2004 Aug 1; 173(3):1914-24.
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        123. Mancuso G, Midiri A, Beninati C, Biondo C, Galbo R, Akira S, Henneke P, Golenbock D, Teti G. Dual role of TLR2 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 in a mouse model of invasive group B streptococcal disease. J Immunol. 2004 May 15; 172(10):6324-9.
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        124. Kaneko T, Goldman WE, Mellroth P, Steiner H, Fukase K, Kusumoto S, Harley W, Fox A, Golenbock D, Silverman N. Monomeric and polymeric gram-negative peptidoglycan but not purified LPS stimulate the Drosophila IMD pathway. Immunity. 2004 May; 20(5):637-49.
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        125. Liberati NT, Fitzgerald KA, Kim DH, Feinbaum R, Golenbock DT, Ausubel FM. Requirement for a conserved Toll/interleukin-1 resistance domain protein in the Caenorhabditis elegans immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27; 101(17):6593-8.
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        126. Björkbacka H, Kunjathoor VV, Moore KJ, Koehn S, Ordija CM, Lee MA, Means T, Halmen K, Luster AD, Golenbock DT, Freeman MW. Reduced atherosclerosis in MyD88-null mice links elevated serum cholesterol levels to activation of innate immunity signaling pathways. Nat Med. 2004 Apr; 10(4):416-21.
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        127. Hasebe A, Yoshimura A, Into T, Kataoka H, Tanaka S, Arakawa S, Ishikura H, Golenbock DT, Sugaya T, Tsuchida N, Kawanami M, Hara Y, Shibata K. Biological activities of Bacteroides forsythus lipoproteins and their possible pathological roles in periodontal disease. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1318-25.
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        128. Okusawa T, Fujita M, Nakamura J, Into T, Yasuda M, Yoshimura A, Hara Y, Hasebe A, Golenbock DT, Morita M, Kuroki Y, Ogawa T, Shibata K. Relationship between structures and biological activities of mycoplasmal diacylated lipopeptides and their recognition by toll-like receptors 2 and 6. Infect Immun. 2004 Mar; 72(3):1657-65.
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        129. Latz E, Franko J, Golenbock DT, Schreiber JR. Haemophilus influenzae type b-outer membrane protein complex glycoconjugate vaccine induces cytokine production by engaging human toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and requires the presence of TLR2 for optimal immunogenicity. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 15; 172(4):2431-8.
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        130. Latz E, Schoenemeyer A, Visintin A, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Knetter CF, Lien E, Nilsen NJ, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):190-8.
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        131. Henneke P, Golenbock DT. Phagocytosis, innate immunity, and host-pathogen specificity. J Exp Med. 2004 Jan 5; 199(1):1-4.
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        132. Latz E, Visintin A, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Mechanisms of TLR9 activation. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(6):406-12.
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        133. Finberg RW, Re F, Popova L, Golenbock DT, Kurt-Jones EA. Cell activation by Toll-like receptors: role of LBP and CD14. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(6):413-8.
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        134. McWhirter SM, Fitzgerald KA, Rosains J, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT, Maniatis T. IFN-regulatory factor 3-dependent gene expression is defective in Tbk1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jan 6; 101(1):233-8.
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        135. Lien E, Golenbock DT. Adjuvants and their signaling pathways: beyond TLRs. Nat Immunol. 2003 Dec; 4(12):1162-4.
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        136. Knapp S, de Vos AF, Florquin S, Golenbock DT, van der Poll T. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein is an essential component of the innate immune response to Escherichia coli peritonitis in mice. Infect Immun. 2003 Dec; 71(12):6747-53.
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        137. Latz E, Golenbock DT. Receptor "cross talk" in innate immunity. J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct; 112(8):1136-7.
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        138. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ, Caffrey DR, Visintin A, Latz E, Monks B, Pitha PM, Golenbock DT. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 6; 198(7):1043-55.
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        139. Sandor F, Latz E, Re F, Mandell L, Repik G, Golenbock DT, Espevik T, Kurt-Jones EA, Finberg RW. Importance of extra- and intracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 in NFkappa B signaling. J Cell Biol. 2003 Sep 15; 162(6):1099-110.
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        140. Visintin A, Latz E, Monks BG, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Lysines 128 and 132 enable lipopolysaccharide binding to MD-2, leading to Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):48313-20.
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        141. Huang LY, Aliberti J, Leifer CA, Segal DM, Sher A, Golenbock DT, Golding B. Heat-killed Brucella abortus induces TNF and IL-12p40 by distinct MyD88-dependent pathways: TNF, unlike IL-12p40 secretion, is Toll-like receptor 2 dependent. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1; 171(3):1441-6.
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        142. Sau K, Mambula SS, Latz E, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. The antifungal drug amphotericin B promotes inflammatory cytokine release by a Toll-like receptor- and CD14-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 26; 278(39):37561-8.
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        143. Fitzgerald KA, McWhirter SM, Faia KL, Rowe DC, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Coyle AJ, Liao SM, Maniatis T. IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003 May; 4(5):491-6.
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        144. Compton T, Kurt-Jones EA, Boehme KW, Belko J, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW. Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2003 Apr; 77(8):4588-96.
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        145. Malley R, Henneke P, Morse SC, Cieslewicz MJ, Lipsitch M, Thompson CM, Kurt-Jones E, Paton JC, Wessels MR, Golenbock DT. Recognition of pneumolysin by Toll-like receptor 4 confers resistance to pneumococcal infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 18; 100(4):1966-71.
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        146. Latz E, Visintin A, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. The LPS receptor generates inflammatory signals from the cell surface. J Endotoxin Res. 2003; 9(6):375-80.
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        147. Espevik T, Latz E, Lien E, Monks B, Golenbock DT. Cell distributions and functions of Toll-like receptor 4 studied by fluorescent gene constructs. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003; 35(9):660-4.
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        148. Medvedev AE, Lentschat A, Wahl LM, Golenbock DT, Vogel SN. Dysregulation of LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4-MyD88 complex formation and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 activation in endotoxin-tolerant cells. J Immunol. 2002 Nov 1; 169(9):5209-16.
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        149. Yang KK, Dorner BG, Merkel U, Ryffel B, Schütt C, Golenbock D, Freeman MW, Jack RS. Neutrophil influx in response to a peritoneal infection with Salmonella is delayed in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or CD14-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 15; 169(8):4475-80.
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        150. Henneke P, Takeuchi O, Malley R, Lien E, Ingalls RR, Freeman MW, Mayadas T, Nizet V, Akira S, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. Cellular activation, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity against group B streptococcus involve parallel myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and independent signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2002 Oct 1; 169(7):3970-7.
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        151. van der Kleij D, Latz E, Brouwers JF, Kruize YC, Schmitz M, Kurt-Jones EA, Espevik T, de Jong EC, Kapsenberg ML, Golenbock DT, Tielens AG, Yazdanbakhsh M. A novel host-parasite lipid cross-talk. Schistosomal lyso-phosphatidylserine activates toll-like receptor 2 and affects immune polarization. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 13; 277(50):48122-9.
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        152. Latz E, Visintin A, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Kurt-Jones EA, Golenbock DT, Espevik T. Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex in a process that is distinct from the initiation of signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 6; 277(49):47834-43.
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        153. Mambula SS, Sau K, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in response to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Biol Chem. 2002 Oct 18; 277(42):39320-6.
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        154. Flo TH, Ryan L, Latz E, Takeuchi O, Monks BG, Lien E, Halaas Ø, Akira S, Skjåk-Braek G, Golenbock DT, Espevik T. Involvement of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in cell activation by mannuronic acid polymers. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 20; 277(38):35489-95.
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        155. Guillot L, Balloy V, McCormack FX, Golenbock DT, Chignard M, Si-Tahar M. Cutting edge: the immunostimulatory activity of the lung surfactant protein-A involves Toll-like receptor 4. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15; 168(12):5989-92.
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        156. Fierer J, Swancutt MA, Heumann D, Golenbock D. The role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein in resistance to Salmonella infections in mice. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15; 168(12):6396-403.
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        157. Triantafilou M, Miyake K, Golenbock DT, Triantafilou K. Mediators of innate immune recognition of bacteria concentrate in lipid rafts and facilitate lipopolysaccharide-induced cell activation. J Cell Sci. 2002 Jun 15; 115(Pt 12):2603-11.
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        158. Henneke P, Golenbock DT. Innate immune recognition of lipopolysaccharide by endothelial cells. Crit Care Med. 2002 May; 30(5 Suppl):S207-13.
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        159. Ellingsen E, Morath S, Flo T, Schromm A, Hartung T, Thiemermann C, Espevik T, Golenbock D, Foster D, Solberg R, Aasen A, Wang J. Induction of cytokine production in human T cells and monocytes by highly purified lipoteichoic acid: involvement of Toll-like receptors and CD14. Med Sci Monit. 2002 May; 8(5):BR149-56.
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        160. Massari P, Henneke P, Ho Y, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Wetzler LM. Cutting edge: Immune stimulation by neisserial porins is toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88 dependent. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 15; 168(4):1533-7.
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        161. Yoshimura A, Kaneko T, Kato Y, Golenbock DT, Hara Y. Lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Capnocytophaga ochracea are antagonists for human toll-like receptor 4. Infect Immun. 2002 Jan; 70(1):218-25.
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        162. Henneke P, Takeuchi O, van Strijp JA, Guttormsen HK, Smith JA, Schromm AB, Espevik TA, Akira S, Nizet V, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. Novel engagement of CD14 and multiple toll-like receptors by group B streptococci. J Immunol. 2001 Dec 15; 167(12):7069-76.
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        163. Henneke P, Golenbock DT. TIRAP: how Toll receptors fraternize. Nat Immunol. 2001 Sep; 2(9):828-30.
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        164. Medvedev AE, Henneke P, Schromm A, Lien E, Ingalls R, Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT, Vogel SN. Induction of tolerance to lipopolysaccharide and mycobacterial components in Chinese hamster ovary/CD14 cells is not affected by overexpression of Toll-like receptors 2 or 4. J Immunol. 2001 Aug 15; 167(4):2257-67.
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        165. Sasu S, LaVerda D, Qureshi N, Golenbock DT, Beasley D. Chlamydia pneumoniae and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 stimulate proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells via toll-like receptor 4 and p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Circ Res. 2001 Aug 3; 89(3):244-50.
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        166. Noss EH, Pai RK, Sellati TJ, Radolf JD, Belisle J, Golenbock DT, Boom WH, Harding CV. Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inhibition of macrophage class II MHC expression and antigen processing by 19-kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 15; 167(2):910-8.
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        167. Schromm AB, Lien E, Henneke P, Chow JC, Yoshimura A, Heine H, Latz E, Monks BG, Schwartz DA, Miyake K, Golenbock DT. Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line: a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling. J Exp Med. 2001 Jul 2; 194(1):79-88.
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        168. Campos MA, Almeida IC, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Valente EP, Procópio DO, Travassos LR, Smith JA, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors from a protozoan parasite. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 1; 167(1):416-23.
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        169. Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. Extolling the diversity of bacterial endotoxins. Nat Immunol. 2001 Apr; 2(4):286-8.
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        170. Ingalls RR, Lien E, Golenbock DT. Membrane-associated proteins of a lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of Neisseria meningitidis activate the inflammatory response through toll-like receptor 2. Infect Immun. 2001 Apr; 69(4):2230-6.
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        171. Shoham S, Huang C, Chen JM, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule. J Immunol. 2001 Apr 1; 166(7):4620-6.
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        172. Means TK, Jones BW, Schromm AB, Shurtleff BA, Smith JA, Keane J, Golenbock DT, Vogel SN, Fenton MJ. Differential effects of a Toll-like receptor antagonist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced macrophage responses. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 15; 166(6):4074-82.
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        173. Bernheiden M, Heinrich JM, Minigo G, Schütt C, Stelter F, Freeman M, Golenbock D, Jack RS. LBP, CD14, TLR4 and the murine innate immune response to a peritoneal Salmonella infection. J Endotoxin Res. 2001; 7(6):447-50.
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        174. Means TK, Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. Structure and function of Toll-like receptor proteins. Life Sci. 2000 Dec 8; 68(3):241-58.
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        175. Flo TH, Ryan L, Kilaas L, Skjâk-Braek G, Ingalls RR, Sundan A, Golenbock DT, Espevik T. Involvement of CD14 and beta2-integrins in activating cells with soluble and particulate lipopolysaccharides and mannuronic acid polymers. Infect Immun. 2000 Dec; 68(12):6770-6.
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        176. Kurt-Jones EA, Popova L, Kwinn L, Haynes LM, Jones LP, Tripp RA, Walsh EE, Freeman MW, Golenbock DT, Anderson LJ, Finberg RW. Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus. Nat Immunol. 2000 Nov; 1(5):398-401.
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        177. Moore KJ, Andersson LP, Ingalls RR, Monks BG, Li R, Arnaout MA, Golenbock DT, Freeman MW. Divergent response to LPS and bacteria in CD14-deficient murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2000 Oct 15; 165(8):4272-80.
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        178. Lien E, Chow JC, Hawkins LD, McGuinness PD, Miyake K, Espevik T, Gusovsky F, Golenbock DT. A novel synthetic acyclic lipid A-like agonist activates cells via the lipopolysaccharide/toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 19; 276(3):1873-80.
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        179. Means TK, Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. The biology of Toll-like receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2000 Sep; 11(3):219-32.
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        180. Flo TH, Halaas O, Lien E, Ryan L, Teti G, Golenbock DT, Sundan A, Espevik T. Human toll-like receptor 2 mediates monocyte activation by Listeria monocytogenes, but not by group B streptococci or lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2000 Feb 15; 164(4):2064-9.
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        181. Lien E, Means TK, Heine H, Yoshimura A, Kusumoto S, Fukase K, Fenton MJ, Oikawa M, Qureshi N, Monks B, Finberg RW, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. Toll-like receptor 4 imparts ligand-specific recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(4):497-504.
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        182. Yoshimura A, Takada H, Kaneko T, Kato I, Golenbock D, Hara Y. Structural requirements of muramylpeptides for induction of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappaB activation in CHO cells. J Endotoxin Res. 2000; 6(5):407-10.
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        183. Ingalls RR, Lien E, Golenbock DT. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in the host response to Gram-negative bacteria: lessons from a lipopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of Neisseria meningitidis. J Endotoxin Res. 2000; 6(5):411-5.
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        184. Means TK, Lien E, Yoshimura A, Wang S, Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. The CD14 ligands lipoarabinomannan and lipopolysaccharide differ in their requirement for Toll-like receptors. J Immunol. 1999 Dec 15; 163(12):6748-55.
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        185. Lien E, Sellati TJ, Yoshimura A, Flo TH, Rawadi G, Finberg RW, Carroll JD, Espevik T, Ingalls RR, Radolf JD, Golenbock DT. Toll-like receptor 2 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for diverse bacterial products. J Biol Chem. 1999 Nov 19; 274(47):33419-25.
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        186. Means TK, Wang S, Lien E, Yoshimura A, Golenbock DT, Fenton MJ. Human toll-like receptors mediate cellular activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol. 1999 Oct 1; 163(7):3920-7.
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        187. Heine H, Delude RL, Monks BG, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces expression of the stress response genes hop and H411. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 23; 274(30):21049-55.
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        188. Yoshimura A, Lien E, Ingalls RR, Tuomanen E, Dziarski R, Golenbock D. Cutting edge: recognition of Gram-positive bacterial cell wall components by the innate immune system occurs via Toll-like receptor 2. J Immunol. 1999 Jul 1; 163(1):1-5.
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        189. Heine H, Kirschning CJ, Lien E, Monks BG, Rothe M, Golenbock DT. Cutting edge: cells that carry A null allele for toll-like receptor 2 are capable of responding to endotoxin. J Immunol. 1999 Jun 15; 162(12):6971-5.
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        190. Bhat N, Perera PY, Carboni JM, Blanco J, Golenbock DT, Mayadas TN, Vogel SN. Use of a photoactivatable taxol analogue to identify unique cellular targets in murine macrophages: identification of murine CD18 as a major taxol-binding protein and a role for Mac-1 in taxol-induced gene expression. J Immunol. 1999 Jun 15; 162(12):7335-42.
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        191. Ingalls RR, Heine H, Lien E, Yoshimura A, Golenbock D. Lipopolysaccharide recognition, CD14, and lipopolysaccharide receptors. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Jun; 13(2):341-53, vii.
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        192. Ingalls RR, Monks BG, Golenbock DT. Membrane expression of soluble endotoxin-binding proteins permits lipopolysaccharide signaling in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts independently of CD14. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 14; 274(20):13993-8.
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        193. Kalayoglu MV, Miranpuri GS, Golenbock DT, Byrne GI. Characterization of low-density lipoprotein uptake by murine macrophages exposed to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Microbes Infect. 1999 May; 1(6):409-18.
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        194. Chow JC, Young DW, Golenbock DT, Christ WJ, Gusovsky F. Toll-like receptor-4 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 16; 274(16):10689-92.
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        195. Solomon KR, Kurt-Jones EA, Saladino RA, Stack AM, Dunn IF, Ferretti M, Golenbock D, Fleisher GR, Finberg RW. Heterotrimeric G proteins physically associated with the lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 modulate both in vivo and in vitro responses to lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Invest. 1998 Dec 1; 102(11):2019-27.
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        196. Ingalls RR, Monks BG, Savedra R, Christ WJ, Delude RL, Medvedev AE, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. CD11/CD18 and CD14 share a common lipid A signaling pathway. J Immunol. 1998 Nov 15; 161(10):5413-20.
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        197. Bliss CM, Golenbock DT, Keates S, Linevsky JK, Kelly CP. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide binds to CD14 and stimulates release of interleukin-8, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 by human monocytes. Infect Immun. 1998 Nov; 66(11):5357-63.
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        198. Delude RL, Yoshimura A, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. Construction of a lipopolysaccharide reporter cell line and its use in identifying mutants defective in endotoxin, but not TNF-alpha, signal transduction. J Immunol. 1998 Sep 15; 161(6):3001-9.
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        199. Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. LPS-binding proteins and receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 1998 Jul; 64(1):25-32.
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        200. Medvedev AE, Flo T, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT, Teti G, Vogel SN, Espevik T. Involvement of CD14 and complement receptors CR3 and CR4 in nuclear factor-kappaB activation and TNF production induced by lipopolysaccharide and group B streptococcal cell walls. J Immunol. 1998 May 1; 160(9):4535-42.
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        201. Ingalls RR, Arnaout MA, Delude RL, Flaherty S, Savedra R, Golenbock DT. The CD11/CD18 integrins: characterization of three novel LPS signaling receptors. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1998; 397:107-17.
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        202. Wurfel MM, Monks BG, Ingalls RR, Dedrick RL, Delude R, Zhou D, Lamping N, Schumann RR, Thieringer R, Fenton MJ, Wright SD, Golenbock D. Targeted deletion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein gene leads to profound suppression of LPS responses ex vivo, whereas in vivo responses remain intact. J Exp Med. 1997 Dec 15; 186(12):2051-6.
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        203. Flaherty SF, Golenbock DT, Milham FH, Ingalls RR. CD11/CD18 leukocyte integrins: new signaling receptors for bacterial endotoxin. J Surg Res. 1997 Nov; 73(1):85-9.
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        204. Pollack M, Ohl CA, Golenbock DT, Di Padova F, Wahl LM, Koles NL, Guelde G, Monks BG. Dual effects of LPS antibodies on cellular uptake of LPS and LPS-induced proinflammatory functions. J Immunol. 1997 Oct 1; 159(7):3519-30.
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        205. Ryan LK, Golenbock DT, Wu J, Vermeulen MW. Characterization of proinflammatory cytokine production and CD14 expression by murine alveolar macrophage cell lines. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1997 Sep; 33(8):647-53.
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        206. Ingalls RR, Arnaout MA, Golenbock DT. Outside-in signaling by lipopolysaccharide through a tailless integrin. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 1; 159(1):433-8.
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        207. Qureshi N, Kaltashov I, Walker K, Doroshenko V, Cotter RJ, Takayama K, Sievert TR, Rice PA, Lin JS, Golenbock DT. Structure of the monophosphoryl lipid A moiety obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Biol Chem. 1997 Apr 18; 272(16):10594-600.
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        208. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kozel TR, MacGill RS, Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans to heterologously expressed human complement receptors. Infect Immun. 1997 Mar; 65(3):931-5.
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        209. Lodie TA, Savedra R, Golenbock DT, Van Beveren CP, Maki RA, Fenton MJ. Stimulation of macrophages by lipopolysaccharide alters the phosphorylation state, conformation, and function of PU.1 via activation of casein kinase II. J Immunol. 1997 Feb 15; 158(4):1848-56.
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        210. Lo SK, Golenbock DT, Sass PM, Maskati A, Xu H, Silverstein RL. Engagement of the Lewis X antigen (CD15) results in monocyte activation. Blood. 1997 Jan 1; 89(1):307-14.
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        211. Savedra R, Delude RL, Ingalls RR, Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan recognition requires a receptor that shares components of the endotoxin signaling system. J Immunol. 1996 Sep 15; 157(6):2549-54.
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        212. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Nong SH, Golenbock DT. Effects of interleukin-10 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, and lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1996 Mar; 64(3):945-51.
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        213. Delude RL, Savedra R, Zhao H, Thieringer R, Yamamoto S, Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. CD14 enhances cellular responses to endotoxin without imparting ligand-specific recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Sep 26; 92(20):9288-92.
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        214. Ingalls RR, Rice PA, Qureshi N, Takayama K, Lin JS, Golenbock DT. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated. Infect Immun. 1995 Aug; 63(8):3125-30.
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        215. Golenbock DT, Bach RR, Lichenstein H, Juan TS, Tadavarthy A, Moldow CF. Soluble CD14 promotes LPS activation of CD14-deficient PNH monocytes and endothelial cells. J Lab Clin Med. 1995 May; 125(5):662-71.
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        216. Ingalls RR, Golenbock DT. CD11c/CD18, a transmembrane signaling receptor for lipopolysaccharide. J Exp Med. 1995 Apr 1; 181(4):1473-9.
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        217. Stern A, Engelhardt R, Foster C, Golenbock D, Hildebrandt J, Landmann R, Mayer P, Stütz P. SDZ MRL 953, a lipid A analog as selective cytokine inducer. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995; 392:549-65.
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        218. Delude RL, Savedra R, Yamamoto S, Golenbock DT. Use of CD14 transfected cells to study LPS-antagonist action. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995; 392:487-97.
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        219. Fagan MA, Liu Y, Stütz P, Vyplel H, Golenbock DT. Acyclic analogue of lipid A stimulates TNF-alpha and arachidonate release via a unique LPS-signaling pathway. J Immunol. 1994 Dec 1; 153(11):5230-8.
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        220. Delude RL, Fenton MJ, Savedra R, Perera PY, Vogel SN, Thieringer R, Golenbock DT. CD14-mediated translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B induced by lipopolysaccharide does not require tyrosine kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 2; 269(35):22253-60.
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        221. Levitz SM, Tabuni A, Kornfeld H, Reardon CC, Golenbock DT. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha in human leukocytes stimulated by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect Immun. 1994 May; 62(5):1975-81.
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        222. Golenbock DT, Liu Y, Millham FH, Freeman MW, Zoeller RA. Surface expression of human CD14 in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblasts imparts macrophage-like responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin. J Biol Chem. 1993 Oct 15; 268(29):22055-9.
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        223. Lynn WA, Liu Y, Golenbock DT. Neither CD14 nor serum is absolutely necessary for activation of mononuclear phagocytes by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1993 Oct; 61(10):4452-61.
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        224. Lynn WA, Golenbock DT. Lipopolysaccharide antagonists. Immunol Today. 1992 Jul; 13(7):271-6.
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        225. Lynn WA, Raetz CR, Qureshi N, Golenbock DT. Lipopolysaccharide-induced stimulation of CD11b/CD18 expression on neutrophils. Evidence of specific receptor-based response and inhibition by lipid A-based antagonists. J Immunol. 1991 Nov 1; 147(9):3072-9.
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        226. Golenbock DT, Hampton RY, Qureshi N, Takayama K, Raetz CR. Lipid A-like molecules that antagonize the effects of endotoxins on human monocytes. J Biol Chem. 1991 Oct 15; 266(29):19490-8.
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        227. Hampton RY, Golenbock DT, Penman M, Krieger M, Raetz CR. Recognition and plasma clearance of endotoxin by scavenger receptors. Nature. 1991 Jul 25; 352(6333):342-4.
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        228. Golenbock DT, Hampton RY, Raetz CR, Wright SD. Human phagocytes have multiple lipid A-binding sites. Infect Immun. 1990 Dec; 58(12):4069-75.
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        229. Relman D, Tuomanen E, Falkow S, Golenbock DT, Saukkonen K, Wright SD. Recognition of a bacterial adhesion by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (alpha M beta 2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis. Cell. 1990 Jun 29; 61(7):1375-82.
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        230. Birkland TP, Cornwell RD, Golenbock DT, Proctor RA. Comparative study of lipopolysaccharide-, lipid IVa-, and lipid X-induced tumor necrosis factor production in murine macrophage-like cell lines. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990; 256:399-402.
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        231. Cornwell RD, Golenbock DT, Proctor RA. Lipopolysaccharide, but not lethal infection, releases tumor necrosis factor in mice. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990; 256:585-8.
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        232. Hampton RY, Golenbock DT, Raetz CR. Lipid A binding sites in membranes of macrophage tumor cells. J Biol Chem. 1988 Oct 15; 263(29):14802-7.
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        233. Golenbock DT, Leggett JE, Rasmussen P, Craig WA, Raetz CR, Proctor RA. Lipid X protects mice against fatal Escherichia coli infection. Infect Immun. 1988 Apr; 56(4):779-84.
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        234. Raetz CR, Brozek KA, Clementz T, Coleman JD, Galloway SM, Golenbock DT, Hampton RY. Gram-negative endotoxin: a biologically active lipid. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1988; 53 Pt 2:973-82.
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        235. Golenbock DT, Ebert S, Will JA, Proctor RA. Elimination and tissue distribution of the monosaccharide lipid A precursor, lipid X, in mice and sheep. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988 Jan; 32(1):37-41.
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        236. Golenbock DT, Will JA, Raetz CR, Proctor RA. Lipid X ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and protects sheep from death due to endotoxin. Infect Immun. 1987 Oct; 55(10):2471-6.
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