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Trudy G Morrison PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
Phone508-856-6592
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Virology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMolecular Genetics and Microbiology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, United StatesBABiology
    Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United StatesPHDMicrobiology/Molecular Biology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Academic Background

    B.A. Wellesley College
    Ph. D.Tufts University School of Medicine
    Postdoctoral training at Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    Dr. Trudy Morrison

    Mechanisms of Paramyxovirus Membrane Fusion
    Assembly of Paramyxoviruses
    Development of Virus Vaccines

    My laboratory is exploring the molecular mechanisms of paramyxovirus entry into susceptible cells and the assembly and release of infectious virus from infected cells. Paramyxoviruses are simple negative-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. The two viral glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and the fusion (F) protein, mediate entry of the virus into cells. The HN protein is the virus attachment protein and the F protein directly mediates the membrane fusion required for virus penetration. However, the HN protein is required to activate the fusion activity of the F protein. Using Newcastle disease virus as a model paramyxovirus, my laboratory is exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in the activation of the fusion protein and the requirements for the conformational changes in the F protein required to mediate membrane fusion.

    Release of progeny paramyxoviruses from infected cells requires the assembly of the structural components of the virion, the viral glycoproteins, the matrix protein, and the ribonucleoprotein core, followed by the budding of mature virus from surfaces of infected cells. We are exploring the protein interactions required for the formation of assembly complexes, the cell domains involved in virus assembly, and the host cell contributions to virus assembly and release.

    My laboratory is also exploring the potential of virus-like particles as vaccines for different paramyxoviruses.




    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, Brondolin E, Dragicevic M, Erö J, Escalante Del Valle A, Flechl M, Friedl M, Frühwirth R, Ghete VM, Grossmann J, Hrubec J, Jeitler M, König A, Krammer N, Krätschmer I, Liko D, Madlener T, Mikulec I, Pree E, Rad N, Rohringer H, Schieck J, Schöfbeck R, Spanring M, Spitzbart D, Taurok A, Waltenberger W, Wittmann J, Wulz CE, Zarucki M, Chekhovsky V, Mossolov V, Suarez Gonzalez J, De Wolf EA, Di Croce D, Janssen X, Lauwers J, Pieters M, Van De Klundert M, Van Haevermaet H, Van Mechelen P, Van Remortel N, Abu Zeid S, Blekman F, D'Hondt J, De Bruyn I, De Clercq J, Deroover K, Flouris G, Lontkovskyi D, Lowette S, Marchesini I, Moortgat S, Moreels L, Python Q, Skovpen K, Tavernier S, Van Doninck W, Van Mulders P, Van Parijs I, Beghin D, Bilin B, Brun H, Clerbaux B, De Lentdecker G, Delannoy H, Dorney B, Fasanella G, Favart L, Goldouzian R, Grebenyuk A, Kalsi AK, Lenzi T, Luetic J, Seva T, Starling E, Vander Velde C, Vanlaer P, Vannerom D, Yonamine R, Cornelis T, Dobur D, Fagot A, Gul M, Khvastunov I, Poyraz D, Roskas C, Trocino D, Tytgat M, Verbeke W, Vermassen B, Vit M, Zaganidis N, Bakhshiansohi H, Bondu O, Brochet S, Bruno G, Caputo C, Caudron A, David P, De Visscher S, Delaere C, Delcourt M, Francois B, Giammanco A, Krintiras G, Lemaitre V, Magitteri A, Mertens A, Musich M, Piotrzkowski K, Quertenmont L, Saggio A, Vidal Marono M, Wertz S, Zobec J, Aldá Júnior WL, Alves FL, Alves GA, Brito L, Correia Silva G, Hensel C, Moraes A, Pol ME, Rebello Teles P, Belchior Batista Das Chagas E, Carvalho W, Chinellato J, Coelho E, Da Costa EM, Da Silveira GG, De Jesus Damiao D, Fonseca De Souza S, Malbouisson H, Medina Jaime M, Melo De Almeida M, Mora Herrera C, Mundim L, Nogima H, Sanchez Rosas LJ, Santoro A, Sznajder A, Thiel M, Tonelli Manganote EJ, Torres Da Silva De Araujo F, Vilela Pereira A, Ahuja S, Bernardes CA, Calligaris L, Tomei TRFP, Gregores EM, Mercadante PG, Novaes SF, Padula SS, Romero Abad D, Ruiz Vargas JC, Aleksandrov A, Hadjiiska R, Iaydjiev P, Marinov A, Misheva M, Rodozov M, Shopova M, Sultanov G, Dimitrov A, Litov L, Pavlov B, Petkov P, Fang W, Gao X, Yuan L, Ahmad M, Bian JG, Chen GM, Chen HS, Chen M, Chen Y, Jiang CH, Leggat D, Liao H, Liu Z, Romeo F, Shaheen SM, Spiezia A, Tao J, Wang C, Wang Z, Yazgan E, Zhang H, Zhao J, Ban Y, Chen G, Li J, Li Q, Liu S, Mao Y, Qian SJ, Wang D, Xu Z, Wang Y, Avila C, Cabrera A, Carrillo Montoya CA, Chaparro Sierra LF, Florez C, González Hernández CF, Segura Delgado MA, Courbon B, Godinovic N, Lelas D, Puljak I, Ribeiro Cipriano PM, Sculac T, Antunovic Z, Kovac M, Brigljevic V, Ferencek D, Kadija K, Mesic B, Starodumov A, Susa T, Ather MW, Attikis A, Mavromanolakis G, Mousa J, Nicolaou C, Ptochos F, Razis PA, Rykaczewski H, Finger M, Finger M, Carrera Jarrin E, Assran Y, Elgammal S, Mahmoud MA, Bhowmik S, Dewanjee RK, Kadastik M, Perrini L, Raidal M, Veelken C, Eerola P, Kirschenmann H, Pekkanen J, Voutilainen M, Havukainen J, Heikkilä JK, Järvinen T, Karimäki V, Kinnunen R, Lampén T, Lassila-Perini K, Laurila S, Lehti S, Lindén T, Luukka P, Mäenpää T, Siikonen H, Tuominen E, Tuominiemi J, Tuuva T, Besancon M, Couderc F, Dejardin M, Denegri D, Faure JL, Ferri F, Ganjour S, Ghosh S, Givernaud A, Gras P, Hamel de Monchenault G, Jarry P, Leloup C, Locci E, Machet M, Malcles J, Negro G, Rander J, Rosowsky A, Sahin MÖ, Titov M, Abdulsalam A, Amendola C, Antropov I, Baffioni S, Beaudette F, Busson P, Cadamuro L, Charlot C, Granier de Cassagnac R, Jo M, Kucher I, Lisniak S, Lobanov A, Martin Blanco J, Nguyen M, Ochando C, Ortona G, Paganini P, Pigard P, Salerno R, Sauvan JB, Sirois Y, Stahl Leiton AG, Yilmaz Y, Zabi A, Zghiche A, Agram JL, Andrea J, Bloch D, Brom JM, Chabert EC, Collard C, Conte E, Coubez X, Drouhin F, Fontaine JC, Gelé D, Goerlach U, Jansová M, Juillot P, Le Bihan AC, Tonon N, Van Hove P, Gadrat S, Beauceron S, Bernet C, Boudoul G, Chanon N, Chierici R, Contardo D, Depasse P, et al. Search for Narrow Resonances in the b-Tagged Dijet Mass Spectrum in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrt[s]=8??TeV. Phys Rev Lett. 2018 May 18; 120(20):201801. PMID: 29864370.
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    2. Blanco JCG, Boukhvalova MS, Morrison TG, Vogel SN. A multifaceted approach to RSV vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018 May 17; 1-12. PMID: 29771625.
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    3. Blanco JCG, Pletneva LM, McGinnes-Cullen L, Otoa RO, Patel MC, Fernando LR, Boukhvalova MS, Morrison TG. Efficacy of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in a maternal immunization model. Nat Commun. 2018 May 15; 9(1):1904. PMID: 29765035.
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    4. Cullen LM, Schmidt MR, Morrison TG. The Importance of RSV F Protein Conformation in VLPs In Stimulation of Neutralizing Antibody Titers in Mice Previously Infected with RSV. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Jun 12; 0. PMID: 28604155.
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    5. Cullen LM, Blanco JC, Morrison TG. Cotton rat immune responses to virus-like particles containing the pre-fusion form of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein. J Transl Med. 2015 Nov 05; 13:350. PMID: 26541285.
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    6. Morrison TG. Protein conformation in a vaccine matters. Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 8; 6(26):21781-2. PMID: 26318167.
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    7. McGinnes Cullen L, Schmidt MR, Kenward SA, Woodland RT, Morrison TG. Murine immune responses to virus-like particle-associated pre- and postfusion forms of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein. J Virol. 2015 Jul; 89(13):6835-47. PMID: 25903340.
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    8. Ogembo JG, Muraswki MR, McGinnes LW, Parcharidou A, Sutiwisesak R, Tison T, Avendano J, Agnani D, Finberg RW, Morrison TG, Fingeroth JD. A chimeric EBV gp350/220-based VLP replicates the virion B-cell attachment mechanism and elicits long-lasting neutralizing antibodies in mice. J Transl Med. 2015 Feb 06; 13:50. PMID: 25885535.
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    9. Schmidt MR, McGinnes-Cullen LW, Kenward SA, Willems KN, Woodland RT, Morrison TG. Modification of the respiratory syncytial virus f protein in virus-like particles impacts generation of B cell memory. J Virol. 2014 Sep 1; 88(17):10165-76. PMID: 24965456.
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    10. Morrison TG. Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 3: Immune responses. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(10):3064-7. PMID: 25529229.
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    11. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Newcastle disease virus-like particles: preparation, purification, quantification, and incorporation of foreign glycoproteins. Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2013 Oct 02; 30:Unit 18.2.. PMID: 24510891.
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    12. Morrison TG, Walsh EE. Subunit and virus-like particle vaccine approaches for respiratory syncytial virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2013; 372:285-306. PMID: 24362695.
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    13. Schmidt MR, McGinnes LW, Kenward SA, Willems KN, Woodland RT, Morrison TG. Long-term and memory immune responses in mice against Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein ectodomains. J Virol. 2012 Nov; 86(21):11654-62. PMID: 22896618.
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    14. Battisti AJ, Meng G, Winkler DC, McGinnes LW, Plevka P, Steven AC, Morrison TG, Rossmann MG. Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28; 109(35):13996-4000. PMID: 22891297.
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    15. Gravel KA, McGinnes LW, Reitter J, Morrison TG. The transmembrane domain sequence affects the structure and function of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2011 Apr; 85(7):3486-97. PMID: 21270151.
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    16. McGinnes LW, Gravel KA, Finberg RW, Kurt-Jones EA, Massare MJ, Smith G, Schmidt MR, Morrison TG. Assembly and immunological properties of Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing the respiratory syncytial virus F and G proteins. J Virol. 2011 Jan; 85(1):366-77. PMID: 20980510.
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    17. Morrison TG. Newcastle disease virus-like particles as a platform for the development of vaccines for human and agricultural pathogens. Future Virol. 2010 Sep 01; 5(5):545-554. PMID: 21339837.
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    18. McGinnes LW, Pantua H, Laliberte JP, Gravel KA, Jain S, Morrison TG. Assembly and biological and immunological properties of Newcastle disease virus-like particles. J Virol. 2010 May; 84(9):4513-23. PMID: 20181713.
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    19. Murawski MR, McGinnes LW, Finberg RW, Kurt-Jones EA, Massare MJ, Smith G, Heaton PM, Fraire AE, Morrison TG. Newcastle disease virus-like particles containing respiratory syncytial virus G protein induced protection in BALB/c mice, with no evidence of immunopathology. J Virol. 2010 Jan; 84(2):1110-23. PMID: 19889768.
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    20. Jain S, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Role of thiol/disulfide exchange in newcastle disease virus entry. J Virol. 2009 Jan; 83(1):241-9. PMID: 18922867.
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    21. Jain S, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Overexpression of thiol/disulfide isomerases enhances membrane fusion directed by the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2008 Dec; 82(24):12039-48. PMID: 18829746.
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    22. Laliberte JP, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Incorporation of functional HN-F glycoprotein-containing complexes into newcastle disease virus is dependent on cholesterol and membrane lipid raft integrity. J Virol. 2007 Oct; 81(19):10636-48. PMID: 17652393.
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    23. Jain S, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Thiol/disulfide exchange is required for membrane fusion directed by the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2007 Mar; 81(5):2328-39. PMID: 17151113.
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    24. Laliberte JP, McGinnes LW, Peeples ME, Morrison TG. Integrity of membrane lipid rafts is necessary for the ordered assembly and release of infectious Newcastle disease virus particles. J Virol. 2006 Nov; 80(21):10652-62. PMID: 17041223.
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    25. Pantua HD, McGinnes LW, Peeples ME, Morrison TG. Requirements for the assembly and release of Newcastle disease virus-like particles. J Virol. 2006 Nov; 80(22):11062-73. PMID: 16971425.
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    26. McGinnes LW, Pantua H, Reitter J, Morrison TG. Newcastle disease virus: propagation, quantification, and storage. Curr Protoc Microbiol. 2006 Jun; Chapter 15:Unit 15F.2. PMID: 18770579.
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    27. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Inhibition of receptor binding stabilizes Newcastle disease virus HN and F protein-containing complexes. J Virol. 2006 Mar; 80(6):2894-903. PMID: 16501098.
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    28. Pantua H, McGinnes LW, Leszyk J, Morrison TG. Characterization of an alternate form of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(18):11660-70. PMID: 16140743.
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    29. Dolganiuc V, McGinnes L, Luna EJ, Morrison TG. Role of the cytoplasmic domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in association with lipid rafts. J Virol. 2003 Dec; 77(24):12968-79. PMID: 14645553.
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    30. Gravel KA, Morrison TG. Interacting domains of the HN and F proteins of newcastle disease virus. J Virol. 2003 Oct; 77(20):11040-9. PMID: 14512552.
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    31. Morrison TG. Structure and function of a paramyxovirus fusion protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003 Jul 11; 1614(1):73-84. PMID: 12873767.
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    32. McGinnes LW, Reitter JN, Gravel K, Morrison TG. Evidence for mixed membrane topology of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(3):1951-63. PMID: 12525629.
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    33. McGinnes LW, Gravel K, Morrison TG. Newcastle disease virus HN protein alters the conformation of the F protein at cell surfaces. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(24):12622-33. PMID: 12438588.
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    34. McGinnes LW, Sergel T, Chen H, Hamo L, Schwertz S, Li D, Morrison TG. Mutational analysis of the membrane proximal heptad repeat of the newcastle disease virus fusion protein. Virology. 2001 Oct 25; 289(2):343-52. PMID: 11689056.
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    35. Sergel TA, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Mutations in the fusion peptide and adjacent heptad repeat inhibit folding or activity of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2001 Sep; 75(17):7934-43. PMID: 11483738.
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    36. McGinnes L, Sergel T, Reitter J, Morrison T. Carbohydrate modifications of the NDV fusion protein heptad repeat domains influence maturation and fusion activity. Virology. 2001 May 10; 283(2):332-42. PMID: 11336558.
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    37. Morrison TG. The three faces of paramyxovirus attachment proteins. Trends Microbiol. 2001 Mar; 9(3):103-5. PMID: 11239770.
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    38. Sergel TA, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. A single amino acid change in the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein alters the requirement for HN protein in fusion. J Virol. 2000 Jun; 74(11):5101-7. PMID: 10799584.
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    39. Young JK, Li D, Abramowitz MC, Morrison TG. Interaction of peptides with sequences from the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein heptad repeat regions. J Virol. 1999 Jul; 73(7):5945-56. PMID: 10364347.
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    40. Stone-Hulslander J, Morrison TG. Mutational analysis of heptad repeats in the membrane-proximal region of Newcastle disease virus HN protein. J Virol. 1999 May; 73(5):3630-7. PMID: 10196255.
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    41. Li Z, Sergel T, Razvi E, Morrison T. Effect of cleavage mutants on syncytium formation directed by the wild-type fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus. J Virol. 1998 May; 72(5):3789-95. PMID: 9557661.
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    42. Young JK, Hicks RP, Wright GE, Morrison TG. The role of leucine residues in the structure and function of a leucine zipper peptide inhibitor of paramyxovirus (NDV) fusion. Virology. 1998 Mar 30; 243(1):21-31. PMID: 9527912.
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    43. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Role of carbohydrate processing and calnexin binding in the folding and activity of the HN protein of Newcastle disease virus. Virus Res. 1998 Feb; 53(2):175-85. PMID: 9620209.
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    44. Young JK, Hicks RP, Wright GE, Morrison TG. Analysis of a peptide inhibitor of paramyxovirus (NDV) fusion using biological assays, NMR, and molecular modeling. Virology. 1997 Nov 24; 238(2):291-304. PMID: 9400602.
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    45. Stone-Hulslander J, Morrison TG. Detection of an interaction between the HN and F proteins in Newcastle disease virus-infected cells. J Virol. 1997 Sep; 71(9):6287-95. PMID: 9261345.
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    46. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Disulfide bond formation is a determinant of glycosylation site usage in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. J Virol. 1997 Apr; 71(4):3083-9. PMID: 9060670.
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    47. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Role of cotranslational disulfide bond formation in the folding of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus. Virology. 1996 Oct 15; 224(2):465-76. PMID: 8874507.
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    48. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. The role of individual oligosaccharide chains in the activities of the HN glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. Virology. 1995 Oct 1; 212(2):398-410. PMID: 7571409.
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    49. Reitter JN, Sergel T, Morrison TG. Mutational analysis of the leucine zipper motif in the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 1995 Oct; 69(10):5995-6004. PMID: 7666504.
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    50. Sergel T, Morrison TG. Mutations in the cytoplasmic domain of the fusion glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus depress syncytia formation. Virology. 1995 Jul 10; 210(2):264-72. PMID: 7618266.
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    51. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Modulation of the activities of HN protein of Newcastle disease virus by nonconserved cysteine residues. Virus Res. 1994 Dec; 34(3):305-16. PMID: 7856316.
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    52. Sergel-Germano T, McQuain C, Morrison T. Mutations in the fusion peptide and heptad repeat regions of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein block fusion. J Virol. 1994 Nov; 68(11):7654-8. PMID: 7933158.
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    53. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. The role of the individual cysteine residues in the formation of the mature, antigenic HN protein of Newcastle disease virus. Virology. 1994 May 1; 200(2):470-83. PMID: 8178436.
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    54. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Conformationally sensitive antigenic determinants on the HN glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus form with different kinetics. Virology. 1994 Mar; 199(2):255-64. PMID: 7510081.
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    55. Sergel T, McGinnes L, Morrison T. Role of a conserved sequence in the maturation and function of the NDV HN glycoprotein. Virus Res. 1993 Dec; 30(3):281-94. PMID: 8109161.
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    56. Sergel T, McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. The fusion promotion activity of the NDV HN protein does not correlate with neuraminidase activity. Virology. 1993 Oct; 196(2):831-4. PMID: 8372451.
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    57. McGinnes L, Sergel T, Morrison T. Mutations in the transmembrane domain of the HN protein of Newcastle disease virus affect the structure and activity of the protein. Virology. 1993 Sep; 196(1):101-10. PMID: 8356787.
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    58. Morrison T, McQuain C, Sergel T, McGinnes L, Reitter J. The role of the amino terminus of F1 of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein in cleavage and fusion. Virology. 1993 Apr; 193(2):997-1000. PMID: 8460504.
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    59. Sergel T, McGinnes LW, Peeples ME, Morrison TG. The attachment function of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein can be separated from fusion promotion by mutation. Virology. 1993 Apr; 193(2):717-26. PMID: 8384752.
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    60. Wang C, Raghu G, Morrison T, Peeples ME. Intracellular processing of the paramyxovirus F protein: critical role of the predicted amphipathic alpha helix adjacent to the fusion domain. J Virol. 1992 Jul; 66(7):4161-9. PMID: 1602539.
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    61. Morrison T, McQuain C, McGinnes L. Complementation between avirulent Newcastle disease virus and a fusion protein gene expressed from a retrovirus vector: requirements for membrane fusion. J Virol. 1991 Feb; 65(2):813-22. PMID: 1987376.
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    62. Morrison T, Hinshaw VS, Sheerar M, Cooley AJ, Brown D, McQuain C, McGinnes L. Retroviral expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein protects chickens from Newcastle disease virus induced disease. Microb Pathog. 1990 Dec; 9(6):387-96. PMID: 1965848.
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    63. Morrison TG, McQuain C, O'Connell KF, McGinnes LW. Mature, cell-associated HN protein of Newcastle disease virus exists in two forms differentiated by posttranslational modifications. Virus Res. 1990 Feb; 15(2):113-33. PMID: 2321417.
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    64. Wilson C, Gilmore R, Morrison T. Aberrant membrane insertion of a cytoplasmic tail deletion mutant of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Feb; 10(2):449-57. PMID: 2153915.
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    65. Morrison TG, McGinnes LW. Avian cells expressing the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein are resistant to Newcastle disease virus infection. Virology. 1989 Jul; 171(1):10-7. PMID: 2545025.
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    66. Wilson C, Connolly T, Morrison T, Gilmore R. Integration of membrane proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum requires GTP. J Cell Biol. 1988 Jul; 107(1):69-77. PMID: 2839521.
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    67. Morrison TG. Structure, function, and intracellular processing of paramyxovirus membrane proteins. Virus Res. 1988 May; 10(2-3):113-35. PMID: 3046164.
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    68. McGinnes L, McQuain C, Morrison T. The P protein and the nonstructural 38K and 29K proteins of Newcastle disease virus are derived from the same open reading frame. Virology. 1988 May; 164(1):256-64. PMID: 3363866.
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    69. McGinnes LW, Wilde A, Morrison TG. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein and comparisons of paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein sequences. Virus Res. 1987 May; 7(3):187-202. PMID: 3037818.
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    70. Wilson C, Gilmore R, Morrison T. Translation and membrane insertion of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Apr; 7(4):1386-92. PMID: 3600630.
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    71. Morrison TG, Peeples ME, McGinnes LW. Conformational change in a viral glycoprotein during maturation due to disulfide bond disruption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Feb; 84(4):1020-4. PMID: 3469645.
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    72. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Newcastle disease virus membrane protein and comparisons of membrane protein sequences. Virology. 1987 Feb; 156(2):221-8. PMID: 3027973.
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    73. McGinnes LW, Morrison TG. Nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein and comparisons of paramyxovirus fusion protein sequences. Virus Res. 1986 Sep; 5(4):343-56. PMID: 3776349.
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    74. Wilde A, McQuain C, Morrison T. Identification of the sequence content of four polycistronic transcripts synthesized in Newcastle disease virus infected cells. Virus Res. 1986 Jul; 5(1):77-95. PMID: 3755855.
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    75. Morrison TG, McGinnes LJ. Cytochalasin D accelerates the release of Newcastle disease virus from infected cells. Virus Res. 1985 Dec; 4(1):93-106. PMID: 4082779.
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    76. McGinnes LW, Semerjian A, Morrison T. Conformational changes in Newcastle disease virus fusion glycoprotein during intracellular transport. J Virol. 1985 Nov; 56(2):341-8. PMID: 3840536.
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    77. Morrison T, Ward LJ, Semerjian A. Intracellular processing of the Newcastle disease virus fusion glycoprotein. J Virol. 1985 Mar; 53(3):851-7. PMID: 3838349.
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    78. Wilde A, Morrison T. Structural and functional characterization of Newcastle disease virus polycistronic RNA species. J Virol. 1984 Jul; 51(1):71-6. PMID: 6726896.
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    79. Morrison TG, Ward LJ. Intracellular processing of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein. Virus Res. 1984; 1(3):225-39. PMID: 6099658.
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    80. Chatis PA, Morrison TG. Characterization of the soluble glycoprotein released from vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells. J Virol. 1983 Jan; 45(1):80-90. PMID: 6296461.
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    81. Chatis PA, Morrison TG. Fatty acid modification of Newcastle disease virus glycoproteins. J Virol. 1982 Jul; 43(1):342-7. PMID: 7109029.
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    82. Chatis PA, Morrison TG. Mutational changes in the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein affect the requirement of carbohydrate in morphogenesis. J Virol. 1981 Jan; 37(1):307-16. PMID: 6260984.
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    83. Morrison TG, Simpson D. Synthesis, stability, and cleavage of Newcastle disease virus glycoproteins in the absence of glycosylation. J Virol. 1980 Oct; 36(1):171-80. PMID: 7441820.
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    84. Chatis PA, Morrison TG. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein is anchored to intracellular membranes near its carboxyl end and is proteolytically cleaved at its amino terminus. J Virol. 1979 Mar; 29(3):957-63. PMID: 221683.
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    85. Morrison TG, McQuain CO, Simpson D. Assembly of viral membranes: maturation of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein in the presence of tunicamycin. J Virol. 1978 Oct; 28(1):368-74. PMID: 212608.
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    86. Morrison TG, McQuain CO. Assembly of viral membranes: nature of the association of vesicular stomatitis virus proteins to membranes. J Virol. 1978 Apr; 26(1):115-25. PMID: 206719.
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    87. Clinkscales CW, Bratt MA, Morrison TG. Synthesis of Newcastle disease virus polypeptides in a wheat germ cell-free system. J Virol. 1977 Apr; 22(1):97-101. PMID: 853567.
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    88. Morrison TG, McQuain C. Assembly of viral membranes. I. Association of vesicular stomatitis virus membrane proteins and membranes in a cell-free system. J Virol. 1977 Feb; 21(2):451-8. PMID: 189082.
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    89. Hightower LE, Morrison TG, Bratt MA. Relationships among the polypeptides of Newcastle disease virus. J Virol. 1975 Dec; 16(6):1599-607. PMID: 1202248.
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    90. Morrison TG, Lodish HF. Recognition of protein synthesis initiation signals on bacteriophage ribonucleic acid by mammalian ribosomes. J Biol Chem. 1974 Sep 25; 249(18):5860-6. PMID: 4415493.
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    91. Morrison TG, Blumberg DD, Malamy MH. T7 protein synthesis in F' episome-containing cells: assignment of specific proteins to three translational groups. J Virol. 1974 Feb; 13(2):386-93. PMID: 4589855.
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    92. Morrison T, Stampfer M, Baltimore D, Lodish HF. Translation of vesicular stomatitis messenger RNA by extracts from mammalian and plant cells. J Virol. 1974 Jan; 13(1):62-72. PMID: 4359431.
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