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Shan Lu MD, PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMedicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
364 Plantation Street, LRB
Worcester MA 01605
Phone508-856-6791
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    DivisionGeneral Internal Medicine

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentClinical Population Health Research

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
    DepartmentCenter for AIDS Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Clark University, Worcester, MA, United StatesMHAHealth Administration
    Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, , ChinaMD
    University of Massachusetts Medical School Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Worcester, MA, United StatesPHDImmunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Academic Background

    MD, 1982, Nanjing Medical College
    PhD, 1991, UMass Worcester

    Immunogenicity of Protein Antigens

    Photo: 
Shan LuOur main interest is to understand the immunogenicity of proteinantigens. The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelopeproteins (Env) is used as a model system in our lab. Env, a two-subunitprotein, is generated during the posttranslational cleavage processfrom a single precursor polyprotein. Env heterodimers are furtherorganized into an oligomeric complex. Env conformation is criticalfor the interaction of HIV-1 with a number of viral receptors. Our work is to understand the immunogenicity of various Env subunitsfrom different HIV-1 strains and to find the Env structures thatHIV-1 uses to escape from host immune surveillance. Such informationwill be used to design noval HIV-1 vaccines. Direct DNA immunizationusing eukaryotic expression vectors to make proteins in vivo isa unique approach we have been using to study the immunogenicityof protein antigens. We are also working to further improve thisevolving technology by studying the roles of cytokines and adjuvantsin inducing the desired immune responses by direct DNA immunization.



    Collapse Rotation Projects

    Additional information about lab rotations within the CPHR program can be found athttp://www.umassmed.edu/cphr/program/rotations.aspx




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Costa MR, Pollara J, Edwards RW, Seaman MS, Gorny MK, Montefiori DC, Liao HX, Ferrari G, Lu S, Wang S. Fc Receptor-Mediated Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV Vaccine DP6-001. J Virol. 2016 Nov 15; 90(22):10362-10378. PMID: 27630232.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Zhang WW, Lü SC, Shi XJ, Gu WQ, Chen YL, Zhang WZ, Jiang K, Wang J, Huang XQ, Xia HT, Huang ZQ, Lu SC. [Analysis of disease spectrum of biliary surgery among 30 years in a single center]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016 Jun 28; 96(24):1912-5. PMID: 27373359.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Suschak JJ, Wang S, Fitzgerald KA, Lu S. A cGAS-Independent STING/IRF7 Pathway Mediates the Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccines. J Immunol. 2016 Jan 01; 196(1):310-6. PMID: 26590319.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Suschak JJ, Wang S, Fitzgerald KA, Lu S. Identification of Aim2 as a sensor for DNA vaccines. J Immunol. 2015 Jan 15; 194(2):630-6. PMID: 25488991.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Lu S. Using convalescent whole blood or plasma as passive immune therapy for the global war against Ebola. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014 Nov; 3(11):e80. PMID: 26038502.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Palace SG, Proulx MK, Lu S, Baker RE, Goguen JD. Genome-wide mutant fitness profiling identifies nutritional requirements for optimal growth of Yersinia pestis in deep tissue. MBio. 2014 Aug 19; 5(4). PMID: 25139902.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Haran JP, Hayward G, Skinner S, Merritt C, Hoaglin DC, Hibberd PL, Lu S, Boyer EW. Factors influencing the development of antibiotic associated diarrhea in ED patients discharged home: risk of administering IV antibiotics. Am J Emerg Med. 2014 Oct; 32(10):1195-9. PMID: 25149599.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Pouliot K, Buglione-Corbett R, Marty-Roix R, Montminy-Paquette S, West K, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E. Contribution of TLR4 and MyD88 for adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) activity in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Sep 3; 32(39):5049-56. PMID: 25045815.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Haran JP, Hoaglin DC, Chen H, Boyer EW, Lu S. Antigen-specific H1N1 influenza antibody responses in acute respiratory tract infections and their relation to influenza infection and disease course. J Clin Virol. 2014 Aug; 60(4):367-73. PMID: 24930707.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Lu S. Editorial overview: vaccines against challenging viral pathogens and new vaccine technology. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Jun; 6:viii-ix. PMID: 24831092.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lu S. EV71 vaccines: a milestone in the history of global vaccine development. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014 Apr; 3(4):e27. PMID: 26038519.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chen Y, Wang S, Lu S. DNA Immunization for HIV Vaccine Development. Vaccines (Basel). 2014 Feb 25; 2(1):138-59. PMID: 26344472.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, Li W, West K, Wang S, Morelli AB, Lien E, Lu S. Reduced MyD88 dependency of ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(4):1078-90. PMID: 24513632.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Lu S. Novel vaccine technology and the future of vaccine science. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(5):1143-6. PMID: 25290657.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Li W, Wang S, Lu S. Pilot Study on the Use of DNA Priming Immunization to Enhance Y. pestis LcrV-Specific B Cell Responses Elicited by a Recombinant LcrV Protein Vaccine. Vaccines (Basel). 2013 Dec 27; 2(1):36-48. PMID: 26344467.
      View in: PubMed
    16. E X, Savidis G, Chin CR, Wang S, Lu S, Brass AL, Kowalik TF. A novel DDB2-ATM feedback loop regulates human cytomegalovirus replication. J Virol. 2014 Feb; 88(4):2279-90. PMID: 24335308.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Wang S, Lu S. DNA immunization. Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2013 Nov 05; 31:18.3.1-18.3.24. PMID: 24510291.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, West K, Wang S, Lien E, Lu S. Serum cytokine profiles associated with specific adjuvants used in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74820. PMID: 24019983.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Wallace A, West K, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Lu S, Wang S. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2095-102. PMID: 23941868.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Gil A, Shen S, Coley S, Gibson L, Diamond DJ, Wang S, Lu S. DNA vaccine prime followed by boost with live attenuated virus significantly improves antigen-specific T cell responses against human cytomegalovirus. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2120-32. PMID: 24051429.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Almansour I, Chen H, Wang S, Lu S. Cross reactivity of serum antibody responses elicited by DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens from H1N1 subtype influenza vaccines in the past 30 years. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct; 9(10):2049-59. PMID: 23884239.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Chen Y, Vaine M, Wallace A, Han D, Wan S, Seaman MS, Montefiori D, Wang S, Lu S. A novel rabbit monoclonal antibody platform to dissect the diverse repertoire of antibody epitopes for HIV-1 Env immunogen design. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10232-43. PMID: 23864612.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Haran JP, Buglione-Corbett R, Lu S. Cytokine markers as predictors of type of respiratory infection in patients during the influenza season. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 May; 31(5):816-21. PMID: 23481156.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Li WH, Li CY, Yang HB, Zhang HP, Zhang X, Kong LS, Xu XN, Lu SC, Yan HP. Human leucocyte antigen-Bw4 and Gag-specific T cell responses are associated with slow disease progression in HIV-1B-infected anti-retroviral therapy-naive Chinese. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Mar; 171(3):298-306. PMID: 23379436; PMCID: PMC3569537.
    25. Wang S, Kishko M, Wan S, Wang Y, Brewster F, Gray GE, Violari A, Sullivan JL, Somasundaran M, Luzuriaga K, Lu S. Pilot study on the immunogenicity of paired Env immunogens from mother-to-child transmitted HIV-1 isolates. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012 Nov 1; 8(11):1638-47. PMID: 23151449.
      View in: PubMed
    26. O'Connell O, Repik A, Reeves JD, Gonzalez-Perez MP, Quitadamo B, Anton ED, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Lin R, Zolla-Pazner S, Corti D, Wallace A, Wang S, Kong XP, Lu S, Clapham PR. Efficiency of bridging-sheet recruitment explains HIV-1 R5 envelope glycoprotein sensitivity to soluble CD4 and macrophage tropism. J Virol. 2013 Jan; 87(1):187-98. PMID: 23055568.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Haran JP, Beaudoin FL, Suner S, Lu S. C-reactive protein as predictor of bacterial infection among patients with an influenza-like illness. Am J Emerg Med. 2013 Jan; 31(1):137-44. PMID: 22944552.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Xiaofei E, Stadler BM, Debatis M, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(10):5660-73. PMID: 22438545.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Lu S. Two is better than one. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 11(12):889-91. PMID: 21975267.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Clapham PR, Lu S. Vaccinology: precisely tuned antibodies nab HIV. Nature. 2011 Sep 22; 477(7365):416-7. PMID: 21938063.
      View in: PubMed
    31. E X, Pickering MT, Debatis M, Castillo J, Lagadinos A, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. An E2F1-mediated DNA damage response contributes to the replication of human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001342. PMID: 21589897.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Vaine M, Duenas-Decamp M, Peters P, Liu Q, Arthos J, Wang S, Clapham P, Lu S. Two closely related Env antigens from the same patient elicited different spectra of neutralizing antibodies against heterologous HIV-1 isolates. J Virol. 2011 May; 85(10):4927-36. PMID: 21411542.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Wang S, Goguen JD, Li F, Lu S. Involvement of CD8+ T cell-mediated immune responses in LcrV DNA vaccine induced protection against lethal Yersinia pestis challenge. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 9; 29(39):6802-9. PMID: 21199697.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Lu S, Grimes Serrano JM, Wang S. Polyvalent AIDS vaccines. Curr HIV Res. 2010 Dec; 8(8):622-9. PMID: 21054250.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Vaine M, Wang S, Liu Q, Arthos J, Montefiori D, Goepfert P, McElrath MJ, Lu S. Profiles of human serum antibody responses elicited by three leading HIV vaccines focusing on the induction of Env-specific antibodies. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 09; 5(11):e13916. PMID: 21085486.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Wang Z, Zhang M, Wang Y, Jiao Y, Zhang L, Li L, Huang Z, Wu H, Li J, Lu S, Wang S. A versatile vector for the production of pseudotyped viruses expressing gp120 antigens from different clades of primary HIV-1 isolates. J Virol Methods. 2011 Jan; 171(1):183-9. PMID: 21034776.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Bardag-Gorce F, Li J, Oliva J, Lu SC, French BA, French SW. The cyclic pattern of blood alcohol levels during continuous ethanol feeding in rats: the effect of feeding S-adenosylmethionine. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010 Jun; 88(3):380-7. PMID: 20303346.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Wang S, Mboudjeka I, Goguen JD, Lu S. Antigen engineering can play a critical role in the protective immunity elicited by Yersinia pestis DNA vaccines. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 23; 28(8):2011-9. PMID: 20188257.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Vaine M, Wang S, Hackett A, Arthos J, Lu S. Antibody responses elicited through homologous or heterologous prime-boost DNA and protein vaccinations differ in functional activity and avidity. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 9; 28(17):2999-3007. PMID: 20170767.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Abdel-Motal UM, Wang S, Awad A, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of HIV-1 p24 and gp120 following immunization with gp120/p24 fusion protein vaccine expressing alpha-gal epitopes. Vaccine. 2010 Feb 17; 28(7):1758-65. PMID: 20034607.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lu S, Wang S. Technical transformation of biodefense vaccines. Vaccine. 2009 Nov 5; 27 Suppl 4:D8-D15. PMID: 19837293.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Lu S. Gene-based adjuvants: a new meaning. Hum Gene Ther. 2009 Oct; 20(10):1101-2. PMID: 19848597.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Lu S. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 21(3):346-51. PMID: 19500964.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Vaine M, Lu S, Wang S. Progress on the induction of neutralizing antibodies against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). BioDrugs. 2009; 23(3):137-53. PMID: 19627166.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Lu S. Immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in humans: it takes two to tango. Hum Vaccin. 2008 Nov-Dec; 4(6):449-52. PMID: 18443427.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 23; 26(31):3947-57. PMID: 18724414.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Kennedy JS, Co M, Green S, Longtine K, Longtine J, O'Neill MA, Adams JP, Rothman AL, Yu Q, Johnson-Leva R, Pal R, Wang S, Lu S, Markham P. The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Aug 18; 26(35):4420-4. PMID: 18588934.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Vaine M, Wang S, Crooks ET, Jiang P, Montefiori DC, Binley J, Lu S. Improved induction of antibodies against key neutralizing epitopes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 DNA prime-protein boost vaccination compared to gp120 protein-only vaccination. J Virol. 2008 Aug; 82(15):7369-78. PMID: 18495775.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Wang S, Parker C, Taaffe J, Solórzano A, García-Sastre A, Lu S. Heterologous HA DNA vaccine prime--inactivated influenza vaccine boost is more effective than using DNA or inactivated vaccine alone in eliciting antibody responses against H1 or H3 serotype influenza viruses. Vaccine. 2008 Jul 4; 26(29-30):3626-33. PMID: 18538900.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Lu S, Wang S, Grimes-Serrano JM. Current progress of DNA vaccine studies in humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008 Mar; 7(2):175-91. PMID: 18324888.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Wang S, Joshi S, Mboudjeka I, Liu F, Ling T, Goguen JD, Lu S. Relative immunogenicity and protection potential of candidate Yersinia Pestis antigens against lethal mucosal plague challenge in Balb/C mice. Vaccine. 2008 Mar 20; 26(13):1664-74. PMID: 18291562.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Wang S, Kennedy JS, West K, Montefiori DC, Coley S, Lawrence J, Shen S, Green S, Rothman AL, Ennis FA, Arthos J, Pal R, Markham P, Lu S. Cross-subtype antibody and cellular immune responses induced by a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine in healthy human volunteers. Vaccine. 2008 Feb 20; 26(8):1098-110. PMID: 18243434.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Zhang C, Chou TH, Kishko M, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of subunit-based smallpox vaccines using variola major antigens. Virology. 2008 Feb 5; 371(1):98-107. PMID: 17950773.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Pouliot K, Pan N, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E, Goguen JD. Evaluation of the role of LcrV-Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immunomodulation in the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 2007 Jul; 75(7):3571-80. PMID: 17438030.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Shen S, Wang S, Britt WJ, Lu S. DNA vaccines expressing glycoprotein complex II antigens gM and gN elicited neutralizing antibodies against multiple human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) isolates. Vaccine. 2007 Apr 30; 25(17):3319-27. PMID: 17287056.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Lin JS, Chang SR, Chang CH, Lu SC, Chen H. CMOS-micromachined, two-dimenisional transistor arrays for neural recording and stimulation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007; 2007:2365-8. PMID: 18002468.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Lu S. Combination DNA plus protein HIV vaccines. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2006 Nov; 28(3):255-65. PMID: 17021720.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Wang S, Taaffe J, Parker C, Solórzano A, Cao H, García-Sastre A, Lu S. Hemagglutinin (HA) proteins from H1 and H3 serotypes of influenza A viruses require different antigen designs for the induction of optimal protective antibody responses as studied by codon-optimized HA DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2006 Dec; 80(23):11628-37. PMID: 16987975.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Sakhatskyy P, Wang S, Chou TH, Lu S. Immunogenicity and protection efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent poxvirus vaccines that include the D8 antigen. Virology. 2006 Nov 25; 355(2):164-74. PMID: 16919703.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Biswas S, Langeveld JP, Tipper D, Lu S. Intracellular accumulation of a 46 kDa species of mouse prion protein as a result of loss of glycosylation in cultured mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Oct 13; 349(1):153-61. PMID: 16935263.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Abdel-Motal U, Wang S, Lu S, Wigglesworth K, Galili U. Increased immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus gp120 engineered to express Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAc-R epitopes. J Virol. 2006 Jul; 80(14):6943-51. PMID: 16809300.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Wang S, Pal R, Mascola JR, Chou TH, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Liu Q, Whitney S, Keen T, Nair BC, Kalyanaraman VS, Markham P, Lu S. Polyvalent HIV-1 Env vaccine formulations delivered by the DNA priming plus protein boosting approach are effective in generating neutralizing antibodies against primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from subtypes A, B, C, D and E. Virology. 2006 Jun 20; 350(1):34-47. PMID: 16616287.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Wang S, Farfan-Arribas DJ, Shen S, Chou TH, Hirsch A, He F, Lu S. Relative contributions of codon usage, promoter efficiency and leader sequence to the antigen expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2006 May 22; 24(21):4531-40. PMID: 16140431.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Wang S, Arthos J, Lawrence JM, Van Ryk D, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Montefiori DC, Lu S. Enhanced immunogenicity of gp120 protein when combined with recombinant DNA priming to generate antibodies that neutralize the JR-FL primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2005 Jun; 79(12):7933-7. PMID: 15919951.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Wang S, Sakhatskyy P, Chou TH, Lu S. Assays for the assessment of neutralizing antibody activities against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated coronavirus (SCV). J Immunol Methods. 2005 Jun; 301(1-2):21-30. PMID: 15894326.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Chou TH, Wang S, Sakhatskyy PV, Mboudjeka I, Mboudoudjeck I, Lawrence JM, Huang S, Coley S, Yang B, Li J, Zhu Q, Lu S. Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Virology. 2005 Mar 30; 334(1):134-43. PMID: 15749129.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Wang S, Chou TH, Sakhatskyy PV, Huang S, Lawrence JM, Cao H, Huang X, Lu S. Identification of two neutralizing regions on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein produced from the mammalian expression system. J Virol. 2005 Feb; 79(3):1906-10. PMID: 15650214.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Wang S, Heilman D, Liu F, Giehl T, Joshi S, Huang X, Chou TH, Goguen J, Lu S. A DNA vaccine producing LcrV antigen in oligomers is effective in protecting mice from lethal mucosal challenge of plague. Vaccine. 2004 Sep 3; 22(25-26):3348-57. PMID: 15308359.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Liu F, Mboudjeka I, Shen S, Chou TH, Wang S, Ross TM, Lu S. Independent but not synergistic enhancement to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine expressing HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein by codon optimization and C3d fusion in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2004 Apr 16; 22(13-14):1764-72. PMID: 15068860.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Wang S, Joshi S, Lu S. Delivery of DNA to skin by particle bombardment. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:185-96. PMID: 14707379.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Chou TH, Biswas S, Lu S. Gene delivery using physical methods: an overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2004; 245:147-66. PMID: 14707376.
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    72. Yang H, Wang J, Huang ZZ, Ou X, Lu SC. Cloning and characterization of the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Biochem J. 2001 Jul 15; 357(Pt 2):447-55. PMID: 11439094.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Yang H, Wang J, Ou X, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Cloning and analysis of the rat glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit promoter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 13; 285(2):476-82. PMID: 11444867.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Yang H, Huang ZZ, Wang J, Lu SC. The role of c-Myb and Sp1 in the up-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma. FASEB J. 2001 Jul; 15(9):1507-16. PMID: 11427482.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Lu SC, Alvarez L, Huang ZZ, Chen L, An W, Corrales FJ, Avila MA, Kanel G, Mato JM. Methionine adenosyltransferase 1A knockout mice are predisposed to liver injury and exhibit increased expression of genes involved in proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 May 8; 98(10):5560-5. PMID: 11320206.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Yang H, Huang ZZ, Zeng Z, Chen C, Selby RR, Lu SC. Role of promoter methylation in increased methionine adenosyltransferase 2A expression in human liver cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Feb; 280(2):G184-90. PMID: 11208539.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Zeng Z, Yang H, Huang ZZ, Chen C, Wang J, Lu SC. The role of c-Myb in the up-regulation of methionine adenosyltransferase 2A expression in activated Jurkat cells. Biochem J. 2001 Jan 1; 353(Pt 1):163-168. PMID: 11115410.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Huang ZZ, Chen C, Zeng Z, Yang H, Oh J, Chen L, Lu SC. Mechanism and significance of increased glutathione level in human hepatocellular carcinoma and liver regeneration. FASEB J. 2001 Jan; 15(1):19-21. PMID: 11099488.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Huang ZA, Yang H, Chen C, Zeng Z, Lu SC. Inducers of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and their effects on glutathione synthetase expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Sep 7; 1493(1-2):48-55. PMID: 10978506.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang H, Mato JM, Avila MA, Tsukamoto H. Changes in methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine homeostasis in alcoholic rat liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2000 Jul; 279(1):G178-85. PMID: 10898761.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Cheng PN, Chang TT, Yang MH, Hu SC, Young KC, Wu HL, Jen CM, Ko AW, Lu SC. GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus infection in a hepatitis C virus endemic village: prevalence in residents with low educational attainment and frequent recovery in females. Liver. 2000 Jun; 20(3):222-7. PMID: 10902972.
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    82. Zeng Z, Huang ZZ, Chen C, Yang H, Mao Z, Lu SC. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of human methionine adenosyltransferase 1A gene. Biochem J. 2000 Mar 1; 346 Pt 2:475-82. PMID: 10677369.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Chu CY, Yang CY, Huang SF, Lu SC, Wang LF. Lichen planus with xanthomatous change in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. Br J Dermatol. 2000 Feb; 142(2):377-8. PMID: 10730783.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang H, Tsukamoto H. Effect of thioacetamide on the hepatic expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunits in the Rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Sep 15; 159(3):161-8. PMID: 10486302.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Lu SC, Huang ZZ, Yang JM, Tsukamoto H. Effect of ethanol and high-fat feeding on hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit expression in the rat. Hepatology. 1999 Jul; 30(1):209-14. PMID: 10385658.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Lu SC, Bao Y, Huang ZZ, Sarthy VP, Kannan R. Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene expression in retinal Müller cells by oxidative stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jul; 40(8):1776-82. PMID: 10393048.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Huang ZZ, Mato JM, Kanel G, Lu SC. Differential effect of thioacetamide on hepatic methionine adenosyltransferase expression in the rat. Hepatology. 1999 May; 29(5):1471-8. PMID: 10216131.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Mao Z, Liu S, Cai J, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Cloning and functional characterization of the 5'-flanking region of human methionine adenosyltransferase 2A gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jul 30; 248(3):479-84. PMID: 9703951.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Wang CC, Lu SC, Chen HL, Liao TH. Porcine spleen deoxyribonuclease II. Covalent structure, cDNA sequence, molecular cloning, and gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 03; 273(27):17192-8. PMID: 9642288.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Huang ZZ, Mao Z, Cai J, Lu SC. Changes in methionine adenosyltransferase during liver regeneration in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1998 Jul; 275(1 Pt 1):G14-21. PMID: 9655679.
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    91. Huang HC, Wang SC, Leu YJ, Lu SC, Liao YD. The Rana catesbeiana rcr gene encoding a cytotoxic ribonuclease. Tissue distribution, cloning, purification, cytotoxicity, and active residues for RNase activity. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 13; 273(11):6395-401. PMID: 9497370.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Huang ZZ, Li H, Cai J, Kuhlenkamp J, Kaplowitz N, Lu SC. Changes in glutathione homeostasis during liver regeneration in the rat. Hepatology. 1998 Jan; 27(1):147-53. PMID: 9425930.
      View in: PubMed
    93. Cai J, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Differential regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy and light subunit gene expression. Biochem J. 1997 Aug 15; 326 ( Pt 1):167-72. PMID: 9337864.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Lu SC, Kuhlenkamp J, Wu H, Sun WM, Stone L, Kaplowitz N. Progressive defect in biliary GSH secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Feb; 272(2 Pt 1):G374-82. PMID: 9124363.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Sun WM, Huang ZZ, Lu SC. Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by protein phosphorylation. Biochem J. 1996 Nov 15; 320 ( Pt 1):321-8. PMID: 8947504.
      View in: PubMed
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