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Susan L Swain PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentPathology
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentPathology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH, United StatesBABiology
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United StatesPHDImmunology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Research and Professional Experience:

    1976-1977 Lecturer, UCSD, La Jolla, CA
    1976-1981 Assistant Research Biologist, UCSD
    1981-1984 Associate Research Biologist, UCSD
    1984-1989 Associate Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
    1989-1995 Professor of Biology in Residence, UCSD
    1985-1996 Member, UCSD Cancer Center, San Diego, CA
    1996-2007 Director, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    1996-present Member, Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    1996-2007 Edward C. Brewster Chair, Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, NY
    1998-present Adjunct Professor, Dept of Micro, Immunol & Mol. Gen, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY
    2001-present Adjunct Professor, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT
    2003-2007 President,Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY
    2008-2010 President Emeritus, Trudeau Institute
    2010 Professor of Pathology, UMASS Medical School, Worcester, MA

    Study Sections and Advisory Panels: Past:NIH Immunobiology Study Section (1984-1988); AIDS Basic Research Advisory Committee, NIAID (1990-1992); National Taskforce on Aging, NIA/NIAID (1994); FY1997 AIDS Planning Committee (1995); Ad Hoc Member, Board of Scientific Councilors NIAID (1995, 2000); Scientific Advisory Board, Inst. for Advanced Studies in Immunol. Aging (1996-1999); Reviewer's Reserve, NIH (1988-present); NHLBI SCOR Review in Asthma Panel (2001); Board of Scientific Councilors, National Institute of Aging (2001-2006), Arthritis Review Panel in Cellular Immunology (1996-1998); Board of Trustees, Ordway Institute, Albany, NY (2001-2005), External Advisory Committee, University of Montana COBRE (2005-2007). External Advisory Board Duke University Dept. of Immunology (2008), Current: Board of Directors La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology (2004-present), Selection Committee Albany Medical Prize (2005-present), External Advisory Committee (EAC): Wistar BAA (2006-present) and Dartmouth University COBRE (2007-present). National Advisory Council on Aging 2008-2012, Scientific Advisory Board La Jolla Institute of Allergy and Immunology 2008-present, Advisory Group Aeras 2007-present, Distinguished Editorial Panel NIAID (2009), Council, NIAID (Ad Hoc, 2009)

    Editorial Boards:Past: Lymphokines (1985-1988); Journal of Immunology Associate Editor (1985-1987), Section Editor (1987-1991), Primary Reviewer (1997-present); International Immunology (1988-present); Cellular Immunology (1988-present); Cell (1990-1992); Current Opinion in Immunology, issue editor (1994, 1996, 2003, 2009); Current Biology (1994), Journal of Experimental Medicine (1997-2008), Current: Deputy Editor, Journal of Immunology 2008-2012, Faculty of 1000, Section Leader (2002-present).

    Meeting Organization: Workshop on T and B Cell Memory (1993, 1998); Midwinter Immunology Conference Council (1992), Midwinter Conference of Immunologists (1996); Keystone Symposium on Lymphocyte Activation (1996); International Cytokine Conference (1997); Delegate IUIS (2002-2006), Workshop on Immunity and Aging, Trudeau Institute, NY (2004); Cold Spring Harbor Vaccine Meeting (2005, 2007, 2009), Keystone Symposium on Immunological Memory (2007), FASEB Summer Conference (2008, 2010).

    Community Service:American Association of Immunology: Committee on Women (1988-1994), Program Committee (1988-1994); Chair, T Cell Block for FASEB Meeting (1992-1995); Nominations Committee (Elected, 1991, 1995,1996). Publication Committee (Elected, 1994-1998).

    Elected Positions: Council Member, American Association of Immunologists (1999-2006); Electorate Nominating Committee of the Section on Medical Sciences, AAAS (2004); President, American Association of Immunologists (2004).

    Honors and Awards:Phi Beta Kappa, Magna Cum Laude, B.A. (1968); Sigma Xi (1972); Established Investigator, American Heart Association (1981-1986); NIH Merit Award (1995, 2005); New York State Woman of Distinction (2002); Fellow of the American Association for Advancement of Science (2007); American Association of Immunologists Lifetime Achievement Award (2010).

    Dr. Susan SwainOur past research has focused on defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CD4 T cells contribute to immunity. In particular we have 1) Defined, generated and determined the function of T cell subsets at the effector stage; 2) Studied the requirements for the generation of long-live memory CD4 T cells and their role in protection against influenza infection and 3) Analyzed the defects that develop in T cell function with aging and the causes of those defects.

    Our top priorities at this time are to discover new basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that are used by memory CD4 T cells to provide effective immunity to infectious diseases and to better define the age-associated defects in CD4 T cells that contribute to poor immunity of the aged and to discover strategies to overcome those defects.



    Collapse Rotation Projects

    Rotations: Projects in the following areas

    CD4 T cell memory. We can generate in vitro CD4 T cells that are for all extents and purposes identical to the memory CD4 T cells observed in vivo. In situ memory CD4 T cells persist at very low frequency and in most instances it is difficult to analyze them thoroughly using tetramer or multimer reagents both because of their low frequency and the relatively low specific affinity of the Class II reagents for the TcR. Being able to generate “recent” memory cells in vitro gives us the opportunity to analyze in detail the mechanisms by which memory CD4 T cells may contribute to secondary immunity and immune protection. Once identified. will determine if particular pathways are relevant in situ. We have discovered that memory CD4 T cells are superior in protection to those from the primary response and that they display pleitropic functions that have not been previously identified.

    Cytotoxic CD4 Effectors. One unexpected function of CD4 T cells we identified is robust, perforin-dependent cytotoxic activity (7, 16). Cytotoxic activity by CD4 T cells has been reported in response to several infections, but its significance has not heretofore been established. We find that “Th1 polarized” CD4 effectors and more relevantly the CD4 effectors found in the lung following influenza infection, are able to kill infected or peptide-pulsed Class II-bearing targets and we find that this perforin dependent activity can work together with antibody to provide protection against lethal influenza challenge in otherwise unprimed mice (17). We also will determine when memory CD4 T cells re-express cytotoxic activity following in vivo challenge and how cytotoxic killing contributes to the memory cell mediated protection. We want to analyze how the program of cytotoxicity is induced in these “ThCTL”.

    Memory CD4 Cells Enhance an Innate Response. Memory cells can act by becoming secondary effectors but they are best characterized by their ability respond rapidly even to low antigen doses, by producing cytokines and chemokines and it is assumed that these initial abilities are key to memory cell activity. However this assumption has not been directly demonstrated and the mechanisms involved and how they might contribute to immunity have not been elucidated. We find that restimulation of memory CD4 T cells leads to a markedly enhanced early innate response to influenza infection both in the lung and systemically (17). This response peaks 2-3 days after infection and is transient. We see enhanced production of IL-6 locally and systemically and enhanced production a broad spectrum of innate inflammatory mediators in the lung. We hope to determine in detail the pathways leading to optimum memory T cell-induced innate responses. We suggest a concurrent activation of CD4 memory cells may be an effective adjuvant for vaccination and will be testing this hypothesis as well as mechanisms that lead to viral control over the next couple of years.

    Aging and Immunity: The study of the impact of aging on CD4 T cell function at the naïve and memory stages has lead us to better understanding of fundamental aspects of T cell behavior in addition to providing important information about what vaccine approaches are most likely to be successful for the aged.

    Nature of CD4 Aging “Defects”. We have identified multiple levels at which aged naïve CD4 T cells are defective including initial early response to TcR triggering, IL-2 production, expansion and effector generation. The defects in helper function and in the 20 response of memory cells generated from aged naïve CD4 T cells are particularly dramatic. In recent studies we have recapitulated memory age-associated defects in recently generated memory cells in vitro (23). In vitro aged memory cells are markedly defective in production of particular cytokines, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-2, while others are little affected (IFNg, IL-10, TNF), suggesting the aging “defect” may be restricted to loss of potential to make certain CD4 T cell subsets, such as those responsible for help to B cells .We will pursue this hypothesis both in vitro and in vivo.

    We have found that aged naïve CD4 T cells are in fact longer-lived than their naïve counterparts (23). We find that reduced expression of Bim, a proapoptotic protein, is responsible for this increase in lifespan and that the increase in lifespan is required for the development of aging defects. We are now investigating the factors that regulate Bim expression.

    Enhancement by Inflammatory Cytokines. We have shown that the defective effector generation responses of naïve CD4 T cells from aged animals can be overcome by IL-2 and by proinflammatory cytokines, in particular a mix of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF (20,21). We want to determine the extent to which the inflammatory cytokines can reverse the heritable aging defects and restore functional memory generation. We have developed in vitro models to test the generation of effectors and memory. In these models we are evaluating TLR agonists for their ability to restore aged naïve CD4 responses to peptide-pulsed derived dendritic cells (DC). Pre-incubation of DC with many TLR agonists, enhances expansion of the responding aged naïve CD4 T cells via a mechanism dependent on IL-6 that acts in part by increasing survival of the developing effector population. We plan to use this model to identify the extent of the rescue and what pathways and mechanisms contribute with the ultimate goal of evaluating whether specific TLR stimulation or stimulation of specific pathways might improve the response of the elderly to vaccines. We want to see if we can reproduce this model with human naïve CD4 T cells and DC derived from peripheral blood and if TLR agonists can also enhance those responses.



    Collapse Post Docs

    An entry level postdoctoral position is open immediately in the laboratory of Dr. Susan L. Swain to study the factors that control the development and survival of CD4 and CD8 T cell memory. Graduate student experience with tissue culture, in vitro assay, flow cytometry, experience in mouse models on infectious disease and a knowledge of cellular and molecular immunology are all strongly desired.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Devarajan P, Jones MC, Kugler-Umana O, Vong AM, Xia J, Swain SL. Pathogen Recognition by CD4 Effectors Drives Key Effector and Most Memory Cell Generation Against Respiratory Virus. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:596. PMID: 29632538.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Acharya S, Adamová D, Adolfsson J, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Ahmad N, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Alam SN, Alba JLB, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, Alfaro Molina R, Alici A, Alkin A, Alme J, Alt T, Altenkamper L, Altsybeev I, Alves Garcia Prado C, Andrei C, Andreou D, Andrews HA, Andronic A, Anguelov V, Anson C, Anticic T, Antinori F, Antonioli P, Anwar R, Aphecetche L, Appelshäuser H, Arcelli S, Arnaldi R, Arnold OW, Arsene IC, Arslandok M, Audurier B, Augustinus A, Averbeck R, Azmi MD, Badalà A, Baek YW, Bagnasco S, Bailhache R, Bala R, Baldisseri A, Ball M, Baral RC, Barbano AM, Barbera R, Barile F, Barioglio L, Barnaföldi GG, Barnby LS, Barret V, Bartalini P, Barth K, Bartsch E, Basile M, Bastid N, Basu S, Batigne G, Batyunya B, Batzing PC, Bearden IG, Beck H, Bedda C, Behera NK, Belikov I, Bellini F, Bello Martinez H, Bellwied R, Beltran LGE, Belyaev V, Bencedi G, Beole S, Bercuci A, Berdnikov Y, Berenyi D, Bertens RA, Berzano D, Betev L, Bhasin A, Bhat IR, Bhati AK, Bhattacharjee B, Bhom J, Bianchi L, Bianchi N, Bianchin C, Bielcík J, Bielcíková J, Bilandzic A, Biro G, Biswas R, Biswas S, Blair JT, Blau D, Blume C, Boca G, Bock F, Bogdanov A, Boldizsár L, Bombara M, Bonomi G, Bonora M, Book J, Borel H, Borissov A, Borri M, Botta E, Bourjau C, Bratrud L, Braun-Munzinger P, Bregant M, Broker TA, Broz M, Brucken EJ, Bruna E, Bruno GE, Budnikov D, Buesching H, Bufalino S, Buhler P, Buncic P, Busch O, Buthelezi Z, Butt JB, Buxton JT, Cabala J, Caffarri D, Caines H, Caliva A, Calvo Villar E, Camerini P, Capon AA, Carena F, Carena W, Carnesecchi F, Castillo Castellanos J, Castro AJ, Casula EAR, Ceballos Sanchez C, Cerello P, Chandra S, Chang B, Chapeland S, Chartier M, Charvet JL, Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S, Chauvin A, Cherney M, Cheshkov C, Cheynis B, Chibante Barroso V, Chinellato DD, Cho S, Chochula P, Choi K, Chojnacki M, Choudhury S, Chowdhury T, Christakoglou P, Christensen CH, Christiansen P, Chujo T, Chung SU, Cicalo C, Cifarelli L, Cindolo F, Cleymans J, Colamaria F, Colella D, Collu A, Colocci M, Concas M, Conesa Balbastre G, Conesa Del Valle Z, Connors ME, Contreras JG, Cormier TM, Corrales Morales Y, Cortés Maldonado I, Cortese P, Cosentino MR, Costa F, Costanza S, Crkovská J, Crochet P, Cuautle E, Cunqueiro L, Dahms T, Dainese A, Danisch MC, Danu A, Das D, Das I, Das S, Dash A, Dash S, De S, De Caro A, de Cataldo G, de Conti C, de Cuveland J, De Falco A, De Gruttola D, De Marco N, De Pasquale S, De Souza RD, Degenhardt HF, Deisting A, Deloff A, Deplano C, Dhankher P, Di Bari D, Di Mauro A, Di Nezza P, Di Ruzza B, Diaz Corchero MA, Dietel T, Dillenseger P, Divià R, Djuvsland Ø, Dobrin A, Domenicis Gimenez D, Dönigus B, Dordic O, Doremalen LVV, Dubey AK, Dubla A, Ducroux L, Duggal AK, Dupieux P, Ehlers RJ, Elia D, Endress E, Engel H, Epple E, Erazmus B, Erhardt F, Espagnon B, Esumi S, Eulisse G, Eum J, Evans D, Evdokimov S, Fabbietti L, Faivre J, Fantoni A, Fasel M, Feldkamp L, Feliciello A, Feofilov G, Ferencei J, Fernández Téllez A, Ferreiro EG, Ferretti A, Festanti A, Feuillard VJG, Figiel J, Figueredo MAS, Filchagin S, Finogeev D, Fionda FM, Fiore EM, Floris M, Foertsch S, Foka P, Fokin S, Fragiacomo E, Francescon A, Francisco A, Frankenfeld U, Fronze GG, Fuchs U, Furget C, Furs A, Fusco Girard M, Gaardhøje JJ, Gagliardi M, Gago AM, Gajdosova K, Gallio M, Galvan CD, Ganoti P, Gao C, Garabatos C, Garcia-Solis E, Garg K, Gargiulo C, Gasik P, Gauger EF, Gay Ducati MB, Germain M, Ghosh J, Ghosh P, Ghosh SK, Gianotti P, Giubellino P, Giubilato P, Gladysz-Dziadus E, Glässel P, Goméz Coral DM, Gomez Ramirez A, Gonzalez AS, Gonzalez V, González-Zamora P, Gorbunov S, Görlich L, Gotovac S, Grabski V, Graczykowski LK, Graham KL, Greiner L, Grelli A, Grigoras C, Grigoriev V, Grigoryan A, Grigoryan S, Grion N, Gronefeld JM, Grosa F, Grosse-Oetringhaus JF, Grosso R, Gruber L, Guber F, Guernane R, Guerzoni B, Gulbrandsen K, Gunji T, Gupta A, Gupta R, et al. D-Meson Azimuthal Anisotropy in Midcentral Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s]_{NN}=5.02??TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2018 Mar 09; 120(10):102301. PMID: 29570314.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Acharya S, Adamová D, Adolfsson J, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Al-Turany M, Alam SN, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, Alfaro Molina R, Ali Y, Alici A, Alkin A, Alme J, Alt T, Altenkamper L, Altsybeev I, Alves Garcia Prado C, Andrei C, Andreou D, Andrews HA, Andronic A, Anguelov V, Anson C, Anticic T, Antinori F, Antonioli P, Anwar R, Aphecetche L, Appelshäuser H, Arcelli S, Arnaldi R, Arnold OW, Arsene IC, Arslandok M, Audurier B, Augustinus A, Averbeck R, Azmi MD, Badalà A, Baek YW, Bagnasco S, Bailhache R, Bala R, Baldisseri A, Ball M, Baral RC, Barbano AM, Barbera R, Barile F, Barioglio L, Barnaföldi GG, Barnby LS, Barret V, Bartalini P, Barth K, Bartsch E, Bastid N, Basu S, Batigne G, Batyunya B, Batzing PC, Bazo Alba JL, Bearden IG, Beck H, Bedda C, Behera NK, Belikov I, Bellini F, Bello Martinez H, Bellwied R, Beltran LGE, Belyaev V, Bencedi G, Beole S, Bercuci A, Berdnikov Y, Berenyi D, Bertens RA, Berzano D, Betev L, Bhasin A, Bhat IR, Bhattacharjee B, Bhom J, Bianchi A, Bianchi L, Bianchi N, Bianchin C, Bielcík J, Bielcíková J, Bilandzic A, Biro G, Biswas R, Biswas S, Blair JT, Blau D, Blume C, Boca G, Bock F, Bogdanov A, Boldizsár L, Bombara M, Bonomi G, Bonora M, Book J, Borel H, Borissov A, Borri M, Botta E, Bourjau C, Bratrud L, Braun-Munzinger P, Bregant M, Broker TA, Broz M, Brucken EJ, Bruna E, Bruno GE, Budnikov D, Buesching H, Bufalino S, Buhler P, Buncic P, Busch O, Buthelezi Z, Butt JB, Buxton JT, Cabala J, Caffarri D, Caines H, Caliva A, Calvo Villar E, Camerini P, Capon AA, Carena F, Carena W, Carnesecchi F, Castillo Castellanos J, Castro AJ, Casula EAR, Ceballos Sanchez C, Chandra S, Chang B, Chang W, Chapeland S, Chartier M, Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S, Chauvin A, Cheshkov C, Cheynis B, Chibante Barroso V, Chinellato DD, Cho S, Chochula P, Chojnacki M, Choudhury S, Chowdhury T, Christakoglou P, Christensen CH, Christiansen P, Chujo T, Chung SU, Cicalo C, Cifarelli L, Cindolo F, Cleymans J, Colamaria F, Colella D, Collu A, Colocci M, Concas M, Conesa Balbastre G, Conesa Del Valle Z, Contreras JG, Cormier TM, Corrales Morales Y, Cortés Maldonado I, Cortese P, Cosentino MR, Costa F, Costanza S, Crkovská J, Crochet P, Cuautle E, Cunqueiro L, Dahms T, Dainese A, Danisch MC, Danu A, Das D, Das I, Das S, Dash A, Dash S, De S, De Caro A, de Cataldo G, de Conti C, de Cuveland J, De Falco A, De Gruttola D, De Marco N, De Pasquale S, De Souza RD, Degenhardt HF, Deisting A, Deloff A, Deplano C, Dhankher P, Di Bari D, Di Mauro A, Di Nezza P, Di Ruzza B, Diaz Corchero MA, Dietel T, Dillenseger P, Ding Y, Divià R, Djuvsland Ø, Dobrin A, Domenicis Gimenez D, Dönigus B, Dordic O, Doremalen LVR, Dubey AK, Dubla A, Ducroux L, Dudi S, Duggal AK, Dukhishyam M, Dupieux P, Ehlers RJ, Elia D, Endress E, Engel H, Epple E, Erazmus B, Erhardt F, Espagnon B, Eulisse G, Eum J, Evans D, Evdokimov S, Fabbietti L, Faivre J, Fantoni A, Fasel M, Feldkamp L, Feliciello A, Feofilov G, Fernández Téllez A, Ferreiro EG, Ferretti A, Festanti A, Feuillard VJG, Figiel J, Figueredo MAS, Filchagin S, Finogeev D, Fionda FM, Floris M, Foertsch S, Foka P, Fokin S, Fragiacomo E, Francescon A, Francisco A, Frankenfeld U, Fronze GG, Fuchs U, Furget C, Furs A, Fusco Girard M, Gaardhøje JJ, Gagliardi M, Gago AM, Gajdosova K, Gallio M, Galvan CD, Ganoti P, Garabatos C, Garcia-Solis E, Garg K, Gargiulo C, Gasik P, Gauger EF, Gay Ducati MB, Germain M, Ghosh J, Ghosh P, Ghosh SK, Gianotti P, Giubellino P, Giubilato P, Gladysz-Dziadus E, Glässel P, Goméz Coral DM, Gomez Ramirez A, Gonzalez AS, Gonzalez V, González-Zamora P, Gorbunov S, Görlich L, Gotovac S, Grabski V, Graczykowski LK, Graham KL, Greiner L, Grelli A, Grigoras C, Grigoriev V, Grigoryan A, Grigoryan S, Gronefeld JM, Grosa F, Grosse-Oetringhaus JF, Grosso R, Guber F, Guernane R, Guerzoni B, Gulbrandsen K, Gunji T, Gupta A, Gupta R, Guzman IB, Haake R, Hadjidakis C, Hamagaki H, Hamar G, Hamon JC, et al. J/? Elliptic Flow in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02??TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2017 Dec 15; 119(24):242301. PMID: 29286736.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Strutt TM, Dhume K, Finn CM, Hwang JH, Castonguay C, Swain SL, McKinstry KK. IL-15 supports the generation of protective lung-resident memory CD4 T cells. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 May; 11(3):668-680. PMID: 29186108.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Adam J, Adamová D, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Ahmad S, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Alam SN, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, Alexandre D, Alfaro Molina R, Alici A, Alkin A, Alme J, Alt T, Altinpinar S, Altsybeev I, Alves Garcia Prado C, An M, Andrei C, Andrews HA, Andronic A, Anguelov V, Anson C, Anticic T, Antinori F, Antonioli P, Anwar R, Aphecetche L, Appelshäuser H, Arcelli S, Arnaldi R, Arnold OW, Arsene IC, Arslandok M, Audurier B, Augustinus A, Averbeck R, Azmi MD, Badalà A, Baek YW, Bagnasco S, Bailhache R, Bala R, Balasubramanian S, Baldisseri A, Baral RC, Barbano AM, Barbera R, Barile F, Barnaföldi GG, Barnby LS, Barret V, Bartalini P, Barth K, Bartke J, Bartsch E, Basile M, Bastid N, Basu S, Bathen B, Batigne G, Batista Camejo A, Batyunya B, Batzing PC, Bearden IG, Beck H, Bedda C, Behera NK, Belikov I, Bellini F, Bello Martinez H, Bellwied R, Beltran LGE, Belyaev V, Bencedi G, Beole S, Bercuci A, Berdnikov Y, Berenyi D, Bertens RA, Berzano D, Betev L, Bhasin A, Bhat IR, Bhati AK, Bhattacharjee B, Bhom J, Bianchi L, Bianchi N, Bianchin C, Bielcík J, Bielcíková J, Bilandzic A, Biro G, Biswas R, Biswas S, Bjelogrlic S, Blair JT, Blau D, Blume C, Bock F, Bogdanov A, Boldizsár L, Bombara M, Bonora M, Book J, Borel H, Borissov A, Borri M, Botta E, Bourjau C, Braun-Munzinger P, Bregant M, Broker TA, Browning TA, Broz M, Brucken EJ, Bruna E, Bruno GE, Budnikov D, Buesching H, Bufalino S, Buhler P, Buitron SAI, Buncic P, Busch O, Buthelezi Z, Butt JB, Buxton JT, Cabala J, Caffarri D, Caines H, Caliva A, Calvo Villar E, Camerini P, Carena F, Carena W, Carnesecchi F, Castillo Castellanos J, Castro AJ, Casula EAR, Ceballos Sanchez C, Cepila J, Cerello P, Cerkala J, Chang B, Chapeland S, Chartier M, Charvet JL, Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S, Chauvin A, Chelnokov V, Cherney M, Cheshkov C, Cheynis B, Chibante Barroso V, Chinellato DD, Cho S, Chochula P, Choi K, Chojnacki M, Choudhury S, Christakoglou P, Christensen CH, Christiansen P, Chujo T, Chung SU, Cicalo C, Cifarelli L, Cindolo F, Cleymans J, Colamaria F, Colella D, Collu A, Colocci M, Conesa Balbastre G, Conesa Del Valle Z, Connors ME, Contreras JG, Cormier TM, Corrales Morales Y, Cortés Maldonado I, Cortese P, Cosentino MR, Costa F, Crkovská J, Crochet P, Cruz Albino R, Cuautle E, Cunqueiro L, Dahms T, Dainese A, Danisch MC, Danu A, Das D, Das I, Das S, Dash A, Dash S, De S, De Caro A, de Cataldo G, de Conti C, de Cuveland J, De Falco A, De Gruttola D, De Marco N, De Pasquale S, De Souza RD, Deisting A, Deloff A, Deplano C, Dhankher P, Di Bari D, Di Mauro A, Di Nezza P, Di Ruzza B, Diaz Corchero MA, Dietel T, Dillenseger P, Divià R, Djuvsland Ø, Dobrin A, Domenicis Gimenez D, Dönigus B, Dordic O, Drozhzhova T, Dubey AK, Dubla A, Ducroux L, Duggal AK, Dupieux P, Ehlers RJ, Elia D, Endress E, Engel H, Epple E, Erazmus B, Erhardt F, Espagnon B, Esumi S, Eulisse G, Eum J, Evans D, Evdokimov S, Eyyubova G, Fabbietti L, Fabris D, Faivre J, Fantoni A, Fasel M, Feldkamp L, Feliciello A, Feofilov G, Ferencei J, Fernández Téllez A, Ferreiro EG, Ferretti A, Festanti A, Feuillard VJG, Figiel J, Figueredo MAS, Filchagin S, Finogeev D, Fionda FM, Fiore EM, Floris M, Foertsch S, Foka P, Fokin S, Fragiacomo E, Francescon A, Francisco A, Frankenfeld U, Fronze GG, Fuchs U, Furget C, Furs A, Fusco Girard M, Gaardhøje JJ, Gagliardi M, Gago AM, Gajdosova K, Gallio M, Galvan CD, Gangadharan DR, Ganoti P, Gao C, Garabatos C, Garcia-Solis E, Garg K, Garg P, Gargiulo C, Gasik P, Gauger EF, Gay Ducati MB, Germain M, Ghosh P, Ghosh SK, Gianotti P, Giubellino P, Giubilato P, Gladysz-Dziadus E, Glässel P, Goméz Coral DM, Gomez Ramirez A, Gonzalez AS, Gonzalez V, González-Zamora P, Gorbunov S, Görlich L, Gotovac S, Grabski V, Graczykowski LK, Graham KL, Greiner L, Grelli A, Grigoras C, Grigoriev V, Grigoryan A, Grigoryan S, Grion N, Gronefeld JM, Grosse-Oetringhaus JF, Grosso R, Gruber L, Guber F, Guernane R, Guerzoni B, Gulbrandsen K, et al. Anomalous Evolution of the Near-Side Jet Peak Shape in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76??TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2017 Sep 08; 119(10):102301. PMID: 28949169.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Swain SL, Kugler-Umana O, Kuang Y, Zhang W. The properties of the unique age-associated B cell subset reveal a shift in strategy of immune response with age. Cell Immunol. 2017 Nov; 321:52-60. PMID: 28712455.
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    8. Adamová D, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Ahmad S, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Alam SN, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, Alexandre D, Alfaro Molina R, Alici A, Alkin A, Alme J, Alt T, Altinpinar S, Altsybeev I, Alves Garcia Prado C, An M, Andrei C, Andrews HA, Andronic A, Anguelov V, Anson C, Anticic T, Antinori F, Antonioli P, Anwar R, Aphecetche L, Appelshäuser H, Arcelli S, Arnaldi R, Arnold OW, Arsene IC, Arslandok M, Audurier B, Augustinus A, Averbeck R, Azmi MD, Badalà A, Baek YW, Bagnasco S, Bailhache R, Bala R, Baldisseri A, Ball M, Baral RC, Barbano AM, Barbera R, Barile F, Barioglio L, Barnaföldi GG, Barnby LS, Barret V, Bartalini P, Barth K, Bartke J, Bartsch E, Basile M, Bastid N, Basu S, Bathen B, Batigne G, Batista Camejo A, Batyunya B, Batzing PC, Bearden IG, Beck H, Bedda C, Behera NK, Belikov I, Bellini F, Bello Martinez H, Bellwied R, Beltran LGE, Belyaev V, Bencedi G, Beole S, Bercuci A, Berdnikov Y, Berenyi D, Bertens RA, Berzano D, Betev L, Bhasin A, Bhat IR, Bhati AK, Bhattacharjee B, Bhom J, Bianchi L, Bianchi N, Bianchin C, Bielcík J, Bielcíková J, Bilandzic A, Biro G, Biswas R, Biswas S, Blair JT, Blau D, Blume C, Boca G, Bock F, Bogdanov A, Boldizsár L, Bombara M, Bonomi G, Bonora M, Book J, Borel H, Borissov A, Borri M, Botta E, Bourjau C, Braun-Munzinger P, Bregant M, Broker TA, Browning TA, Broz M, Brucken EJ, Bruna E, Bruno GE, Budnikov D, Buesching H, Bufalino S, Buhler P, Buitron SAI, Buncic P, Busch O, Buthelezi Z, Butt JB, Buxton JT, Cabala J, Caffarri D, Caines H, Caliva A, Calvo Villar E, Camerini P, Capon AA, Carena F, Carena W, Carnesecchi F, Castillo Castellanos J, Castro AJ, Casula EAR, Ceballos Sanchez C, Cerello P, Chang B, Chapeland S, Chartier M, Charvet JL, Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S, Chauvin A, Cherney M, Cheshkov C, Cheynis B, Chibante Barroso V, Chinellato DD, Cho S, Chochula P, Choi K, Chojnacki M, Choudhury S, Christakoglou P, Christensen CH, Christiansen P, Chujo T, Chung SU, Cicalo C, Cifarelli L, Cindolo F, Cleymans J, Colamaria F, Colella D, Collu A, Colocci M, Conesa Balbastre G, Conesa Del Valle Z, Connors ME, Contreras JG, Cormier TM, Corrales Morales Y, Cortés Maldonado I, Cortese P, Cosentino MR, Costa F, Costanza S, Crkovská J, Crochet P, Cuautle E, Cunqueiro L, Dahms T, Dainese A, Danisch MC, Danu A, Das D, Das I, Das S, Dash A, Dash S, De S, De Caro A, de Cataldo G, de Conti C, de Cuveland J, De Falco A, De Gruttola D, De Marco N, De Pasquale S, De Souza RD, Degenhardt HF, Deisting A, Deloff A, Deplano C, Dhankher P, Di Bari D, Di Mauro A, Di Nezza P, Di Ruzza B, Diaz Corchero MA, Dietel T, Dillenseger P, Divià R, Djuvsland Ø, Dobrin A, Domenicis Gimenez D, Dönigus B, Dordic O, Drozhzhova T, Dubey AK, Dubla A, Ducroux L, Duggal AK, Dupieux P, Ehlers RJ, Elia D, Endress E, Engel H, Epple E, Erazmus B, Erhardt F, Espagnon B, Esumi S, Eulisse G, Eum J, Evans D, Evdokimov S, Fabbietti L, Fabris D, Faivre J, Fantoni A, Fasel M, Feldkamp L, Feliciello A, Feofilov G, Ferencei J, Fernández Téllez A, Ferreiro EG, Ferretti A, Festanti A, Feuillard VJG, Figiel J, Figueredo MAS, Filchagin S, Finogeev D, Fionda FM, Fiore EM, Floris M, Foertsch S, Foka P, Fokin S, Fragiacomo E, Francescon A, Francisco A, Frankenfeld U, Fronze GG, Fuchs U, Furget C, Furs A, Fusco Girard M, Gaardhøje JJ, Gagliardi M, Gago AM, Gajdosova K, Gallio M, Galvan CD, Gangadharan DR, Ganoti P, Gao C, Garabatos C, Garcia-Solis E, Garg K, Garg P, Gargiulo C, Gasik P, Gauger EF, Gay Ducati MB, Germain M, Ghosh P, Ghosh SK, Gianotti P, Giubellino P, Giubilato P, Gladysz-Dziadus E, Glässel P, Goméz Coral DM, Gomez Ramirez A, Gonzalez AS, Gonzalez V, González-Zamora P, Gorbunov S, Görlich L, Gotovac S, Grabski V, Graczykowski LK, Graham KL, Greiner L, Grelli A, Grigoras C, Grigoriev V, Grigoryan A, Grigoryan S, Grion N, Gronefeld JM, Grosa F, Grosse-Oetringhaus JF, Grosso R, Gruber L, Grull FR, Guber F, Guernane R, Guerzoni B, Gulbrandsen K, et al. Production of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV. Eur Phys J C Part Fields. 2017; 77(6):389. PMID: 29430210.
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    9. Adamová D, Aggarwal MM, Aglieri Rinella G, Agnello M, Agrawal N, Ahammed Z, Ahmad S, Ahn SU, Aiola S, Akindinov A, Alam SN, Albuquerque DSD, Aleksandrov D, Alessandro B, Alexandre D, Alfaro Molina R, Alici A, Alkin A, Alme J, Alt T, Altinpinar S, Altsybeev I, Alves Garcia Prado C, An M, Andrei C, Andrews HA, Andronic A, Anguelov V, Anson C, Anticic T, Antinori F, Antonioli P, Anwar R, Aphecetche L, Appelshäuser H, Arcelli S, Arnaldi R, Arnold OW, Arsene IC, Arslandok M, Audurier B, Augustinus A, Averbeck R, Azmi MD, Badalà A, Baek YW, Bagnasco S, Bailhache R, Bala R, Baldisseri A, Ball M, Baral RC, Barbano AM, Barbera R, Barile F, Barioglio L, Barnaföldi GG, Barnby LS, Barret V, Bartalini P, Barth K, Bartke J, Bartsch E, Basile M, Bastid N, Basu S, Bathen B, Batigne G, Batista Camejo A, Batyunya B, Batzing PC, Bearden IG, Beck H, Bedda C, Behera NK, Belikov I, Bellini F, Bello Martinez H, Bellwied R, Beltran LGE, Belyaev V, Bencedi G, Beole S, Bercuci A, Berdnikov Y, Berenyi D, Bertens RA, Berzano D, Betev L, Bhasin A, Bhat IR, Bhati AK, Bhattacharjee B, Bhom J, Bianchi L, Bianchi N, Bianchin C, Bielcík J, Bielcíková J, Bilandzic A, Biro G, Biswas R, Biswas S, Blair JT, Blau D, Blume C, Boca G, Bock F, Bogdanov A, Boldizsár L, Bombara M, Bonomi G, Bonora M, Book J, Borel H, Borissov A, Borri M, Botta E, Bourjau C, Braun-Munzinger P, Bregant M, Broker TA, Browning TA, Broz M, Brucken EJ, Bruna E, Bruno GE, Budnikov D, Buesching H, Bufalino S, Buhler P, Buitron SAI, Buncic P, Busch O, Buthelezi Z, Butt JB, Buxton JT, Cabala J, Caffarri D, Caines H, Caliva A, Calvo Villar E, Camerini P, Capon AA, Carena F, Carena W, Carnesecchi F, Castillo Castellanos J, Castro AJ, Casula EAR, Ceballos Sanchez C, Cerello P, Chang B, Chapeland S, Chartier M, Charvet JL, Chattopadhyay S, Chattopadhyay S, Chauvin A, Cherney M, Cheshkov C, Cheynis B, Chibante Barroso V, Chinellato DD, Cho S, Chochula P, Choi K, Chojnacki M, Choudhury S, Christakoglou P, Christensen CH, Christiansen P, Chujo T, Chung SU, Cicalo C, Cifarelli L, Cindolo F, Cleymans J, Colamaria F, Colella D, Collu A, Colocci M, Conesa Balbastre G, Conesa Del Valle Z, Connors ME, Contreras JG, Cormier TM, Corrales Morales Y, Cortés Maldonado I, Cortese P, Cosentino MR, Costa F, Costanza S, Crkovská J, Crochet P, Cuautle E, Cunqueiro L, Dahms T, Dainese A, Danisch MC, Danu A, Das D, Das I, Das S, Dash A, Dash S, De S, De Caro A, de Cataldo G, de Conti C, de Cuveland J, De Falco A, De Gruttola D, De Marco N, De Pasquale S, De Souza RD, Degenhardt HF, Deisting A, Deloff A, Deplano C, Dhankher P, Di Bari D, Di Mauro A, Di Nezza P, Di Ruzza B, Diaz Corchero MA, Dietel T, Dillenseger P, Divià R, Djuvsland Ø, Dobrin A, Domenicis Gimenez D, Dönigus B, Dordic O, Drozhzhova T, Dubey AK, Dubla A, Ducroux L, Duggal AK, Dupieux P, Ehlers RJ, Elia D, Endress E, Engel H, Epple E, Erazmus B, Erhardt F, Espagnon B, Esumi S, Eulisse G, Eum J, Evans D, Evdokimov S, Fabbietti L, Fabris D, Faivre J, Fantoni A, Fasel M, Feldkamp L, Feliciello A, Feofilov G, Ferencei J, Fernández Téllez A, Ferreiro EG, Ferretti A, Festanti A, Feuillard VJG, Figiel J, Figueredo MAS, Filchagin S, Finogeev D, Fionda FM, Fiore EM, Floris M, Foertsch S, Foka P, Fokin S, Fragiacomo E, Francescon A, Francisco A, Frankenfeld U, Fronze GG, Fuchs U, Furget C, Furs A, Fusco Girard M, Gaardhøje JJ, Gagliardi M, Gago AM, Gajdosova K, Gallio M, Galvan CD, Gangadharan DR, Ganoti P, Gao C, Garabatos C, Garcia-Solis E, Garg K, Garg P, Gargiulo C, Gasik P, Gauger EF, Gay Ducati MB, Germain M, Ghosh P, Ghosh SK, Gianotti P, Giubellino P, Giubilato P, Gladysz-Dziadus E, Glässel P, Goméz Coral DM, Gomez Ramirez A, Gonzalez AS, Gonzalez V, González-Zamora P, Gorbunov S, Görlich L, Gotovac S, Grabski V, Graczykowski LK, Graham KL, Gramling JL, Greiner L, Grelli A, Grigoras C, Grigoriev V, Grigoryan A, Grigoryan S, Grion N, Gronefeld JM, Grosa F, Grosse-Oetringhaus JF, Grosso R, Gruber L, Grull FR, Guber F, Guernane R, Guerzoni B, et al. Azimuthally Differential Pion Femtoscopy in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76??TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2017 Jun 02; 118(22):222301. PMID: 28621989.
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    145. Raz E, Tighe H, Sato Y, Corr M, Dudler JA, Roman M, Swain SL, Spiegelberg HL, Carson DA. Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 May 14; 93(10):5141-5. PMID: 8643542.
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    159. Koch S, Muralidhar G, Swain SL. Both naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets become anergic during MAIDS and each subset can sustain disease. J Immunol. 1994 Jun 1; 152(11):5548-56. PMID: 7910621.
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    221. Swain SL. Significance of Lyt phenotypes: Lyt2 antibodies block activities of T cells that recognize class 1 major histocompatibility complex antigens regardless of their function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Nov; 78(11):7101-5. PMID: 6975943.
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    222. Swain SL. Significance of class 1 and class 2 major histocompatibility complex antigens: help to allogeneic K and D antigens does not involve I recognition. J Immunol. 1981 Jun; 126(6):2307-9. PMID: 6164727.
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    223. Swain SL, Dennert G, Warner JF, Dutton RW. Culture supernatants of a stimulated T-cell line have helper activity that acts synergistically with interleukin 2 in the response of B cells to antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr; 78(4):2517-21. PMID: 6787609.
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    224. Swain SL, Dennert G, Wormsley S, Dutton RW. The Lyt phenotype of a long-term allospecific T cell line. Both helper and killer activities to IA are mediated by Ly-1 cells. Eur J Immunol. 1981 Mar; 11(3):175-80. PMID: 6972304.
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    225. Dennert G, Swain SL, Waterfield JD, Warner JF, Dutton RW. Fine specificity mapping of two allospecific T cell lines: recognition of private specificities in the H-2 IA subregion. Eur J Immunol. 1981 Jan; 11(1):62-4. PMID: 6163637.
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    226. Swain SL. Association of Ly phenotypes, T cell function and MHC recognition. Fed Proc. 1980 Nov; 39(13):3110-3. PMID: 6968693.
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    227. Shih WW, Matzinger PC, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Analysis of histocompatibility requirements for proliferative and helper T cell activity. T cell populations depleted of alloreactive cells by negative selection. J Exp Med. 1980 Nov 1; 152(5):1311-28. PMID: 6159449.
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    228. Swain SL. Role of Ia-positive cells in the production of T cell-replacing factors: blocking of factor production with anti-Ia serum. J Immunol. 1980 Sep; 125(3):1224-9. PMID: 6967893.
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    229. Silver J, Swain SL, Hubert JJ. Small subunit of I-A subregion antigens determines the allospecificity recognized by a monoclonal antibody. Nature. 1980 Jul 17; 286(5770):272-4. PMID: 6157103.
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    230. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Production of Con A-induced helper T cell replacing factor requires a T cell and an Ia-positive non-T cells. J Immunol. 1980 Jan; 124(1):437-44. PMID: 6965298.
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    231. Swain SL, Bakke A, English M, Dutton RW. Ly phenotypes and MHC recognition: the allohelper that recognizes K or D is a mature Ly123 cell. J Immunol. 1979 Dec; 123(6):2716-24. PMID: 387874.
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    232. Swain SL, Panfili PR, Dutton RW, Lefkovits I. Frequency of allogeneic helper T cells responding to whole H-2 differences and to an H-2K difference alone. J Immunol. 1979 Sep; 123(3):1062-7. PMID: 313942.
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    233. Waterfield JD, Dennert G, Swain SL, Dutton RW. Continuously proliferating allospecific T cells. I. Specificity of cooperation with allogeneic B cells in the humoral antibody response to sheep erythrocytes. J Exp Med. 1979 Apr 1; 149(4):808-14. PMID: 311816.
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    234. Swain SL, Panfili PR. Helper cells activated by allogeneic H-2K or H-2D differences have a Ly phenotype distinct from those responsive to I differences. J Immunol. 1979 Feb; 122(2):383-91. PMID: 310839.
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    235. Swain SL. Mechanism of allosuppression: evidence for direct suppression of responding B cells. J Immunol. 1978 Aug; 121(2):671-7. PMID: 308076.
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    236. Dutton RW, Panfili PR, Swain SL. Alloreactivity, the development of the T cell repertoire and the understanding of T cell function. Immunol Rev. 1978; 42:20-59. PMID: 83699.
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    237. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Negative allogeneic effects in vitro. II. Mapping of histocompatibility differences leading to allosuppression. J Immunol. 1977 Sep; 119(3):1179-86. PMID: 330751.
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    238. Swain SL, Dutton RW. Negative allogeneic effects in vitro. I. Allogeneic T cells markedly suppress the secondary antibody-forming cell response. J Immunol. 1977 Jun; 118(6):2262-8. PMID: 325144.
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    239. Swain SL, Trefts PE, Tse HY, Dutton RW. The significance of T-B collaboration across haplotype barriers. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1977; 41 Pt 2:597-609. PMID: 302180.
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    240. Swain S, Coons AH. Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. III. Independence of antigen-binding cells in normal animals from antigenic stimulation. J Immunol. 1976 Oct; 117(4):1067-72. PMID: 1086316.
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    241. Swain S, Modabber F, Coons AH. Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. II. T antigen-binding cells. J Immunol. 1976 Apr; 116(4):923-8. PMID: 1082908.
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    242. Swain S, Modabber F, Coons AH. Characterization of T and B antigen-binding cells for beta-galactosidase. I. beta-galactosidase-binding cells in the thymus and spleen of normal mice. J Immunol. 1976 Apr; 116(4):915-22. PMID: 56404.
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