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Dorothy P Schafer PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Ave North
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentBrudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeuroNexus Institute

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentPostbaccalaureate Research Education Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentTranslational Science

    InstitutionUMass Chan Programs, Centers and Institutes
    DepartmentBrudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA, United StatesBANeuroscience
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United StatesPHDNeuroscience
    Collapse awards and honors
    2017 - 2019Young Investigator Grant, NARSAD
    2016 - 2018Child Health Research Award, Charles H. Hood Foundation
    2016 - 2017Biomedical Research Award, Worcester Foundation
    2014 - 2018K99/R00 Career Transition Award, NIMH
    2012 - 2013Postdoctoral Fellowship Award, Nancy Lurie Marks
    2010 - 2011Bok Center distinction for excellence in teaching, Harvard University
    2010 - 2012NRSA F32 Postdoctoral Fellowship, NINDS
    2010 - 2011Marian Keyes Award for outstanding graduate work, American Society for Neurochemistry
    2007 - 2007Lepow Award for outstanding graduate work, University of Connecticut Health Center

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview


    Dori Schafer earned her Bachelor’s degree in Neuroscience and Behaviour from Mount Holyoke College in 2001. She attended graduate school at the University of Connecticut Health Center in Matthew Rasband’s lab where she used rodent models to study neuron-glia interactions regulating assembly and maintenance of functional, polarized domains along the axon, nodes of Ranvier and axon initial segments. Upon completion of her PhD in 2008, she began her postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Beth Stevens at Boston Children’s Hospital. While in the Stevens lab (2008-2014), she studied the role of microglia, the resident CNS myeloid-derived cell, in mammalian synapse development and plasticity.  She was hired in 2015 as a tenure-track Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurobiology at The University of Massachusetts Medical School. Her laboratory utilizes a combination of molecular biology and high resolution static and live imaging to understand how neurons and glia communicate with one another to regulating synapse development and plasticity.

    Microglia-Synapse Interactions Regulating Neural Circuit Development, Plasticity, and Dysfunction. The nervous and immune systems are comprised of vastly different cell types long thought to perform separable and distinct physiological functions. Unexpectedly, these seemingly disparate systems are, in fact, working in concert. At the center are microglia, the resident central nervous system (CNS) macrophages, which were recently identified by us and others as key regulators of synapse number in the developing brain. Specifically, we identified that microglia regulate the elimination of excess synaptic connections that form in the developing rodent visual system by engulfing a subset of less active synapses. These results have changed how we think about microglia function (~5-10% of brain cells) and the importance is emphasized in devastating neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g. autism and schizophrenia) as well as neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, etc.) where to few or too many synaptic connections coupled with abnormally reactive microglia are characteristic features and, perhaps, causative in disease. The overall goal of my research is to achieve a deep understanding of how microglia regulate synapse development, maintenance, and plasticity in the healthy brain and determine whether these mechanisms are dysregulated in disorders of the nervous system. The primary disorders we are currently focused on include autism, schizophrenia, ALS, and multiple sclerosis. We are now focused on the following main questions:

    1) How do microglia respond on a cellular and molecular level to changes in neural activity and sensory experience ?

    2) Are microglial necessary for remodeling of neural circuits in response to changes in sensory experience?

    3) Do microglia regulate abnormal synaptic connectivity in neurological disease?

    To address these questions, the lab has developed novel strategies to image glia-synaptic circuit interactions by high resolution static imaging as well as 2-photon in vivo live imaging in behaving mice. In addition, we have implemented cutting-edge molecular genetic techniques to dissect microglia-specific mechanisms underlying synapse development, plasticity, and function.

     For more information please visit our website: https://www.schaferlabumms.com


    Collapse Rotation Projects

    There are a variety of rotation projects that use a variety of imaging and biochemical techniques to assess microglial function in the CNS. The main projects are highlighted below.

    1.  Dissecting novel molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function at synapses.

    2. Exploring new roles for microglia in the spread of neuroinflammation in neurological disease.

    3. Identifying novel ways microglia regulate other glial cell populations (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) in the CNS.

    Collapse Featured Content 
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Cordano C, Werneburg S, Abdelhak A, Bennett DJ, Beaudry-Richard A, Duncan GJ, Oertel FC, Boscardin WJ, Yiu HH, Jabassini N, Merritt L, Nocera S, Sin JH, Samana IP, Condor Montes SY, Ananth K, Bischof A, Nourbakhsh B, Hauser SL, Cree BAC, Emery B, Schafer DP, Chan JR, Green AJ. Synaptic injury in the inner plexiform layer of the retina is associated with progression in multiple sclerosis. Cell Rep Med. 2024 Mar 26; 101490. PMID: 38574736.
    2. Funes S, Jung J, Gadd DH, Mosqueda M, Zhong J, Unger M, Stallworth K, Cameron D, Rotunno MS, Dawes P, Fowler-Magaw M, Keagle PJ, McDonough JA, Boopathy S, Sena-Esteves M, Nickerson JA, Lutz C, Skarnes WC, Lim ET, Schafer DP, Massi F, Landers JE, Bosco DA. Expression of ALS-PFN1 impairs vesicular degradation in iPSC-derived microglia. Nat Commun. 2024 Mar 20; 15(1):2497. PMID: 38509062.
    3. Faust TE, Lee YH, O'Connor CD, Boyle MA, Gunner G, Badimon A, Ayata P, Schaefer A, Schafer DP. Microglia-astrocyte crosstalk regulates synapse remodeling via Wnt signaling. bioRxiv. 2024 Feb 09. PMID: 38370645.
    4. Dur?n Laforet V, Schafer DP. Microglia: Activity-dependent regulators of neural circuits. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2024 03; 1533(1):38-50. PMID: 38294960.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    5. Stillman JM, Mendes Lopes F, Lin JP, Hu K, Reich DS, Schafer DP. Lipofuscin-like autofluorescence within microglia and its impact on studying microglial engulfment. Nat Commun. 2023 11 03; 14(1):7060. PMID: 37923732.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Lin JP, Brake A, Donadieu M, Lee A, Kawaguchi R, Sati P, Geschwind DH, Jacobson S, Schafer DP, Reich DS. A 4D transcriptomic map for the evolution of multiple sclerosis-like lesions in the marmoset brain. bioRxiv. 2023 Sep 27. PMID: 37808784.
    7. Faust TE, Feinberg PA, O'Connor C, Kawaguchi R, Chan A, Strasburger H, Frosch M, Boyle MA, Masuda T, Amann L, Knobeloch KP, Prinz M, Schaefer A, Schafer DP. A comparative analysis of microglial inducible Cre lines. Cell Rep. 2023 09 26; 42(9):113031. PMID: 37635351.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Funes S, Gadd DH, Mosqueda M, Zhong J, Jung J, Unger M, Cameron D, Dawes P, Keagle PJ, McDonough JA, Boopathy S, Sena-Esteves M, Lutz C, Skarnes WC, Lim ET, Schafer DP, Massi F, Landers JE, Bosco DA. Expression of ALS-PFN1 impairs vesicular degradation in iPSC-derived microglia. bioRxiv. 2023 Jun 01. PMID: 37398081.
    9. Zipp F, Bittner S, Schafer DP. Cytokines as emerging regulators of central nervous system synapses. Immunity. 2023 05 09; 56(5):914-925. PMID: 37163992.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    10. Wayne CR, Bremner L, Faust TE, Dur?n-Laforet V, Ampatey N, Ho SJ, Feinberg PA, Arvanitis P, Ciric B, Ruan C, Elyaman W, Delaney SL, Vargas WS, Swedo S, Menon V, Schafer DP, Cutforth T, Agalliu D. Distinct Th17 effector cytokines differentially promote microglial and blood-brain barrier inflammatory responses during post-infectious encephalitis. bioRxiv. 2023 May 09. PMID: 37215000.
    11. Zhong J, Gunner G, Henninger N, Schafer DP, Bosco DA. Intravital Imaging of Fluorescent Protein Expression in Mice with a Closed-Skull Traumatic Brain Injury and Cranial Window Using a Two-Photon Microscope. J Vis Exp. 2023 04 21; (194). PMID: 37154548.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Stillman JM, Lopes FM, Lin JP, Hu K, Reich DS, Schafer DP. Lipofuscin-like autofluorescence within microglia and its impact on studying microglial engulfment. bioRxiv. 2023 Mar 01. PMID: 36909485.
    13. Robert SM, Reeves BC, Kiziltug E, Duy PQ, Karimy JK, Mansuri MS, Marlier A, Allington G, Greenberg ABW, DeSpenza T, Singh AK, Zeng X, Mekbib KY, Kundishora AJ, Nelson-Williams C, Hao LT, Zhang J, Lam TT, Wilson R, Butler WE, Diluna ML, Feinberg P, Schafer DP, Movahedi K, Tannenbaum A, Koundal S, Chen X, Benveniste H, Limbrick DD, Schiff SJ, Carter BS, Gunel M, Simard JM, Lifton RP, Alper SL, Delpire E, Kahle KT. The choroid plexus links innate immunity to CSF dysregulation in hydrocephalus. Cell. 2023 02 16; 186(4):764-785.e21. PMID: 36803604.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Beccari S, Sierra-Torre V, Valero J, Pereira-Iglesias M, Garc?a-Zaballa M, Soria FN, De Las Heras-Garcia L, Carretero-Guillen A, Capetillo-Zarate E, Domercq M, Huguet PR, Ramonet D, Osman A, Han W, Dominguez C, Faust TE, Touzani O, Pampliega O, Boya P, Schafer D, Mari?o G, Canet-Soulas E, Blomgren K, Plaza-Zabala A, Sierra A. Microglial phagocytosis dysfunction in stroke is driven by energy depletion and induction of autophagy. Autophagy. 2023 07; 19(7):1952-1981. PMID: 36622892.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Faust TE, Feinberg PA, O'Connor C, Kawaguchi R, Chan A, Strasburger H, Masuda T, Amann L, Knobeloch KP, Prinz M, Schaefer A, Schafer DP. A comparative analysis of microglial inducible Cre lines. bioRxiv. 2023 Jan 09. PMID: 36711492.
    16. Jiang D, Burger CA, Akhanov V, Liang JH, Mackin RD, Albrecht NE, Andrade P, Schafer DP, Samuel MA. Neuronal signal-regulatory protein alpha drives microglial phagocytosis by limiting microglial interaction with CD47 in the retina. Immunity. 2022 12 13; 55(12):2318-2335.e7. PMID: 36379210.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Paolicelli RC, Sierra A, Stevens B, Tremblay ME, Aguzzi A, Ajami B, Amit I, Audinat E, Bechmann I, Bennett M, Bennett F, Bessis A, Biber K, Bilbo S, Blurton-Jones M, Boddeke E, Brites D, Br?ne B, Brown GC, Butovsky O, Carson MJ, Castellano B, Colonna M, Cowley SA, Cunningham C, Davalos D, De Jager PL, de Strooper B, Denes A, Eggen BJL, Eyo U, Galea E, Garel S, Ginhoux F, Glass CK, Gokce O, Gomez-Nicola D, Gonz?lez B, Gordon S, Graeber MB, Greenhalgh AD, Gressens P, Greter M, Gutmann DH, Haass C, Heneka MT, Heppner FL, Hong S, Hume DA, Jung S, Kettenmann H, Kipnis J, Koyama R, Lemke G, Lynch M, Majewska A, Malcangio M, Malm T, Mancuso R, Masuda T, Matteoli M, McColl BW, Miron VE, Molofsky AV, Monje M, Mracsko E, Nadjar A, Neher JJ, Neniskyte U, Neumann H, Noda M, Peng B, Peri F, Perry VH, Popovich PG, Pridans C, Priller J, Prinz M, Ragozzino D, Ransohoff RM, Salter MW, Schaefer A, Schafer DP, Schwartz M, Simons M, Smith CJ, Streit WJ, Tay TL, Tsai LH, Verkhratsky A, von Bernhardi R, Wake H, Wittamer V, Wolf SA, Wu LJ, Wyss-Coray T. Microglia states and nomenclature: A field at its crossroads. Neuron. 2022 11 02; 110(21):3458-3483. PMID: 36327895.
      Citations: 225     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    18. Schafer DP, Stillman JM. Microglia are SYK of A? and cell debris. Cell. 2022 Oct 27; 185(22):4043-4045. PMID: 36306731.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    19. Feinberg PA, Becker SC, Chung L, Ferrari L, Stellwagen D, Anaclet C, Dur?n-Laforet V, Faust TE, Sumbria RK, Schafer DP. Elevated TNF-a Leads to Neural Circuit Instability in the Absence of Interferon Regulatory Factor 8. J Neurosci. 2022 08 10; 42(32):6171-6185. PMID: 35790400.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    20. Ivshina MP, van 't Spijker HM, Jung S, Ponny SR, Schafer DP, Richter JD. CPEB1 regulates the inflammatory immune response, phagocytosis, and alternative polyadenylation in microglia. Glia. 2022 10; 70(10):1850-1863. PMID: 35635122.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Eitan C, Siany A, Barkan E, Olender T, van Eijk KR, Moisse M, Farhan SMK, Danino YM, Yanowski E, Marmor-Kollet H, Rivkin N, Yacovzada NS, Hung ST, Cooper-Knock J, Yu CH, Louis C, Masters SL, Kenna KP, van der Spek RAA, Sproviero W, Al Khleifat A, Iacoangeli A, Shatunov A, Jones AR, Elbaz-Alon Y, Cohen Y, Chapnik E, Rothschild D, Weissbrod O, Beck G, Ainbinder E, Ben-Dor S, Werneburg S, Schafer DP, Brown RH, Shaw PJ, Van Damme P, van den Berg LH, Phatnani H, Segal E, Ichida JK, Al-Chalabi A, Veldink JH, Hornstein E. Whole-genome sequencing reveals that variants in the Interleukin 18 Receptor Accessory Protein 3'UTR protect against ALS. Nat Neurosci. 2022 04; 25(4):433-445. PMID: 35361972.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    22. Wang IH, Murray E, Andrews G, Jiang HC, Park SJ, Donnard E, Dur?n-Laforet V, Bear DM, Faust TE, Garber M, Baer CE, Schafer DP, Weng Z, Chen F, Macosko EZ, Greer PL. Spatial transcriptomic reconstruction of the mouse olfactory glomerular map suggests principles of odor processing. Nat Neurosci. 2022 04; 25(4):484-492. PMID: 35314823.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Faust TE, Schafer DP. IL-6 boosts synaptogenesis STAT! Immunity. 2021 11 09; 54(11):2444-2446. PMID: 34758335.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    24. Faust TE, Gunner G, Schafer DP. Mechanisms governing activity-dependent synaptic pruning in the developing mammalian CNS. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2021 11; 22(11):657-673. PMID: 34545240.
      Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    25. Absinta M, Maric D, Gharagozloo M, Garton T, Smith MD, Jin J, Fitzgerald KC, Song A, Liu P, Lin JP, Wu T, Johnson KR, McGavern DB, Schafer DP, Calabresi PA, Reich DS. A lymphocyte-microglia-astrocyte axis in chronic active multiple sclerosis. Nature. 2021 09; 597(7878):709-714. PMID: 34497421.
      Citations: 151     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Schirmer L, Schafer DP, Bartels T, Rowitch DH, Calabresi PA. Diversity and Function of Glial Cell Types in Multiple Sclerosis. Trends Immunol. 2021 03; 42(3):228-247. PMID: 33593693.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Lowe PP, Morel C, Ambade A, Iracheta-Vellve A, Kwiatkowski E, Satishchandran A, Furi I, Cho Y, Gyongyosi B, Catalano D, Lefebvre E, Fischer L, Seyedkazemi S, Schafer DP, Szabo G. Chronic alcohol-induced neuroinflammation involves CCR2/5-dependent peripheral macrophage infiltration and microglia alterations. J Neuroinflammation. 2020 Oct 09; 17(1):296. PMID: 33036616.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Mondo E, Becker SC, Kautzman AG, Schifferer M, Baer CE, Chen J, Huang EJ, Simons M, Schafer DP. A Developmental Analysis of Juxtavascular Microglia Dynamics and Interactions with the Vasculature. J Neurosci. 2020 08 19; 40(34):6503-6521. PMID: 32661024.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Werneburg S, Jung J, Kunjamma RB, Ha SK, Luciano NJ, Willis CM, Gao G, Biscola NP, Havton LA, Crocker SJ, Popko B, Reich DS, Schafer DP. Targeted Complement Inhibition at Synapses Prevents Microglial Synaptic Engulfment and Synapse Loss in Demyelinating Disease. Immunity. 2020 01 14; 52(1):167-182.e7. PMID: 31883839.
      Citations: 144     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Schirmer L, Velmeshev D, Holmqvist S, Kaufmann M, Werneburg S, Jung D, Vistnes S, Stockley JH, Young A, Steindel M, Tung B, Goyal N, Bhaduri A, Mayer S, Engler JB, Bayraktar OA, Franklin RJM, Haeussler M, Reynolds R, Schafer DP, Friese MA, Shiow LR, Kriegstein AR, Rowitch DH. Neuronal vulnerability and multilineage diversity in multiple sclerosis. Nature. 2019 09; 573(7772):75-82. PMID: 31316211.
      Citations: 207     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Gunner G, Cheadle L, Johnson KM, Ayata P, Badimon A, Mondo E, Nagy MA, Liu L, Bemiller SM, Kim KW, Lira SA, Lamb BT, Tapper AR, Ransohoff RM, Greenberg ME, Schaefer A, Schafer DP. Sensory lesioning induces microglial synapse elimination via ADAM10 and fractalkine signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2019 07; 22(7):1075-1088. PMID: 31209379.
      Citations: 116     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Baror R, Neumann B, Segel M, Chalut KJ, Fancy SPJ, Schafer DP, Franklin RJM. Transforming growth factor-beta renders ageing microglia inhibitory to oligodendrocyte generation by CNS progenitors. Glia. 2019 07; 67(7):1374-1384. PMID: 30861188.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Anderson SR, Zhang J, Steele MR, Romero CO, Kautzman AG, Schafer DP, Vetter ML. Complement Targets Newborn Retinal Ganglion Cells for Phagocytic Elimination by Microglia. J Neurosci. 2019 03 13; 39(11):2025-2040. PMID: 30647151.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Stevens B, Schafer DP. Roles of microglia in nervous system development, plasticity, and disease. Dev Neurobiol. 2018 Jun; 78(6):559-560. PMID: 29704318.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Werneburg S, Feinberg PA, Johnson KM, Schafer DP. A microglia-cytokine axis to modulate synaptic connectivity and function. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017 12; 47:138-145. PMID: 29096242.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Schafer DP, Heller CT, Gunner G, Heller M, Gordon C, Hammond T, Wolf Y, Jung S, Stevens B. Microglia contribute to circuit defects in Mecp2 null mice independent of microglia-specific loss of Mecp2 expression. Elife. 2016 07 26; 5. PMID: 27458802.
      Citations: 70     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Frost JL, Schafer DP. Microglia: Architects of the Developing Nervous System. Trends Cell Biol. 2016 08; 26(8):587-597. PMID: 27004698.
      Citations: 150     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Ransohoff RM, Schafer D, Vincent A, Blach?re NE, Bar-Or A. Neuroinflammation: Ways in Which the Immune System Affects the Brain. Neurotherapeutics. 2015 Oct; 12(4):896-909. PMID: 26306439.
      Citations: 99     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    39. Schafer DP, Stevens B. Microglia Function in Central Nervous System Development and Plasticity. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015 Jul 17; 7(10):a020545. PMID: 26187728.
      Citations: 162     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Schafer DP, Stevens B. Brains, Blood, and Guts: MeCP2 Regulates Microglia, Monocytes, and Peripheral Macrophages. Immunity. 2015 Apr 21; 42(4):600-2. PMID: 25902477.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Goldey GJ, Roumis DK, Glickfeld LL, Kerlin AM, Reid RC, Bonin V, Schafer DP, Andermann ML. Removable cranial windows for long-term imaging in awake mice. Nat Protoc. 2014 Nov; 9(11):2515-2538. PMID: 25275789.
      Citations: 168     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    42. Schafer DP, Lehrman EK, Heller CT, Stevens B. An engulfment assay: a protocol to assess interactions between CNS phagocytes and neurons. J Vis Exp. 2014 Jun 08; (88). PMID: 24962472.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Schafer DP, Stevens B. Phagocytic glial cells: sculpting synaptic circuits in the developing nervous system. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Dec; 23(6):1034-40. PMID: 24157239.
      Citations: 101     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Schafer DP, Lehrman EK, Stevens B. The "quad-partite" synapse: microglia-synapse interactions in the developing and mature CNS. Glia. 2013 Jan; 61(1):24-36. PMID: 22829357.
      Citations: 251     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Schafer DP, Lehrman EK, Kautzman AG, Koyama R, Mardinly AR, Yamasaki R, Ransohoff RM, Greenberg ME, Barres BA, Stevens B. Microglia sculpt postnatal neural circuits in an activity and complement-dependent manner. Neuron. 2012 May 24; 74(4):691-705. PMID: 22632727.
      Citations: 1749     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Susuki K, Yuki N, Schafer DP, Hirata K, Zhang G, Funakoshi K, Rasband MN. Dysfunction of nodes of Ranvier: a mechanism for anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated neuropathies. Exp Neurol. 2012 Jan; 233(1):534-42. PMID: 22178332.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Schafer DP, Stevens B. Synapse elimination during development and disease: immune molecules take centre stage. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010 Apr; 38(2):476-81. PMID: 20298206.
      Citations: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Schafer DP, Jha S, Liu F, Akella T, McCullough LD, Rasband MN. Disruption of the axon initial segment cytoskeleton is a new mechanism for neuronal injury. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 21; 29(42):13242-54. PMID: 19846712.
      Citations: 131     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Liu F, Schafer DP, McCullough LD. TTC, fluoro-Jade B and NeuN staining confirm evolving phases of infarction induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Apr 30; 179(1):1-8. PMID: 19167427.
      Citations: 135     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Schafer DP, Rasband MN. Glial regulation of the axonal membrane at nodes of Ranvier. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Oct; 16(5):508-14. PMID: 16945520.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Ogawa Y, Schafer DP, Horresh I, Bar V, Hales K, Yang Y, Susuki K, Peles E, Stankewich MC, Rasband MN. Spectrins and ankyrinB constitute a specialized paranodal cytoskeleton. J Neurosci. 2006 May 10; 26(19):5230-9. PMID: 16687515.
      Citations: 100     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Schafer DP, Custer AW, Shrager P, Rasband MN. Early events in node of Ranvier formation during myelination and remyelination in the PNS. Neuron Glia Biol. 2006 May; 2(2):69-79. PMID: 16652168.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    
    53. Schafer DP, Bansal R, Hedstrom KL, Pfeiffer SE, Rasband MN. Does paranode formation and maintenance require partitioning of neurofascin 155 into lipid rafts? J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 31; 24(13):3176-85. PMID: 15056697.
      Citations: 72     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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