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Joseph R DiFranza MD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
Phone774-442-5658
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentFamily Medicine and Community Health

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentPsychiatry

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentClinical Population Health Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United StatesBSPsychology
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United StatesMD

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Biography

    Joseph DiFranza, MD, Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health, is a recognized national expert on adolescent tobacco utilization. Since 1980, Dr. DiFranza has been conducting research on the topic of tobacco. His research covers a range of tobacco-related topics including the onset of nicotine dependence, the effects of tobacco advertising, tobacco industry public relations programs, tobacco-related complications of pregnancy, school smoking cessation programs, and the effects of environmental tobacco smoke. Dr. DiFranza is recognized nationally for his contribution to the efforts to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children.

    Click here to view Dr. Difranza's curriculum vitae

    CurrentPositions

    Longitudinal Preceptor Program

    Education

    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, Doctor of Medicine, 1981
    University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Bachelor of Science, Summa Cum Laude, Psychology 1976
    Honor Societies: Phi Beta Kappa, Kappa Phi
    University of Massachusetts Medical Center Family Practice Residency Program, Worcester, 1981 1984
    Fellowship in faculty development, University of North Carolina , 1984 1985
    Board Certified by the American Board of Family Medicine 1984, recertified 1990-1997, 1996-2003, 2004-

    Affiliations

    Tobacco Control Resource Center, Board of Directors (1985-present)
    American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research Tobacco Consortium 2001

    Scholarly Activity

    National Institute on Drug Abuse. “The Transition to Nicotine Dependence.” October 2001- September 2006. $1.8 million. 5 RO1 DA14666-01

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation: The Synar Amendment: Past, Present and Future. July 1, 2001- June 30, 2004. $121,754 #0456644




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Bentivegna K, Atuegwu NC, Oncken C, DiFranza JR, Mortensen EM. Electronic Cigarettes Associated With Incident and Polysubstance Use Among Youth. J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jul 05. PMID: 32641242.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ebrahimi Kalan M, Behaleh R, DiFranza JR, Bursac Z, Ben Taleb Z, Tleis M, Asfar T, Nakkash R, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Natural Course of Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescent Waterpipe and Cigarette Smokers. J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jul 01. PMID: 32622925.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Levinson AH, Lee JGL, Jason LA, DiFranza JR. Asking for Identification and Retail Tobacco Sales to Minors. Pediatrics. 2020 Apr 22. PMID: 32321778.
      View in: PubMed
    4. DiFranza JR. Neural Remodeling Begins With the First Cigarette. Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2020 Mar 17. PMID: 32198003.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Levinson AH, Ma M, Jason LA, Lee JGL, Landrine H, Glueck DH, DiFranza JR. Assessment of the US Federal Retailer Violation Rate as an Estimate of the Proportion of Retailers That Illegally Sell Tobacco to Adolescents. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Aug 20. PMID: 30128544.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Bahelah R, Ward KD, Ben Taleb Z, DiFranza JR, Eissenberg T, Jaber R, Maziak W. Determinants of progression of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescent waterpipe smokers. Tob Control. 2018 Jun 12. PMID: 29895703.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kim SS, Fang H, Bernstein K, Zhang Z, DiFranza J, Ziedonis D, Allison J. Acculturation, Depression, and Smoking Cessation: a trajectory pattern recognition approach. Tob Induc Dis. 2017; 15:33. PMID: 28747857.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Thompson MF, Poirier GL, Dávila-García MI, Huang W, Tam K, Robidoux M, Dubuke ML, Shaffer SA, Colon-Perez L, Febo M, DiFranza JR, King JA. Menthol enhances nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and in vivo functional connectivity in adolescence. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Jul 01; 269881117719265. PMID: 28747086.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Fouad FM, Taleb ZB, Jaber R, Maziak W. Waterpipe smoking patterns and symptoms of nicotine dependence: The Waterpipe Dependence in Lebanese Youth Study. Addict Behav. 2017 Jun 07; 74:127-133. PMID: 28624697.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Poirier GL, Huang W, Tam K, DiFranza JR, King JA. Evidence of altered brain responses to nicotine in an animal model of ADHD. Nicotine Tob Res. 2017 Apr 22. PMID: 28444321.
      View in: PubMed
    11. DiFranza JR. Can tobacco dependence provide insights into other drug addictions? BMC Psychiatry. 2016 Oct 27; 16(1):365. PMID: 27784294.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Ward KD, Fouad FM, Eissenberg T, Ben Taleb Z, Jaber R, Osibogun O, Maziak W. Correlates of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Nov 01; 168:230-238. PMID: 27716576.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Walton D, Newcombe R, Li J, Tu D, DiFranza JR. Stages of physical dependence in New Zealand smokers: Prevalence and correlates. Addict Behav. 2016 Dec; 63:161-4. PMID: 27513594.
      View in: PubMed
    14. DiFranza JR, Bhuvaneswar C, Jolicoeur D, Tanski SE, Winickoff J. Tobacco Use Disorder: A Family Disease. J Addict Med. 2016 May-Jun; 10(3):143-7. PMID: 26900668.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Bahelah R, DiFranza JR, Fouad FM, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Early symptoms of nicotine dependence among adolescent waterpipe smokers. Tob Control. 2016 Dec; 25(e2):e127-e134. PMID: 27113610.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Christophi CA, Pampaka D, Paisi M, Ioannou S, DiFranza JR. Levels of physical dependence on tobacco among adolescent smokers in Cyprus. Addict Behav. 2016 Sep; 60:148-53. PMID: 27149692.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Morgenstern M, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Hanewinkel R. Relationship between early symptoms of alcohol craving and binge drinking 2.5 years later. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 Mar 01; 160:183-9. PMID: 26832933.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Kleinjan M, Engels RC, DiFranza JR. Parental smoke exposure and the development of nicotine craving in adolescent novice smokers: the roles of DRD2, DRD4, and OPRM1 genotypes. BMC Pulm Med. 2015; 15:115. PMID: 26449981.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Pbert L, Druker S, Flint AJ, Young MH, DiFranza JR. Perspectives in Implementing a Pragmatic Pediatric Primary Care-Based Intervention Trial. Am J Prev Med. 2015 Sep; 49(3 Suppl 2):S200-7. PMID: 26296555.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults. Addict Behav. 2015 Nov; 50:217-21. PMID: 26162621.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Towns S, DiFranza JR, Jayasuriya G, Marshall T, Shah S. Smoking Cessation in Adolescents: targeted approaches that work. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2015 Jun 11. PMID: 26187717.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Wellman RJ, Edelen MO, DiFranza JR. Item Response Theory analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS). Addict Behav. 2015 Jun; 45:195-200. PMID: 25697726.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Huang W, Tam K, Fernando J, Heffernan M, King J, DiFranza JR. Nicotine and Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Effects of Intermittent Doses. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015 Nov; 17(11):1311-7. PMID: 25646348.
      View in: PubMed
    24. DiFranza JR. A 2015 Update on The Natural History and Diagnosis of Nicotine Addiction. Curr Pediatr Rev. 2015; 11(1):43-55. PMID: 25938380.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Winickoff JP, Hartman L, Chen ML, Gottlieb M, Nabi-Burza E, DiFranza JR. Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years. Am J Public Health. 2014 Nov; 104(11):e18-21. PMID: 25211755.
      View in: PubMed
    26. DiFranza JR. Commentary on Hu et?al. (2014): the validity of the DSM is not a 'given'. Addiction. 2014 Sep; 109(9):1529-30. PMID: 25103104.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, O'Loughlin J. Recalled first reactions to inhaling nicotine predict the level of physical dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014 Oct 1; 143:167-72. PMID: 25108583.
      View in: PubMed
    28. O'Loughlin J, Dugas EN, Brunet J, DiFranza J, Engert JC, Gervais A, Gray-Donald K, Karp I, Low NC, Sabiston C, Sylvestre MP, Tyndale RF, Auger N, Auger N, Mathieu B, Tracie B, Chaiton M, Chenoweth MJ, Constantin E, Contreras G, Kakinami L, Labbe A, Maximova K, McMillan E, O'Loughlin EK, Pabayo R, Roy-Gagnon MH, Tremblay M, Wellman RJ, Hulst A, Paradis G. Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Oct; 44(5):1537-46. PMID: 25022274.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Scragg R, Difranza JR, Youdan B, Laugesen M, Glover M. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status as risk factors for rapid onset of tobacco addiction. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2014 Apr; 38(2):194-5. PMID: 24690062.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Huang W, King JA, Ursprung WW, Zheng S, Zhang N, Kennedy DN, Ziedonis D, DiFranza JR. The development and expression of physical nicotine dependence corresponds to structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate-precuneus pathway. Brain Behav. 2014 May; 4(3):408-17. PMID: 24944870.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Huang W, DiFranza JR, Kennedy DN, Zhang N, Ziedonis D, Ursprung S, King JA. Progressive levels of physical dependence to tobacco coincide with changes in the anterior cingulum bundle microstructure. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67837. PMID: 23861816.
      View in: PubMed
    32. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Beccia A, Ursprung WW, McMillen R. What aspect of dependence does the fagerström test for nicotine dependence measure? ISRN Addict. 2013; 2013:906276. PMID: 25969829.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Schuck K, Kleinjan M, Otten R, Engels RC, DiFranza JR. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure? J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 27(6):533-40. PMID: 23139384.
      View in: PubMed
    34. DiFranza JR, Huang W, King J. Neuroadaptation in nicotine addiction: update on the sensitization-homeostasis model. Brain Sci. 2012; 2(4):523-52. PMID: 24961259.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Martin SA, Celli BR, DiFranza JR, Krinzman SJ, Clarke JG, Beam H, Howard S, Foster M, Goldberg RJ. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban. BMC Pulm Med. 2012; 12:64. PMID: 23067295.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Kim SS, Fang H, Difranza J, Ziedonis DM, Ma GX. Gender Differences in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in Korean Americans. J Smok Cessat. 2012 Aug 1; 7(1):1-6. PMID: 22936953.
      View in: PubMed
    37. DiFranza JR, Masaquel A, Barrett AM, Colosia AD, Mahadevia PJ. Systematic literature review assessing tobacco smoke exposure as a risk factor for serious respiratory syncytial virus disease among infants and young children. BMC Pediatr. 2012; 12:81. PMID: 22721493.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Difranza JR, Savageau JA, Wellman RJ. A comparison of the autonomy over tobacco scale and the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2012 Jul; 37(7):856-61. PMID: 22472522.
      View in: PubMed
    39. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW, Biller L. The developmental sequence of tobacco withdrawal symptoms of wanting, craving and needing. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Jan; 100(3):494-7. PMID: 22044715.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Pbert L, Druker S, DiFranza JR, Gorak D, Reed G, Magner R, Sheetz AH, Osganian S. Effectiveness of a school nurse-delivered smoking-cessation intervention for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov; 128(5):926-36. PMID: 22007015.
      View in: PubMed
    41. DiFranza JR. Which interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors can be expected to reduce smoking? Tob Control. 2012 Jul; 21(4):436-42. PMID: 21994275.
      View in: PubMed
    42. DiFranza JR. Research opportunities concerning youth and the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jan; 14(1):54-61. PMID: 21975309.
      View in: PubMed
    43. DiFranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau J, Ursprung WW. An evaluation of a clinical approach to staging tobacco addiction. J Pediatr. 2011 Dec; 159(6):999-1003.e1. PMID: 21784437.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ, Savageau JA. Does progression through the stages of physical addiction indicate increasing overall addiction to tobacco? Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Feb; 219(3):815-22. PMID: 21779781.
      View in: PubMed
    45. DiFranza JR, Sweet M, Savageau JA, Ursprung WW. The assessment of tobacco dependence in young users of smokeless tobacco. Tob Control. 2012 Sep; 21(5):471-6. PMID: 21712393.
      View in: PubMed
    46. King J, Huang W, Chen W, Heffernan M, Shields J, Rane P, Bircher R, DiFranza JR. A comparison of brain and behavioral effects of varenicline and nicotine in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Sep 30; 223(1):42-7. PMID: 21527291.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Ursprung WW, Morello P, Gershenson B, DiFranza JR. Development of a measure of the latency to needing a cigarette. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Apr; 48(4):338-43. PMID: 21402261.
      View in: PubMed
    48. DiFranza JR. Who are you going to believe? Adolescents and nicotine addiction. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Jan; 48(1):1-2. PMID: 21185515.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Soteriades ES, Spanoudis G, Talias MA, Warren CW, DiFranza JR. Children's loss of autonomy over smoking: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Tob Control. 2011 May; 20(3):201-6. PMID: 21109683.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Difranza JR. Thwarting science by protecting the received wisdom on tobacco addiction from the scientific method. Harm Reduct J. 2010; 7:26. PMID: 21050440.
      View in: PubMed
    51. DiFranza JR. Commentary on Fidler & West (2010): Curtailing tobacco sales to minors. Addiction. 2010 Nov; 105(11):1989-90. PMID: 21064258.
      View in: PubMed
    52. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW. A systematic review of the International Classification of Diseases criteria for the diagnosis of tobacco dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 Sep; 35(9):805-10. PMID: 20493638.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Doubeni CA, Reed G, Difranza JR. Early course of nicotine dependence in adolescent smokers. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun; 125(6):1127-33. PMID: 20439592.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Difranza J. A new approach to the diagnosis of tobacco addiction. Addiction. 2010 Mar; 105(3):381-2. PMID: 20402977.
      View in: PubMed
    55. DiFranza J, Ursprung WW, Lauzon B, Bancej C, Wellman RJ, Ziedonis D, Kim SS, Gervais A, Meltzer B, McKay CE, O'Loughlin J, Okoli CT, Fortuna LR, Tremblay M. A systematic review of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria for nicotine dependence. Addict Behav. 2010 May; 35(5):373-82. PMID: 20056335.
      View in: PubMed
    56. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Ursprung WW, Sabiston C. The Autonomy Over Smoking Scale. Psychol Addict Behav. 2009 Dec; 23(4):656-65. PMID: 20025371.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Ursprung WW, DiFranza JR. The loss of autonomy over smoking in relation to lifetime cigarette consumption. Addict Behav. 2010 Jan; 35(1):14-8. PMID: 19717241.
      View in: PubMed
    58. DiFranza J. Tobacco dependence in light smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009 Sep; 11(9):1122-3; author reply 1124-5. PMID: 19654236.
      View in: PubMed
    59. O'Loughlin J, Karp I, Koulis T, Paradis G, Difranza J. Determinants of first puff and daily cigarette smoking in adolescents. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Sep 1; 170(5):585-97. PMID: 19635735.
      View in: PubMed
    60. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW, Carson A. New insights into the compulsion to use tobacco from an adolescent case-series. J Adolesc. 2010 Feb; 33(1):209-14. PMID: 19406464.
      View in: PubMed
    61. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher KE. Enforcement of underage sales laws as a predictor of daily smoking among adolescents: a national study. BMC Public Health. 2009; 9:107. PMID: 19374735.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Tutt D, Bauer L, Difranza J. Restricting the retail supply of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Policy. 2009 Apr; 30(1):68-82. PMID: 19367302.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, DiFranza JR. Perceived accessibility of cigarettes among youth: a prospective cohort study. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Mar; 36(3):239-42. PMID: 19162433.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Savageau JA, Mowery PD, DiFranza JR. Symptoms of diminished autonomy over cigarettes with non-daily use. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Jan; 6(1):25-35. PMID: 19440267.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Ursprung WW, DiFranza SM, Costa AD, DiFranza JR. Might expectations explain early self-reported symptoms of nicotine dependence? Addict Behav. 2009 Feb; 34(2):227-31. PMID: 18986771.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Difranza J. Smoking is not a mental illness. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2008 Aug; 2(4):411-4. PMID: 20477204.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Doubeni CA, Li W, Fouayzi H, Difranza JR. Perceived accessibility as a predictor of youth smoking. Ann Fam Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 6(4):323-30. PMID: 18626032.
      View in: PubMed
    68. DiFranza JR, Riggs N, Ann Pentz M. Time to re-examine old definitions of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008 Jun; 10(6):1109-11. PMID: 18584475.
      View in: PubMed
    69. DiFranza JR, Ursprung WW. The latency to the onset of nicotine withdrawal: a test of the sensitization-homeostasis theory. Addict Behav. 2008 Sep; 33(9):1148-53. PMID: 18547736.
      View in: PubMed
    70. DiFranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. Sci Am. 2008 May; 298(5):82-7. PMID: 18444329.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Pbert L, Flint AJ, Fletcher KE, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza JR. Effect of a pediatric practice-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention for adolescents: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2008 Apr; 121(4):e738-47. PMID: 18381502.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Difranza JR. Nicotine withdrawal in subthreshold smokers. Addiction. 2008 Mar; 103(3):511-2; author reply 512-3. PMID: 18269372.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Wellman R, McMillen R, Difranza J. Assessing college students' autonomy over smoking with the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Mar-Apr; 56(5):549-53. PMID: 18400667.
      View in: PubMed
    74. DiFranza JR, Richmond JB. Let the children be heard: lessons from studies of the early onset of tobacco addiction. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):623-4. PMID: 18310213.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Li Z, DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Kulkarni P, King JA. Imaging brain activation in nicotine-sensitized rats. Brain Res. 2008 Mar 14; 1199:91-9. PMID: 18279841.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Scragg R, Wellman RJ, Laugesen M, DiFranza JR. Diminished autonomy over tobacco can appear with the first cigarettes. Addict Behav. 2008 May; 33(5):689-98. PMID: 18207651.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Difranza JR. Hooked from the first cigarette. J Fam Pract. 2007 Dec; 56(12):1017-22. PMID: 18053441.
      View in: PubMed
    78. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Pbert L, O'Loughlin J, McNeill AD, Ockene JK, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Wood C, Dussault G, Wellman RJ. Susceptibility to nicotine dependence: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth 2 study. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct; 120(4):e974-83. PMID: 17908753.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Laugesen M, Scragg R, Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. Prev Med. 2007 Dec; 45(6):454-9. PMID: 17707897.
      View in: PubMed
    80. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, O'Loughlin J, Pbert L, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Hazelton J, Friedman K, Dussault G, Wood C, Wellman RJ. Symptoms of tobacco dependence after brief intermittent use: the Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth-2 study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007 Jul; 161(7):704-10. PMID: 17606835.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Kozlowski LT, Giovino GA, Edwards B, Difranza J, Foulds J, Hurt R, Niaura R, Sachs DP, Selby P, Dollar KM, Bowen D, Cummings KM, Counts M, Fox B, Sweanor D, Ahern F. Advice on using over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy-patch, gum, or lozenge-to quit smoking. Addict Behav. 2007 Oct; 32(10):2140-50. PMID: 17360126.
      View in: PubMed
    82. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Sensitization to nicotine: how the animal literature might inform future human research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Jan; 9(1):9-20. PMID: 17365732.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Difranza JR, Wellman RJ. Early dating and smoking initiation: Some thoughts about a common cause. Addiction. 2006 Dec; 101(12):1682-3. PMID: 17156163.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children's use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec; 160(12):1285-96. PMID: 17146027.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Fernando WW, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Oct; 188(3):335-42. PMID: 16953390.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint AJ, Young MH, Druker S, DiFranza J. Smoking prevention and cessation intervention delivery by pediatric providers, as assessed with patient exit interviews. Pediatrics. 2006 Sep; 118(3):e810-24. PMID: 16950969.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Wellman RJ, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J, Difranza JR. A comparison of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in adult smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006 Aug; 8(4):575-80. PMID: 16920655.
      View in: PubMed
    88. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006 Jun; 117(6):e1237-48. PMID: 16740823.
      View in: PubMed
    89. DiFranza JR. Best practices for enforcing state laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco to minors. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2005 Nov-Dec; 11(6):559-65. PMID: 16224293.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Karp I, O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Hanley J, Difranza J. Smoking trajectories of adolescent novice smokers in a longitudinal study of tobacco use. Ann Epidemiol. 2005 Jul; 15(6):445-52. PMID: 15967392.
      View in: PubMed
    91. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Pbert L, Fletcher KE, Flint A, Young MH, Druker S. A comparison of the psychometric properties of the hooked on nicotine checklist and the modified Fagerström tolerance questionnaire. Addict Behav. 2006 Mar; 31(3):486-95. PMID: 15993004.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Savageau N, Friedman K, Hazelton J. The effect of abstinence on cigarette consumption upon the resumption of smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):711-6. PMID: 15982825.
      View in: PubMed
    93. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Wood C. Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking. Addict Behav. 2006 Apr; 31(4):717-21. PMID: 15979812.
      View in: PubMed
    94. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. A sensitization-homeostasis model of nicotine craving, withdrawal, and tolerance: integrating the clinical and basic science literature. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):9-26. PMID: 15804674.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Wellman RJ, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Godiwala S, Friedman K, Hazelton J. Measuring adults' loss of autonomy over nicotine use: the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Feb; 7(1):157-61. PMID: 15804688.
      View in: PubMed
    96. O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Kim W, DiFranza J, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Wong S, Hanley J, Tyndale RF. Genetically decreased CYP2A6 and the risk of tobacco dependence: a prospective study of novice smokers. Tob Control. 2004 Dec; 13(4):422-8. PMID: 15564629.
      View in: PubMed
    97. Wheeler KC, Fletcher KE, Wellman RJ, Difranza JR. Screening adolescents for nicotine dependence: the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist. J Adolesc Health. 2004 Sep; 35(3):225-30. PMID: 15313504.
      View in: PubMed
    98. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Rigotti NA, Ockene JK, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Trait anxiety and nicotine dependence in adolescents: a report from the DANDY study. Addict Behav. 2004 Jul; 29(5):911-9. PMID: 15219335.
      View in: PubMed
    99. DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M. Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health. Pediatrics. 2004 Apr; 113(4 Suppl):1007-15. PMID: 15060193.
      View in: PubMed
    100. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Recollections and repercussions of the first inhaled cigarette. Addict Behav. 2004 Feb; 29(2):261-72. PMID: 14732415.
      View in: PubMed
    101. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ. Preventing cancer by controlling youth tobacco use. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2003 Nov; 19(4):261-7. PMID: 14702860.
      View in: PubMed
    102. O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tyndale RF, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Clarke PB, Hanley J, Paradis G. Nicotine-dependence symptoms are associated with smoking frequency in adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2003 Oct; 25(3):219-25. PMID: 14507528.
      View in: PubMed
    103. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR. Parent's socioeconomic status, adolescents' disposable income, and adolescents' smoking status in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health. 2003 Jul; 93(7):1155-60. PMID: 12835202.
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    104. Pbert L, Moolchan ET, Muramoto M, Winickoff JP, Curry S, Lando H, Ossip-Klein D, Prokhorov AV, DiFranza J, Klein JD. The state of office-based interventions for youth tobacco use. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun; 111(6 Pt 1):e650-60. PMID: 12777581.
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    105. DiFranza JR. Adolescents' acquisition of cigarettes through noncommercial sources. J Adolesc Health. 2003 May; 32(5):331-2; author reply 332. PMID: 12729980.
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    106. Soteriades ES, DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Nicolaou M. Symptoms of nicotine dependence and other predictors of student smoking at school: implications for school smoking policy. J Sch Health. 2003 Apr; 73(4):154-8. PMID: 12728614.
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    107. Sargent JD, DiFranza JR. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003 Mar-Apr; 53(2):102-23. PMID: 12691267.
      View in: PubMed
    108. DiFranza JR. A gadget can't fix what's wrong with the tobacco distribution system. J Public Health Policy. 2003; 24(3-4):269-73. PMID: 15015860.
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    109. O'Loughlin J, DiFranza J, Tarasuk J, Meshefedjian G, McMillan-Davey E, Paradis G, Tyndale RF, Clarke P, Hanley J. Assessment of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescents: a comparison of five indicators. Tob Control. 2002 Dec; 11(4):354-60. PMID: 12432161.
      View in: PubMed
    110. DiFranza JR. Implications of the autonomy theory of nicotine dependence. MedGenMed. 2002 Aug 28; 4(3):8. PMID: 12466751.
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    111. O'Loughlin J, Tarasuk J, Difranza J, Paradis G. Reliability of selected measures of nicotine dependence among adolescents. Ann Epidemiol. 2002 Jul; 12(5):353-62. PMID: 12062924.
      View in: PubMed
    112. O'Loughlin J, Kishchuk N, DiFranza J, Tremblay M, Paradis G. The hardest thing is the habit: a qualitative investigation of adolescent smokers' experience of nicotine dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2002 May; 4(2):201-9. PMID: 12028853.
      View in: PubMed
    113. DiFranza JR, Savageau JA, Fletcher K, Ockene JK, Rigotti NA, McNeill AD, Coleman M, Wood C. Measuring the loss of autonomy over nicotine use in adolescents: the DANDY (Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youths) study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Apr; 156(4):397-403. PMID: 11929376.
      View in: PubMed
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