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Timothy F Kowalik PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
Phone508-856-6035
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentCancer Biology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentTranslational Science


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Belmont Abbey College, Belmont, NC, United StatesBSBiology/Mathematics
    Utah State University, Logan, UT, United StatesMSMolecular Biology/Virology
    Utah State University, Logan, UT, United StatesPHDMolecular Biology/Virology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Academic Background

    Timothy Kowalik received his B.S. degree in Biology and Mathematics from Belmont Abbey College in 1982. He received his M.S. (1986) and his Ph.D. (1989) in Molecular Biology and Virology from Utah State University. Dr. Kowalik did postdoctoral research on virus-cell interactions from 1990-1993 at the Lineberger Cancer Center of the University of North Carolina. From 1993-1996, he continued his postdoctoral studies in the Department of Genetics at Duke University Medical Center where he analyzed the relationship between the cell cycle and apoptosis. During his postdoctoral training, Dr. Kowalik was a Fellow of the Damon Runyon-Walter Winchell Cancer Research Fund and a Leukemia Society of America Special Fellow. In 1996, Dr. Kowalik joined the Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School where he is an associate professor.

    Cell activation and DNA viruses

    Photo: Timothy 
F. KowalikResearch in my laboratory centers around the regulation of cellular proliferation control especially from the perspective of an infecting virus. To maximize yields, small DNA tumor viruses encode activities which trick infected cells into proliferative states. This is often achieved by subverting normal homeostatic controls resulting in infected cells progressing into S phase. For small DNA viruses, this entails inactivating the Rb and p53 tumor suppressors. Rb inactivation results in the activation of the E2F transcription factor family which induces expression of genes involved in nucleotide and DNA biosynthesis. Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that Rb inactivation and induction of E2F transcriptional activity normally occur in late G1 and are central to the progression of cells through G1 and into S phase.

    Using recombinant adenovirus technology, we are presently examining the paradoxical relationship between growth activation by E2F1 overexpression and the resultant p53-dependent apoptotic cell death. We are also studying the consequences of Rb and p53 targeting by large DNA tumor viruses including members of the herpesvirus family.



    Collapse Rotation Projects

    Rotation Projects

    1. Identify the region on E2F1 responsible for p53-mediated apoptosis. We know that a transcriptionally functional E2F1 is required for apoptosis signaling. We also know that E2F2 does not induce apoptosis in our system. Therefore, domains on E2F1 and E2F2 will be swapped to determine which E2F1 domain is responsible for apoptosis signaling.


    2. Role of nuclear kinases in E2F1 mediated apoptosis. Our recent efforts have revealed that E2F1 expression leads to the phosphorylation of p53 and this modification correlates with apoptosis. There are several candidate kinases that need to be analyzed for their contribution to p53 phosphorylation. A dominant negative approach will be used in this project to identify which kinase(s) contribute to the E2F1 signal to p53.


    3. Role of CMV IE proteins in proliferation. We have found that both IE1 and IE2 target different Rb family members. IE2 binds to Rb and IE1 interacts with p107. We now know that IE2 is a strong inducer of S phase but IE1 can only significantly modulate proliferation in cells lacking p53. We are interested in knowing why p53 can prevent IE1 from inducing S phase.


    4. Mechanism of p53 accumulation by CMV. It has recently been shown that CMV infection results in an accumulation of p53. We have recently found that IE1 expression also leads to p53 accumulation. We wish to determine the steps leading to p53 accumulation and the consequences of this event.


    Collapse Post Docs

    Postdoctoral positions are available to study the relationship(s) between the Rb/E2F proliferation pathway and p53-dependent apoptosis. Areas of investigation include understanding why E2F1 is unique among the E2F family in its strong apoptosis signaling ability and determining the pathways that lead from E2F1 activation to cell death. Fellows will be associated with a highly motivated and interactive group of researchers studying aspects of cell cycle, apoptosis signaling and cancer using cell culture, virology and animal models.

    If interested, please contact:

      Timothy Kowalik
      Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
      University of Massachusetts Medical School
      55 Lake Avenue North
      Worcester, MA 01655

    The University of Massachusetts Medical School is an Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity Employer.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Thijssen MF, Brüggenwirth IMA, Gillooly A, Khvorova A, Kowalik TF, Martins PN. Gene Silencing with siRNA (RNA Interference): A New Therapeutic Option during Ex-vivo Machine Liver Perfusion Preservation. Liver Transpl. 2018 Dec 18. PMID: 30561891.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Prachanronarong KL, Canale AS, Liu P, Somasundaran M, Hou S, Poh YP, Han T, Zhu Q, Renzette N, Zeldovich KB, Kowalik TF, Kurt-Yilmaz N, Jensen JD, Bolon DNA, Marasco WA, Finberg RW, Schiffer CA, Wang JP. Mutations in influenza A virus neuraminidase and hemagglutinin confer resistance against a broadly neutralizing hemagglutinin stem antibody. J Virol. 2018 Oct 31. PMID: 30381484.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Canale AS, Venev SV, Whitfield TW, Caffrey DR, Marasco WA, Schiffer CA, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD, Finberg RW, Zeldovich KB, Wang JP, Bolon DNA. Synonymous mutations at the beginning of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin gene impact experimental fitness. J Mol Biol. 2018 Feb 18. PMID: 29466705.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Sackman AM, Pfeifer SP, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD. On the Demographic and Selective Forces Shaping Patterns of Human Cytomegalovirus Variation within Hosts. Pathogens. 2018 Jan 28; 7(1). PMID: 29382090.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Avnir Y, Prachanronarong KL, Zhang Z, Hou S, Peterson EC, Sui J, Zayed H, Kurella VB, McGuire AT, Stamatatos L, Hilbert BJ, Bohn MF, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD, Finberg RW, Wang JP, Goodall M, Jefferis R, Zhu Q, Kurt Yilmaz N, Schiffer CA, Marasco WA. Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope. Cell Rep. 2017 Dec 12; 21(11):3243-3255. PMID: 29241550.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ormond L, Liu P, Matuszewski S, Renzette N, Bank C, Zeldovich K, Bolon DN, Kowalik TF, Finberg RW, Jensen JD, Wang JP. The Combined Effect of Oseltamivir and Favipiravir on Influenza A Virus Evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 2017 Jul 01; 9(7):1913-1924. PMID: 28854600.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Renzette N, Pfeifer SP, Matuszewski S, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD. On the Analysis of Intrahost and Interhost Viral Populations: Human Cytomegalovirus as a Case Study of Pitfalls and Expectations. J Virol. 2017 Mar 01; 91(5). PMID: 27974561.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Pokalyuk C, Renzette N, Irwin KK, Pfeifer SP, Gibson L, Britt WJ, Yamamoto AY, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD. Characterizing human cytomegalovirus reinfection in congenitally infected infants: an evolutionary perspective. Mol Ecol. 2016 Dec 18. PMID: 27988973.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Prachanronarong KL, Özen A, Thayer KM, Yilmaz LS, Zeldovich KB, Bolon DN, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD, Finberg RW, Wang JP, Kurt-Yilmaz N, Schiffer CA. Molecular Basis for Differential Patterns of Drug Resistance in Influenza N1 and N2 Neuraminidase. J Chem Theory Comput. 2016 Dec 13; 12(12):6098-6108. PMID: 27951676.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Bank C, Renzette N, Liu P, Matuszewski S, Shim H, Foll M, Bolon DN, Zeldovich KB, Kowalik TF, Finberg RW, Wang JP, Jensen JD. An experimental evaluation of drug-induced mutational meltdown as an antiviral treatment strategy. Evolution. 2016 Nov; 70(11):2470-2484. PMID: 27566611.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Savidis G, McDougall WM, Meraner P, Perreira JM, Portmann JM, Trincucci G, John SP, Aker AM, Renzette N, Robbins DR, Guo Z, Green S, Kowalik TF, Brass AL. Identification of Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Dependency Factors using Functional Genomics. Cell Rep. 2016 Jun 28; 16(1):232-46. PMID: 27342126.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Irwin KK, Renzette N, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD. Antiviral drug resistance as an adaptive process. Virus Evol. 2016 Jan; 2(1):vew014. PMID: 28694997.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Deere JD, Chang WL, Castillo LD, Schmidt KA, Kieu HT, Renzette N, Kowalik T, Barthold SW, Shacklett BL, Barry PA, Sparger EE. Utilizing a TLR5-Adjuvanted Cytomegalovirus as a Lentiviral Vaccine in the Nonhuman Primate Model for AIDS. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155629. PMID: 27182601.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Jiang L, Liu P, Bank C, Renzette N, Prachanronarong K, Yilmaz LS, Caffrey DR, Zeldovich KB, Schiffer CA, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD, Finberg RW, Wang JP, Bolon DN. A Balance between Inhibitor Binding and Substrate Processing Confers Influenza Drug Resistance. J Mol Biol. 2016 Feb 13; 428(3):538-53. PMID: 26656922.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Renzette N, Kowalik TF, Jensen JD. On the relative roles of background selection and genetic hitchhiking in shaping human cytomegalovirus genetic diversity. Mol Ecol. 2016 Jan; 25(1):403-13. PMID: 26211679.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Renzette N, Pokalyuk C, Gibson L, Bhattacharjee B, Schleiss MR, Hamprecht K, Yamamoto AY, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Britt WJ, Jensen JD, Kowalik TF. Limits and patterns of cytomegalovirus genomic diversity in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 28; 112(30):E4120-8. PMID: 26150505.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Zeldovich KB, Liu P, Renzette N, Foll M, Pham ST, Venev SV, Gallagher GR, Bolon DN, Kurt-Jones EA, Jensen JD, Caffrey DR, Schiffer CA, Kowalik TF, Wang JP, Finberg RW. Positive Selection Drives Preferred Segment Combinations during Influenza Virus Reassortment. Mol Biol Evol. 2015 Jun; 32(6):1519-32. PMID: 25713211.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Renzette N, Gibson L, Jensen JD, Kowalik TF. Human cytomegalovirus intrahost evolution-a new avenue for understanding and controlling herpesvirus infections. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Oct; 8:109-15. PMID: 25154343.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Xiaofei E, Kowalik TF. The DNA damage response induced by infection with human cytomegalovirus and other viruses. Viruses. 2014 May 23; 6(5):2155-85. PMID: 24859341.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Foll M, Poh YP, Renzette N, Ferrer-Admetlla A, Bank C, Shim H, Malaspinas AS, Ewing G, Liu P, Wegmann D, Caffrey DR, Zeldovich KB, Bolon DN, Wang JP, Kowalik TF, Schiffer CA, Finberg RW, Jensen JD. Influenza virus drug resistance: a time-sampled population genetics perspective. PLoS Genet. 2014 Feb; 10(2):e1004185. PMID: 24586206.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Renzette N, Somasundaran M, Brewster F, Coderre J, Weiss ER, McManus M, Greenough T, Tabak B, Garber M, Kowalik TF, Luzuriaga K. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 genetic variability in peripheral blood B cells and oropharyngeal fluids. J Virol. 2014 Apr; 88(7):3744-55. PMID: 24429365.
      View in: PubMed
    22. E X, Savidis G, Chin CR, Wang S, Lu S, Brass AL, Kowalik TF. A novel DDB2-ATM feedback loop regulates human cytomegalovirus replication. J Virol. 2014 Feb; 88(4):2279-90. PMID: 24335308.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Renzette N, Caffrey DR, Zeldovich KB, Liu P, Gallagher GR, Aiello D, Porter AJ, Kurt-Jones EA, Bolon DN, Poh YP, Jensen JD, Schiffer CA, Kowalik TF, Finberg RW, Wang JP. Evolution of the influenza A virus genome during development of oseltamivir resistance in vitro. J Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(1):272-81. PMID: 24155392.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Renzette N, Gibson L, Bhattacharjee B, Fisher D, Schleiss MR, Jensen JD, Kowalik TF. Rapid intrahost evolution of human cytomegalovirus is shaped by demography and positive selection. PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(9):e1003735. PMID: 24086142.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Bhattacharjee B, Renzette N, Kowalik TF. Genetic analysis of cytomegalovirus in malignant gliomas. J Virol. 2012 Jun; 86(12):6815-24. PMID: 22496213.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Xiaofei E, Stadler BM, Debatis M, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(10):5660-73. PMID: 22438545.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Renzette N, Bhattacharjee B, Jensen JD, Gibson L, Kowalik TF. Extensive genome-wide variability of human cytomegalovirus in congenitally infected infants. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001344. PMID: 21625576.
      View in: PubMed
    28. E X, Pickering MT, Debatis M, Castillo J, Lagadinos A, Wang S, Lu S, Kowalik TF. An E2F1-mediated DNA damage response contributes to the replication of human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001342. PMID: 21589897.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Oh S, E X, Ni D, Pirooz SD, Lee JY, Lee D, Zhao Z, Lee S, Lee H, Ku B, Kowalik T, Martin SE, Oh BH, Jung JU, Liang C. Downregulation of autophagy by Bcl-2 promotes MCF7 breast cancer cell growth independent of its inhibition of apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2011 Mar; 18(3):452-64. PMID: 20885445.
      View in: PubMed
    30. E X, Hwang S, Oh S, Lee JS, Jeong JH, Gwack Y, Kowalik TF, Sun R, Jung JU, Liang C. Viral Bcl-2-mediated evasion of autophagy aids chronic infection of gammaherpesvirus 68. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct; 5(10):e1000609. PMID: 19816569.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Pickering MT, Stadler BM, Kowalik TF. miR-17 and miR-20a temper an E2F1-induced G1 checkpoint to regulate cell cycle progression. Oncogene. 2009 Jan 8; 28(1):140-5. PMID: 18836483.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Ghosh JC, Dohi T, Raskett CM, Kowalik TF, Altieri DC. Activated checkpoint kinase 2 provides a survival signal for tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2006 Dec 15; 66(24):11576-9. PMID: 17178848.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Liang X, Pickering MT, Cho NH, Chang H, Volkert MR, Kowalik TF, Jung JU. Deregulation of DNA damage signal transduction by herpesvirus latency-associated M2. J Virol. 2006 Jun; 80(12):5862-74. PMID: 16731925.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Shin YC, Nakamura H, Liang X, Feng P, Chang H, Kowalik TF, Jung JU. Inhibition of the ATM/p53 signal transduction pathway by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interferon regulatory factor 1. J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(5):2257-66. PMID: 16474133.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Pickering MT, Kowalik TF. Rb inactivation leads to E2F1-mediated DNA double-strand break accumulation. Oncogene. 2006 Feb 2; 25(5):746-55. PMID: 16186801.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Frame FM, Rogoff HA, Pickering MT, Cress WD, Kowalik TF. E2F1 induces MRN foci formation and a cell cycle checkpoint response in human fibroblasts. Oncogene. 2006 Jun 1; 25(23):3258-66. PMID: 16434972.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Bradley SP, Rastellini C, da Costa MA, Kowalik TF, Bloomenthal AB, Brown M, Cicalese L, Basadonna GP, Uknis ME. Gene silencing in the endocrine pancreas mediated by short-interfering RNA. Pancreas. 2005 Nov; 31(4):373-9. PMID: 16258373.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Castillo JP, Frame FM, Rogoff HA, Pickering MT, Yurochko AD, Kowalik TF. Human cytomegalovirus IE1-72 activates ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase and a p53/p21-mediated growth arrest response. J Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(17):11467-75. PMID: 16103197.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Bradley SP, Kowalik TF, Rastellini C, da Costa MA, Bloomenthal AB, Cicalese L, Basadonna GP, Uknis ME. Successful incorporation of short-interfering RNA into islet cells by in situ perfusion. Transplant Proc. 2005 Jan-Feb; 37(1):233-6. PMID: 15808605.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Rogoff HA, Kowalik TF. Life, death and E2F: linking proliferation control and DNA damage signaling via E2F1. Cell Cycle. 2004 Jul; 3(7):845-6. PMID: 15190206.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Rogoff HA, Pickering MT, Frame FM, Debatis ME, Sanchez Y, Jones S, Kowalik TF. Apoptosis associated with deregulated E2F activity is dependent on E2F1 and Atm/Nbs1/Chk2. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Apr; 24(7):2968-77. PMID: 15024084.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Castillo JP, Kowalik TF. HCMV infection: modulating the cell cycle and cell death. Int Rev Immunol. 2004 Jan-Apr; 23(1-2):113-39. PMID: 14690857.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Heinen CD, Goss KH, Cornelius JR, Babcock GF, Knudsen ES, Kowalik T, Groden J. The APC tumor suppressor controls entry into S-phase through its ability to regulate the cyclin D/RB pathway. Gastroenterology. 2002 Sep; 123(3):751-63. PMID: 12198702.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Rogoff HA, Pickering MT, Debatis ME, Jones S, Kowalik TF. E2F1 induces phosphorylation of p53 that is coincident with p53 accumulation and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 22(15):5308-18. PMID: 12101227.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Kowalik TF. Smad about E2F. TGFbeta repressionof c-Myc via a Smad3/E2F/p107 complex. Mol Cell. 2002 Jul; 10(1):7-8. PMID: 12150900.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Angus SP, Fribourg AF, Markey MP, Williams SL, Horn HF, DeGregori J, Kowalik TF, Fukasawa K, Knudsen ES. Active RB elicits late G1/S inhibition. Exp Cell Res. 2002 Jun 10; 276(2):201-13. PMID: 12027450.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Castillo JP, Kowalik TF. Human cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins and cell growth control. Gene. 2002 May 15; 290(1-2):19-34. PMID: 12062798.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Strobeck MW, Reisman DN, Gunawardena RW, Betz BL, Angus SP, Knudsen KE, Kowalik TF, Weissman BE, Knudsen ES. Compensation of BRG-1 function by Brm: insight into the role of the core SWI-SNF subunits in retinoblastoma tumor suppressor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 15; 277(7):4782-9. PMID: 11719516.
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    49. Stachelek SJ, Kowalik TF, Farwell AP, Leonard JL. Myosin V plays an essential role in the thyroid hormone-dependent endocytosis of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 13; 275(41):31701-7. PMID: 10882730.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Castillo JP, Yurochko AD, Kowalik TF. Role of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early proteins in cell growth control. J Virol. 2000 Sep; 74(17):8028-37. PMID: 10933712.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Leonard DM, Stachelek SJ, Safran M, Farwell AP, Kowalik TF, Leonard JL. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of the substrate binding subunit of rat type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Aug 18; 275(33):25194-201. PMID: 10829019.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Kowalik TF, DeGregori J, Leone G, Jakoi L, Nevins JR. E2F1-specific induction of apoptosis and p53 accumulation, which is blocked by Mdm2. Cell Growth Differ. 1998 Feb; 9(2):113-8. PMID: 9486847.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Datto MB, Hu PP, Kowalik TF, Yingling J, Wang XF. The viral oncoprotein E1A blocks transforming growth factor beta-mediated induction of p21/WAF1/Cip1 and p15/INK4B. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Apr; 17(4):2030-7. PMID: 9121451.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Poma EE, Kowalik TF, Zhu L, Sinclair JH, Huang ES. The human cytomegalovirus IE1-72 protein interacts with the cellular p107 protein and relieves p107-mediated transcriptional repression of an E2F-responsive promoter. J Virol. 1996 Nov; 70(11):7867-77. PMID: 8892909.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Yurochko AD, Kowalik TF, Huong SM, Huang ES. Human cytomegalovirus upregulates NF-kappa B activity by transactivating the NF-kappa B p105/p50 and p65 promoters. J Virol. 1995 Sep; 69(9):5391-400. PMID: 7636984.
      View in: PubMed
    56. DeGregori J, Kowalik T, Nevins JR. Cellular targets for activation by the E2F1 transcription factor include DNA synthesis- and G1/S-regulatory genes. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Aug; 15(8):4215-24. PMID: 7623816.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Kowalik TF, DeGregori J, Schwarz JK, Nevins JR. E2F1 overexpression in quiescent fibroblasts leads to induction of cellular DNA synthesis and apoptosis. J Virol. 1995 Apr; 69(4):2491-500. PMID: 7884898.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Kowalik TF, Yurochko AD, Rinehart CA, Lee CY, Huang ES. Productive infection of human endometrial stromal cells by human cytomegalovirus. Virology. 1994 Jul; 202(1):247-57. PMID: 8009835.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lee CY, Wong E, Hsu E, Kowalik T, Huang ES. Molecular identity of a sperm acrosome antigen recognized by HS-63 monoclonal antibody. J Reprod Immunol. 1993 Aug; 24(3):235-47. PMID: 8230001.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Furnari BA, Poma E, Kowalik TF, Huong SM, Huang ES. Human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene 2 protein interacts with itself and with several novel cellular proteins. J Virol. 1993 Aug; 67(8):4981-91. PMID: 8392623.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Duckett CS, Perkins ND, Kowalik TF, Schmid RM, Huang ES, Baldwin AS, Nabel GJ. Dimerization of NF-KB2 with RelA(p65) regulates DNA binding, transcriptional activation, and inhibition by an I kappa B-alpha (MAD-3). Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Mar; 13(3):1315-22. PMID: 8441377.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Kowalik TF, Wing B, Haskill JS, Azizkhan JC, Baldwin AS, Huang ES. Multiple mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of NF-kappa B activity during human cytomegalovirus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 1; 90(3):1107-11. PMID: 8381532.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Wade M, Kowalik TF, Mudryj M, Huang ES, Azizkhan JC. E2F mediates dihydrofolate reductase promoter activation and multiprotein complex formation in human cytomegalovirus infection. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Oct; 12(10):4364-74. PMID: 1328853.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Kowalik TF, Li JK. Bluetongue virus evolution: sequence analyses of the genomic S1 segments and major core protein VP7. Virology. 1991 Apr; 181(2):749-55. PMID: 1849684.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Kowalik TF, Yang YY, Li JK. Molecular cloning and comparative sequence analyses of bluetongue virus S1 segments by selective synthesis of specific full-length DNA copies of dsRNA genes. Virology. 1990 Aug; 177(2):820-3. PMID: 2164738.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Kowalik TF, Li JK. Sequence analyses and structural predictions of double-stranded RNA segment S1 and VP7 from United States prototype bluetongue virus serotypes 13 and 10. Virology. 1989 Sep; 172(1):189-95. PMID: 2549709.
      View in: PubMed
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