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Joseph R DiFranza MD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United StatesBSPsychology
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview


    Joseph DiFranza, MD, Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health, is a recognized national expert on adolescent tobacco utilization. Since 1980, Dr. DiFranza has been conducting research on the topic of tobacco. His research covers a range of tobacco-related topics including the onset of nicotine dependence, the effects of tobacco advertising, tobacco industry public relations programs, tobacco-related complications of pregnancy, school smoking cessation programs, and the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. Dr. DiFranza is recognized nationally for his contribution to the efforts to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children.

    Click here to view Dr. Difranza's curriculum vitae


    Longitudinal Preceptor Program


    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, Doctor of Medicine, 1981
    University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Bachelor of Science, Summa Cum Laude, Psychology 1976
    Honor Societies: Phi Beta Kappa, Kappa Phi
    University of Massachusetts Medical Center Family Practice Residency Program, Worcester, 1981 1984
    Fellowship in faculty development, University of North Carolina , 1984 1985
    Board Certified by the American Board of Family Medicine 1984, recertified 1990-1997, 1996-2003, 2004-


    Tobacco Control Resource Center, Board of Directors (1985-present)
    American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research Tobacco Consortium 2001

    Scholarly Activity

    National Institute on Drug Abuse. “The Transition to Nicotine Dependence.” October 2001- September 2006. $1.8 million. 5 RO1 DA14666-01

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: The Synar Amendment: Past, Present and Future. July 1, 2001- June 30, 2004. $121,754 #0456644

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Ebrahimi Kalan M, Bahelah R, Bursac Z, Ben Taleb Z, DiFranza JR, Tleis M, Nakkash R, Jebai R, Alam MM, Cano M?, Sutherland MT, Fenni K, Asfar T, Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Maziak W. Predictors of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe and cigarette smokers: A 6-year longitudinal analysis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 12 01; 217:108346. PMID: 33075692.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Bentivegna K, Atuegwu NC, Oncken C, DiFranza JR, Mortensen EM. Electronic Cigarettes Associated With Incident and Polysubstance Use Among Youth. J Adolesc Health. 2021 01; 68(1):123-129. PMID: 32641242.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Ebrahimi Kalan M, Behaleh R, DiFranza JR, Bursac Z, Ben Taleb Z, Tleis M, Asfar T, Nakkash R, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Natural Course of Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescent Waterpipe and Cigarette Smokers. J Adolesc Health. 2020 12; 67(6):859-867. PMID: 32622925.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Levinson AH, Lee JGL, Jason LA, DiFranza JR. Asking for Identification and Retail Tobacco Sales to Minors. Pediatrics. 2020 05; 145(5). PMID: 32321778.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. DiFranza JR. Neural Remodeling Begins With the First Cigarette. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2020 06; 5(6):629-630. PMID: 32198003.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Levinson AH, Ma M, Jason LA, Lee JGL, Landrine H, Glueck DH, DiFranza JR. Assessment of the US Federal Retailer Violation Rate as an Estimate of the Proportion of Retailers That Illegally Sell Tobacco to Adolescents. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 10 01; 172(10):966-972. PMID: 30128544.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    7. Bahelah R, Ward KD, Ben Taleb Z, DiFranza JR, Eissenberg T, Jaber R, Maziak W. Determinants of progression of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescent waterpipe smokers. Tob Control. 2019 05; 28(3):254-260. PMID: 29895703.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Poirier GL, Huang W, Tam K, DiFranza JR, King JA. Evidence of Altered Brain Responses to Nicotine in an Animal Model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Sep 01; 19(9):1016-1023. PMID: 28444321.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    9. Thompson MF, Poirier GL, D?vila-Garc?a MI, Huang W, Tam K, Robidoux M, Dubuke ML, Shaffer SA, Colon-Perez L, Febo M, DiFranza JR, King JA. Menthol enhances nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and in vivo functional connectivity in adolescence. J Psychopharmacol. 2018 03; 32(3):332-343. PMID: 28747086.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    10. Kim SS, Fang H, Bernstein K, Zhang Z, DiFranza J, Ziedonis D, Allison J. Acculturation, Depression, and Smoking Cessation: a trajectory pattern recognition approach. Tob Induc Dis. 2017; 15:33. PMID: 28747857.
    11. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Fouad FM, Taleb ZB, Jaber R, Maziak W. Waterpipe smoking patterns and symptoms of nicotine dependence: The Waterpipe Dependence in Lebanese Youth Study. Addict Behav. 2017 11; 74:127-133. PMID: 28624697.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. DiFranza JR. Can tobacco dependence provide insights into other drug addictions? BMC Psychiatry. 2016 10 27; 16(1):365. PMID: 27784294.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Ward KD, Fouad FM, Eissenberg T, Ben Taleb Z, Jaber R, Osibogun O, Maziak W. Correlates of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Nov 01; 168:230-238. PMID: 27716576.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Walton D, Newcombe R, Li J, Tu D, DiFranza JR. Stages of physical dependence in New Zealand smokers: Prevalence and correlates. Addict Behav. 2016 12; 63:161-4. PMID: 27513594.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. DiFranza JR, Bhuvaneswar C, Jolicoeur D, Tanski SE, Winickoff J. Tobacco Use Disorder: A Family Disease. J Addict Med. 2016 May-Jun; 10(3):143-7. PMID: 26900668.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    16. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Fouad FM, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Early symptoms of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers. Tob Control. 2016 12; 25(e2):e127-e134. PMID: 27113610.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Christophi CA, Pampaka D, Paisi M, Ioannou S, DiFranza JR. Levels of physical dependence on tobacco among adolescent smokers in Cyprus. Addict Behav. 2016 09; 60:148-53. PMID: 27149692.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Morgenstern M, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Hanewinkel R. Relationship between early symptoms of alcohol craving and binge drinking 2.5 years later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Mar 01; 160:183-9. PMID: 26832933.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Kleinjan M, Engels RC, DiFranza JR. Parental smoke exposure and the development of nicotine craving in adolescent novice smokers: the roles of DRD2, DRD4, and OPRM1 genotypes. BMC Pulm Med. 2015 Oct 08; 15:115. PMID: 26449981.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. Pbert L, Druker S, Flint AJ, Young MH, DiFranza JR. Perspectives in Implementing a Pragmatic Pediatric Primary Care-Based Intervention Trial. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Sep; 49(3 Suppl 2):S200-7. PMID: 26296555.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults. Addict Behav. 2015 Nov; 50:217-21. PMID: 26162621.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Towns S, DiFranza JR, Jayasuriya G, Marshall T, Shah S. Smoking Cessation in Adolescents: targeted approaches that work. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2017 Mar; 22:11-22. PMID: 26187717.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Wellman RJ, Edelen MO, DiFranza JR. Item Response Theory analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS). Addict Behav. 2015 Jun; 45:195-200. PMID: 25697726.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Huang W, Tam K, Fernando J, Heffernan M, King J, DiFranza JR. Nicotine and Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Effects of Intermittent Doses. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Nov; 17(11):1311-7. PMID: 25646348.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. DiFranza JR. A 2015 Update on The Natural History and Diagnosis of Nicotine Addiction. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2015; 11(1):43-55. PMID: 25938380.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Winickoff JP, Hartman L, Chen ML, Gottlieb M, Nabi-Burza E, DiFranza JR. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years. Am J Public Health. 2014 Nov; 104(11):e18-21. PMID: 25211755.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. DiFranza JR. Commentary on Hu et?al. (2014): the validity of the DSM is not a 'given'. Addiction. 2014 Sep; 109(9):1529-30. PMID: 25103104.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Recalled first reactions to inhaling nicotine predict the level of physical dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Oct 01; 143:167-72. PMID: 25108583.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. O'Loughlin J, Dugas EN, Brunet J, DiFranza J, Engert JC, Gervais A, Gray-Donald K, Karp I, Low NC, Sabiston C, Sylvestre MP, Tyndale RF, Auger N, Auger N, Mathieu B, Tracie B, Chaiton M, Chenoweth MJ, Constantin E, Contreras G, Kakinami L, Labbe A, Maximova K, McMillan E, O'Loughlin EK, Pabayo R, Roy-Gagnon MH, Tremblay M, Wellman RJ, Hulst A, Paradis G. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Oct; 44(5):1537-46. PMID: 25022274.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Scragg R, Difranza JR, Youdan B, Laugesen M, Glover M. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status as risk factors for rapid onset of tobacco addiction. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2014 Apr; 38(2):194-5. PMID: 24690062.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Huang W, King JA, Ursprung WW, Zheng S, Zhang N, Kennedy DN, Ziedonis D, DiFranza JR. The development and expression of physical nicotine dependence corresponds to structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate-precuneus pathway. Brain Behav. 2014 May; 4(3):408-17. PMID: 24944870.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Huang W, DiFranza JR, Kennedy DN, Zhang N, Ziedonis D, Ursprung S, King JA. Progressive levels of physical dependence to tobacco coincide with changes in the anterior cingulum bundle microstructure. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67837. PMID: 23861816.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Beccia A, Ursprung WW, McMillen R. What aspect of dependence does the fagerstr?m test for nicotine dependence measure? ISRN Addict. 2013; 2013:906276. PMID: 25969829.
    34. Schuck K, Kleinjan M, Otten R, Engels RC, DiFranza JR. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure? J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 27(6):533-40. PMID: 23139384.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    35. DiFranza JR, Huang W, King J. Neuroadaptation in nicotine addiction: update on the sensitization-homeostasis model. Brain Sci. 2012 Oct 17; 2(4):523-52. PMID: 24961259.
    36. Martin SA, Celli BR, DiFranza JR, Krinzman SJ, Clarke JG, Beam H, Howard S, Foster M, Goldberg RJ. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban. BMC Pulm Med. 2012 Oct 15; 12:64. PMID: 23067295.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Kim SS, Fang H, Difranza J, Ziedonis DM, Ma GX. Gender Differences in the Fagerstr?m Test for Nicotine Dependence in Korean Americans. J Smok Cessat. 2012 Aug 01; 7(1):1-6. PMID: 22936953.
    38. DiFranza JR, Masaquel A, Barrett AM, Colosia AD, Mahadevia PJ. Systematic literature review assessing tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for serious respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children. BMC Pediatr. 2012 Jun 21; 12:81. PMID: 22721493.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    39. Difranza JR, Savageau JA, Wellman RJ. A comparison of the autonomy over tobacco scale and the Fagerstr?m test for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2012 Jul; 37(7):856-61. PMID: 22472522.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW, Biller L. The developmental sequence of tobacco withdrawal symptoms of wanting, craving and needing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Jan; 100(3):494-7. PMID: 22044715.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Pbert L, Druker S, DiFranza JR, Gorak D, Reed G, Magner R, Sheetz AH, Osganian S. Effectiveness of a school nurse-delivered smoking-cessation intervention for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov; 128(5):926-36. PMID: 22007015.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. DiFranza JR. Which interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors can be expected to reduce smoking? Tob Control. 2012 Jul; 21(4):436-42. PMID: 21994275.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. DiFranza JR. Research opportunities concerning youth and the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jan; 14(1):54-61. PMID: 21975309.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. DiFranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau J, Ursprung WW. An evaluation of a clinical approach to staging tobacco addiction. J Pediatr. 2011 Dec; 159(6):999-1003.e1. PMID: 21784437.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA. Does progression through the stages of physical addiction indicate increasing overall addiction to tobacco? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Feb; 219(3):815-22. PMID: 21779781.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. DiFranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau JA, Ursprung WW. The assessment of tobacco dependence in young users of smokeless tobacco. Tob Control. 2012 Sep; 21(5):471-6. PMID: 21712393.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. King J, Huang W, Chen W, Heffernan M, Shields J, Rane P, Bircher R, DiFranza JR. A comparison of brain and behavioral effects of varenicline and nicotine in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30; 223(1):42-7. PMID: 21527291.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Ursprung WW, Morello P, Gershenson B, DiFranza JR. Development of a measure of the latency to needing a cigarette. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Apr; 48(4):338-43. PMID: 21402261.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. DiFranza JR. Who are you going to believe? Adolescents and nicotine addiction. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jan; 48(1):1-2. PMID: 21185515.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Soteriades ES, Spanoudis G, Talias MA, Warren CW, DiFranza JR. Children's loss of autonomy over smoking: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Tob Control. 2011 May; 20(3):201-6. PMID: 21109683.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Difranza JR. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method. Harm Reduct J. 2010 Nov 04; 7:26. PMID: 21050440.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    
    52. DiFranza JR. Commentary on Fidler & West (2010): Curtailing tobacco sales to minors. Addiction. 2010 Nov; 105(11):1989-90. PMID: 21064258.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW. A systematic review of the International Classification of Diseases criteria for the diagnosis of tobacco dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 Sep; 35(9):805-10. PMID: 20493638.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Doubeni CA, Reed G, Difranza JR. Early course of nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun; 125(6):1127-33. PMID: 20439592.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. Difranza J. A new approach to the diagnosis of tobacco addiction. Addiction. 2010 Mar; 105(3):381-2. PMID: 20402977.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    56. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW, Lauzon B, Bancej C, Wellman RJ, Ziedonis D, Kim SS, Gervais A, Meltzer B, McKay CE, O'Loughlin J, Okoli CT, Fortuna LR, Tremblay M. A systematic review of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 May; 35(5):373-82. PMID: 20056335.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Ursprung WW, Sabiston C. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale. Psychol Addict Behav. 2009 Dec; 23(4):656-65. PMID: 20025371.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Ursprung WW, DiFranza JR. The loss of autonomy over smoking in relation to lifetime cigarette consumption. Addict Behav. 2010 Jan; 35(1):14-8. PMID: 19717241.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. DiFranza J. Tobacco dependence in light smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Sep; 11(9):1122-3; author reply 1124-5. PMID: 19654236.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. O'Loughlin J, Karp I, Koulis T, Paradis G, Difranza J. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 01; 170(5):585-97. PMID: 19635735.
      Citations: 79     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW, Carson A. New insights into the compulsion to use tobacco from an adolescent case-series. J Adolesc. 2010 Feb; 33(1):209-14. PMID: 19406464.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher KE. Enforcement of underage sales laws as a predictor of daily smoking among adolescents: a national study. BMC Public Health. 2009 Apr 17; 9:107. PMID: 19374735.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    63. Tutt D, Bauer L, Difranza J. Restricting the retail supply of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Policy. 2009 Apr; 30(1):68-82. PMID: 19367302.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    64. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, DiFranza JR. Perceived accessibility of cigarettes among youth: a prospective cohort study. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Mar; 36(3):239-42. PMID: 19162433.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Savageau JA, Mowery PD, DiFranza JR. Symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes with non-daily use. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 01; 6(1):25-35. PMID: 19440267.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Ursprung WW, DiFranza SM, Costa AD, DiFranza JR. Might expectations explain early self-reported symptoms of nicotine dependence? Addict Behav. 2009 Feb; 34(2):227-31. PMID: 18986771.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    67. Difranza J. Smoking is not a mental illness. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2008 Aug; 2(4):411-4. PMID: 20477204.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    68. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, Difranza JR. Perceived accessibility as a predictor of youth smoking. Ann Fam Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 6(4):323-30. PMID: 18626032.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    69. DiFranza JR, Riggs N, Ann Pentz M. Time to re-examine old definitions of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1109-11. PMID: 18584475.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    70. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW. The latency to the onset of nicotine withdrawal: a test of the sensitization-homeostasis theory. Addict Behav. 2008 Sep; 33(9):1148-53. PMID: 18547736.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. DiFranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. Sci Am. 2008 May; 298(5):82-7. PMID: 18444329.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    72. Pbert L, Flint AJ, Fletcher KE, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza JR. Effect of a pediatric practice-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention for adolescents: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e738-47. PMID: 18381502.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    73. Difranza JR. Nicotine withdrawal in subthreshold smokers. Addiction. 2008 Mar; 103(3):511-2; author reply 512-3. PMID: 18269372.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. DiFranza JR, Richmond JB. Let the children be heard: lessons from studies of the early onset of tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):623-4. PMID: 18310213.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    75. Wellman R, McMillen R, Difranza J. Assessing college students' autonomy over smoking with the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Mar-Apr; 56(5):549-53. PMID: 18400667.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Li Z, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Kulkarni P, King JA. Imaging brain activation in nicotine-sensitized rats. Brain Res. 2008 Mar 14; 1199:91-9. PMID: 18279841.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. Scragg R, Wellman RJ, Laugesen M, DiFranza JR. Diminished autonomy over tobacco can appear with the first cigarettes. Addict Behav. 2008 May; 33(5):689-98. PMID: 18207651.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    78. Difranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. J Fam Pract. 2007 Dec; 56(12):1017-22. PMID: 18053441.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    79. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Pbert L, O'Loughlin J, McNeill AD, Ockene JK, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Wood C, Dussault G, Wellman RJ. Susceptibility to nicotine dependence: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth 2 study. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):e974-83. PMID: 17908753.
      Citations: 66     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    80. Laugesen M, Scragg R, Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. Prev Med. 2007 Dec; 45(6):454-9. PMID: 17707897.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    81. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, O'Loughlin J, Pbert L, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Hazelton J, Friedman K, Dussault G, Wood C, Wellman RJ. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth-2 study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Jul; 161(7):704-10. PMID: 17606835.
      Citations: 143     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    82. Kozlowski LT, Giovino GA, Edwards B, Difranza J, Foulds J, Hurt R, Niaura R, Sachs DP, Selby P, Dollar KM, Bowen D, Cummings KM, Counts M, Fox B, Sweanor D, Ahern F. Advice on using over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy-patch, gum, or lozenge-to quit smoking. Addict Behav. 2007 Oct; 32(10):2140-50. PMID: 17360126.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    83. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Sensitization to nicotine: how the animal literature might inform future human research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):9-20. PMID: 17365732.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    84. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ. Early dating and smoking initiation: Some thoughts about a common cause. Addiction. 2006 Dec; 101(12):1682-3. PMID: 17156163.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    85. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec; 160(12):1285-96. PMID: 17146027.
      Citations: 62     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    86. Fernando WW, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Oct; 188(3):335-42. PMID: 16953390.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    87. Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint AJ, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza J. Smoking prevention and cessation intervention delivery by pediatric providers, as assessed with patient exit interviews. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3):e810-24. PMID: 16950969.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    88. Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Difranza JR. A comparison of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and the Fagerstr?m Test for Nicotine Dependence in adult smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):575-80. PMID: 16920655.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    89. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun; 117(6):e1237-48. PMID: 16740823.
      Citations: 105     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    90. DiFranza JR. Best practices for enforcing state laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 Nov-Dec; 11(6):559-65. PMID: 16224293.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    91. Karp I, O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Hanley J, Difranza J. Smoking trajectories of adolescent novice smokers in a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Jul; 15(6):445-52. PMID: 15967392.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    92. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint A, Young MH, Druker S. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the hooked on nicotine checklist and the modified Fagerstr?m tolerance questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2006 Mar; 31(3):486-95. PMID: 15993004.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    93. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J. The effect of abstinence on cigarette consumption upon the resumption of smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):711-6. PMID: 15982825.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    94. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Wood C. Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):717-21. PMID: 15979812.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):9-26. PMID: 15804674.
      Citations: 73     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    96. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Friedman K, Hazelton J. Measuring adults' loss of autonomy over nicotine use: the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):157-61. PMID: 15804688.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    97. Wheeler KC, Fletcher KE, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. Screening adolescents for nicotine dependence: the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Sep; 35(3):225-30. PMID: 15313504.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    98. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Rigotti NA, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Trait anxiety and nicotine dependence in adolescents: a report from the DANDY study. Addict Behav. 2004 Jul; 29(5):911-9. PMID: 15219335.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    99. DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M. Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr; 113(4 Suppl):1007-15. PMID: 15060193.
      Citations: 260     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    100. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Recollections and repercussions of the first inhaled cigarette. Addict Behav. 2004 Feb; 29(2):261-72. PMID: 14732415.
      Citations: 72     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Preventing cancer by controlling youth tobacco use. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):261-7. PMID: 14702860.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    102. O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tyndale RF, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Clarke PB, Hanley J, Paradis G. Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Oct; 25(3):219-25. PMID: 14507528.
      Citations: 104     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    103. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR. Parent's socioeconomic status, adolescents' disposable income, and adolescents' smoking status in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003 Jul; 93(7):1155-60. PMID: 12835202.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    104. Pbert L, Moolchan ET, Muramoto M, Winickoff JP, Curry S, Lando H, Ossip-Klein D, Prokhorov AV, DiFranza J, Klein JD. The state of office-based interventions for youth tobacco use. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun; 111(6 Pt 1):e650-60. PMID: 12777581.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    105. DiFranza JR. Adolescents' acquisition of cigarettes through noncommercial sources. J Adolesc Health. 2003 May; 32(5):331-2; author reply 332. PMID: 12729980.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    106. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Nicolaou M. Symptoms of nicotine dependence and other predictors of student smoking at school: implications for school smoking policy. J Sch Health. 2003 Apr; 73(4):154-8. PMID: 12728614.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    107. Sargent JD, DiFranza JR. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003 Mar-Apr; 53(2):102-23. PMID: 12691267.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    108. DiFranza JR. A gadget can't fix what's wrong with the tobacco distribution system. J Public Health Policy. 2003; 24(3-4):269-73. PMID: 15015860.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    109. DiFranza JR. Implications of the autonomy theory of nicotine dependence. MedGenMed. 2002 Aug 28; 4(3):8. PMID: 12466751.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    110. O'Loughlin J, Kishchuk N, DiFranza J, Tremblay M, Paradis G. The hardest thing is the habit: a qualitative investigation of adolescent smokers' experience of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002 May; 4(2):201-9. PMID: 12028853.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    111. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the DANDY (Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youths) study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Apr; 156(4):397-403. PMID: 11929376.
      Citations: 128     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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