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Joel Richter PhD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
DepartmentProgram in Molecular Medicine
AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
373 Plantation Street, Two Biotech, Suite 204
Worcester MA 01605
Phone508-856-8615
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeuroNexus Institute

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentProgram in Molecular Medicine

    InstitutionUMMS - School of Medicine
    DepartmentRNA Therapeutics Institute

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentBiochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentNeuroscience


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    Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United StatesBABiology
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United StatesMSZoology/Physiology
    Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United StatesPH DZoology

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    Joel D. Richter, Ph.D.



    Professor of Molecular Medicine



    Arthur F. Koskinas Professor of Neuroscience



    Program Director, Center for Collaborative Research in Fragile X



     



    What we do...



    We study the molecular biology of mRNA translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation and how this process regulates neuronal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory.  We investigate how neurologic diseases such as Fragile X and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are regulated at the translational level.           



    Translational control by 3’ end formation



    Many inactive mRNAs have short poly(A) tails and only when the tails are elongated does translation ensue. A key factor that regulates polyadenylation-induced translation is the RNA binding protein CPEB (Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein). CPEB binds specific 3’UTR cis elements in mRNAs and recruits unusual poly(A) polymerases and translation factors that extend poly(A) tails in the cytoplasm and promote translation.



    Synaptic plasticity and learning and memory



    CPEB and the cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex reside at postsynaptic sites of neurons in the mammalian central nervous system. In dendrites, this complex controls local mRNA polyadenylation-induced translation in response to synaptic stimulation. Synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses to undergo long-lasting biochemical and morphological changes in response to stimulation, forms the underlying basis of learning and memory. CPEB knockout mice are defective for synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memory formation. Hippocampal neurons depleted of other components of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex with lentivirus-based shRNAs also display defects in synaptic plasticity, indicating that polyadenylation-induced translation forms an essential mechanism to control translation and higher cognitive function.



    Neurons derived from CPEB knockout mice have alterations in metabolism in that ATP production by mitochondria is compromised. This deficit in ATP reduces dendrite arborization and is observed in both neurons cultured in vitro and neurons expressing an shRNA for CPEB in vivo.



    Oligo (dT) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a cultured hippocampal neuron showing an increase in dendrite polyadenylation in response to synaptic stimulation. 



    Neurologic disease



    The Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of mental retardation and the most common monogenic cause of autism. FXS results from a CGG expansion in and transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene. FMR1 encodes FMRP, an RNA binding protein that normally represses translation in the brain. In the absence of FMRP, aberrantly high translation likely causes FXS in both humans and a mouse model. Restoration of normal translation occurs in FMRP/CPEB double knockout mice. Moreover, rescue of synapse function and learning and memory also occurs in FMRP/CPEB double knockout mice, suggesting that CPEB might be a novel therapeutic to reverse FXS.  Rescue of FXS in double knockout mice may involve altered rates of ribosome translocation on mRNA (i.e., polypeptide elongation).  Deciphering which mRNAs are loaded with ribosomes that travel at different rates is daunting, but whole genome ribosome profiling and RNA-seq may shed light on this process.



     





     Aberrant nest building in Fmr1 knockout mice (compare to wild type) is rescued in Fmr1/CPEB double knockout mice.



     





    Ribosome profiling and RNA-seq of shank1 mRNA from mouse brain.



     





    Elevated ribosome translocation speed in in Fmr1 knockout mouse brain (compared to WT) is rescued to normal levels in the Fmr1/CPEB double knockout brain.  Ribosome translocation speed was measured in brain lysates derived from wild type, Fmr1 KO, CPEB KO, and Fmr1/CPEB double KO mice supplemented with 35S-methionine/cysteine and hippuristanol, which inhibits initiation.





    Reduced axon branching in the phrenic nerve of a CPEB4 gene trap mouse (CPEB4GT/GT) compared to wild type (CPEB4+/+).  Data from embryonic day 14.5 and 18.5 are shown.



     





     



     



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    Many rotation projects are available so please inquire.




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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Shah S, Molinaro G, Liu B, Wang R, Huber KM, Richter JD. FMRP Control of Ribosome Translocation Promotes Chromatin Modifications and Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Genes Linked to Autism. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 31; 30(13):4459-4472.e6. PMID: 32234480.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liu B, Molinaro G, Shu H, Stackpole EE, Huber KM, Richter JD. Optimization of ribosome profiling using low-input brain tissue from fragile X syndrome model mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Dec 24. PMID: 30590705.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Liu B, Li Y, Stackpole EE, Novak A, Gao Y, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Richter JD. Regulatory discrimination of mRNAs by FMRP controls mouse adult neural stem cell differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Oct 29. PMID: 30373821.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Gao FB, Richter JD, Cleveland DW. Rethinking Unconventional Translation in Neurodegeneration. Cell. 2017 Nov 16; 171(5):994-1000. PMID: 29149615.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nechama M, Lin CL, Richter JD. Correction for Nechama et al., "An Unusual Two-Step Control of CPEB Destruction by Pin1". Mol Cell Biol. 2017 Sep 01; 37(17). PMID: 28801452.
      View in: PubMed
    6. McFleder RL, Mansur F, Richter JD. Dynamic Control of Dendritic mRNA Expression by CNOT7 Regulates Synaptic Efficacy and Higher Cognitive Function. Cell Rep. 2017 Jul 18; 20(3):683-696. PMID: 28723570.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shin J, Paek KY, Ivshina M, Stackpole EE, Richter JD. Essential role for non-canonical poly(A) polymerase GLD4 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation and carbohydrate metabolism. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Apr 05. PMID: 28383716.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gao FB, Richter JD. Microsatellite Expansion Diseases: Repeat Toxicity Found in Translation. Neuron. 2017 Jan 18; 93(2):249-251. PMID: 28103472.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Mansur F, Ivshina M, Gu W, Schaevitz L, Stackpole E, Gujja S, Edwards YJ, Richter JD. Gld2-catalyzed 3' monoadenylation of miRNAs in the hippocampus has no detectable effect on their stability or on animal behavior. RNA. 2016 Oct; 22(10):1492-9. PMID: 27495319.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Shin J, Salameh JS, Richter JD. Impaired neurodevelopment by the low complexity domain of CPEB4 reveals a convergent pathway with neurodegeneration. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 06; 6:29395. PMID: 27381259.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Richter JD, Coller J. Pausing on Polyribosomes: Make Way for Elongation in Translational Control. Cell. 2015 Oct 08; 163(2):292-300. PMID: 26451481.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Nagaoka K, Fujii K, Zhang H, Usuda K, Watanabe G, Ivshina M, Richter JD. CPEB1 mediates epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition and breast cancer metastasis. Oncogene. 2016 Jun 2; 35(22):2893-901. PMID: 26411364.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Richter JD, Bassell GJ, Klann E. Dysregulation and restoration of translational homeostasis in fragile X syndrome. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2015 Oct; 16(10):595-605. PMID: 26350240.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Richter JD. RNA and the synapse. RNA. 2015 Apr; 21(4):716-7. PMID: 25780206.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ivshina M, Alexandrov IM, Vertii A, Doxsey S, Richter JD. CPEB regulation of TAK1 synthesis mediates cytokine production and the inflammatory immune response. Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Feb; 35(3):610-8. PMID: 25452303.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Ivshina M, Lasko P, Richter JD. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding proteins in development, health, and disease. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014; 30:393-415. PMID: 25068488.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Udagawa T, Farny NG, Jakovcevski M, Kaphzan H, Alarcon JM, Anilkumar S, Ivshina M, Hurt JA, Nagaoka K, Nalavadi VC, Lorenz LJ, Bassell GJ, Akbarian S, Chattarji S, Klann E, Richter JD. Genetic and acute CPEB1 depletion ameliorate fragile X pathophysiology. Nat Med. 2013 Nov; 19(11):1473-7. PMID: 24141422.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Swanger SA, He YA, Richter JD, Bassell GJ. Dendritic GluN2A synthesis mediates activity-induced NMDA receptor insertion. J Neurosci. 2013 May 15; 33(20):8898-908. PMID: 23678131.
      View in: PubMed
    19. D'Ambrogio A, Nagaoka K, Richter JD. Translational control of cell growth and malignancy by the CPEBs. Nat Rev Cancer. 2013 Apr; 13(4):283-90. PMID: 23446545.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Friedenberg FK, Makipour K, Palit A, Shah S, Vanar V, Richter JE. Population-based assessment of heartburn in urban Black Americans. Dis Esophagus. 2013 Aug; 26(6):561-9. PMID: 23237330.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Oruganty-Das A, Ng T, Udagawa T, Goh EL, Richter JD. Translational control of mitochondrial energy production mediates neuron morphogenesis. Cell Metab. 2012 Dec 5; 16(6):789-800. PMID: 23217258.
      View in: PubMed
    22. D'Ambrogio A, Gu W, Udagawa T, Mello CC, Richter JD. Specific miRNA stabilization by Gld2-catalyzed monoadenylation. Cell Rep. 2012 Dec 27; 2(6):1537-45. PMID: 23200856.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Nechama M, Lin CL, Richter JD. An unusual two-step control of CPEB destruction by Pin1. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Jan; 33(1):48-58. PMID: 23090969.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Darnell JC, Richter JD. Cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins and the control of complex brain function. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012 Aug; 4(8):a012344. PMID: 22723494.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Udagawa T, Swanger SA, Takeuchi K, Kim JH, Nalavadi V, Shin J, Lorenz LJ, Zukin RS, Bassell GJ, Richter JD. Bidirectional control of mRNA translation and synaptic plasticity by the cytoplasmic polyadenylation complex. Mol Cell. 2012 Jul 27; 47(2):253-66. PMID: 22727665.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Lin CL, Huang YT, Richter JD. Transient CPEB dimerization and translational control. RNA. 2012 May; 18(5):1050-61. PMID: 22456264.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Nagaoka K, Udagawa T, Richter JD. CPEB-mediated ZO-1 mRNA localization is required for epithelial tight-junction assembly and cell polarity. Nat Commun. 2012 Feb 14; 3:675. PMID: 22334078.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Alexandrov IM, Ivshina M, Jung DY, Friedline R, Ko HJ, Xu M, O'Sullivan-Murphy B, Bortell R, Huang YT, Urano F, Kim JK, Richter JD. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein deficiency stimulates PTEN and Stat3 mRNA translation and induces hepatic insulin resistance. PLoS Genet. 2012 Jan; 8(1):e1002457. PMID: 22253608.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Liu-Yesucevitz L, Bassell GJ, Gitler AD, Hart AC, Klann E, Richter JD, Warren ST, Wolozin B. Local RNA translation at the synapse and in disease. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 9; 31(45):16086-93. PMID: 22072660.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Richter JD, Lasko P. Translational control in oocyte development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Sep; 3(9):a002758. PMID: 21690213.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Darnell JC, Van Driesche SJ, Zhang C, Hung KY, Mele A, Fraser CE, Stone EF, Chen C, Fak JJ, Chi SW, Licatalosi DD, Richter JD, Darnell RB. FMRP stalls ribosomal translocation on mRNAs linked to synaptic function and autism. Cell. 2011 Jul 22; 146(2):247-61. PMID: 21784246.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Richter JD, Treisman JE. Not just the messenger: RNA takes control. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Aug; 21(4):363-5. PMID: 21741823.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Groppo R, Richter JD. CPEB control of NF-kappaB nuclear localization and interleukin-6 production mediates cellular senescence. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Jul; 31(13):2707-14. PMID: 21536657.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Burns DM, D'Ambrogio A, Nottrott S, Richter JD. CPEB and two poly(A) polymerases control miR-122 stability and p53 mRNA translation. Nature. 2011 May 5; 473(7345):105-8. PMID: 21478871.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Richter JD. Translational control of synaptic plasticity. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010 Dec; 38(6):1527-30. PMID: 21118120.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Kan MC, Oruganty-Das A, Cooper-Morgan A, Jin G, Swanger SA, Bassell GJ, Florman H, van Leyen K, Richter JD. CPEB4 is a cell survival protein retained in the nucleus upon ischemia or endoplasmic reticulum calcium depletion. Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Dec; 30(24):5658-71. PMID: 20937770.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Lin CL, Evans V, Shen S, Xing Y, Richter JD. The nuclear experience of CPEB: implications for RNA processing and translational control. RNA. 2010 Feb; 16(2):338-48. PMID: 20040591.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Cao Q, Padmanabhan K, Richter JD. Pumilio 2 controls translation by competing with eIF4E for 7-methyl guanosine cap recognition. RNA. 2010 Jan; 16(1):221-7. PMID: 19933321.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Costa-Mattioli M, Sonenberg N, Richter JD. Translational regulatory mechanisms in synaptic plasticity and memory storage. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2009; 90:293-311. PMID: 20374745.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Zukin RS, Richter JD, Bagni C. Signals, synapses, and synthesis: how new proteins control plasticity. Front Neural Circuits. 2009; 3:14. PMID: 19838324.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Groppo R, Richter JD. Translational control from head to tail. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2009 Jun; 21(3):444-51. PMID: 19285851.
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    42. Lin AC, Tan CL, Lin CL, Strochlic L, Huang YS, Richter JD, Holt CE. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-dependent mRNA regulation are involved in Xenopus retinal axon development. Neural Dev. 2009 Mar 02; 4:8. PMID: 19254368.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Richter JD, Klann E. Making synaptic plasticity and memory last: mechanisms of translational regulation. Genes Dev. 2009 Jan 1; 23(1):1-11. PMID: 19136621.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Burns DM, Richter JD. CPEB regulation of human cellular senescence, energy metabolism, and p53 mRNA translation. Genes Dev. 2008 Dec 15; 22(24):3449-60. PMID: 19141477.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Zearfoss NR, Alarcon JM, Trifilieff P, Kandel E, Richter JD. A molecular circuit composed of CPEB-1 and c-Jun controls growth hormone-mediated synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2008 Aug 20; 28(34):8502-9. PMID: 18716208.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Richter JD. Think you know how miRNAs work? Think again. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 Apr; 15(4):334-6. PMID: 18388906.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Richter JD. Breaking the code of polyadenylation-induced translation. Cell. 2008 Feb 8; 132(3):335-7. PMID: 18267064.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Kim JH, Richter JD. Measuring CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation-deadenylation in Xenopus laevis oocytes and egg extracts. Methods Enzymol. 2008; 448:119-38. PMID: 19111174.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Kim JH, Richter JD. RINGO/cdk1 and CPEB mediate poly(A) tail stabilization and translational regulation by ePAB. Genes Dev. 2007 Oct 15; 21(20):2571-9. PMID: 17938241.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Richter JD. CPEB: a life in translation. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007 Jun; 32(6):279-85. PMID: 17481902.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Richter JD, Fallon JR. Synapses go nucle(ol)ar. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Apr; 10(4):399-400. PMID: 17387325.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Tung JJ, Padmanabhan K, Hansen DV, Richter JD, Jackson PK. Translational unmasking of Emi2 directs cytostatic factor arrest in meiosis II. Cell Cycle. 2007 Mar 15; 6(6):725-31. PMID: 17361107.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Huang YS, Richter JD. Analysis of mRNA translation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Methods Enzymol. 2007; 431:143-62. PMID: 17923234.
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    54. Nottrott S, Simard MJ, Richter JD. Human let-7a miRNA blocks protein production on actively translating polyribosomes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006 Dec; 13(12):1108-14. PMID: 17128272.
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    55. Cao Q, Kim JH, Richter JD. CDK1 and calcineurin regulate Maskin association with eIF4E and translational control of cell cycle progression. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006 Dec; 13(12):1128-34. PMID: 17086181.
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    56. Kim JH, Richter JD. Opposing polymerase-deadenylase activities regulate cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Mol Cell. 2006 Oct 20; 24(2):173-83. PMID: 17052452.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Racki WJ, Richter JD. CPEB controls oocyte growth and follicle development in the mouse. Development. 2006 Nov; 133(22):4527-37. PMID: 17050619.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Huang YS, Kan MC, Lin CL, Richter JD. CPEB3 and CPEB4 in neurons: analysis of RNA-binding specificity and translational control of AMPA receptor GluR2 mRNA. EMBO J. 2006 Oct 18; 25(20):4865-76. PMID: 17024188.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Groisman I, Ivshina M, Marin V, Kennedy NJ, Davis RJ, Richter JD. Control of cellular senescence by CPEB. Genes Dev. 2006 Oct 1; 20(19):2701-12. PMID: 17015432.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Jung MY, Lorenz L, Richter JD. Translational control by neuroguidin, a eukaryotic initiation factor 4E and CPEB binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Jun; 26(11):4277-87. PMID: 16705177.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Padmanabhan K, Richter JD. Regulated Pumilio-2 binding controls RINGO/Spy mRNA translation and CPEB activation. Genes Dev. 2006 Jan 15; 20(2):199-209. PMID: 16418484.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Berger-Sweeney J, Zearfoss NR, Richter JD. Reduced extinction of hippocampal-dependent memories in CPEB knockout mice. Learn Mem. 2006 Jan-Feb; 13(1):4-7. PMID: 16452649.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Cao Q, Huang YS, Kan MC, Richter JD. Amyloid precursor proteins anchor CPEB to membranes and promote polyadenylation-induced translation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Dec; 25(24):10930-9. PMID: 16314516.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Barnard DC, Cao Q, Richter JD. Differential phosphorylation controls Maskin association with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and localization on the mitotic apparatus. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Sep; 25(17):7605-15. PMID: 16107707.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Du L, Richter JD. Activity-dependent polyadenylation in neurons. RNA. 2005 Sep; 11(9):1340-7. PMID: 16043499.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Richter JD, Sonenberg N. Regulation of cap-dependent translation by eIF4E inhibitory proteins. Nature. 2005 Feb 3; 433(7025):477-80. PMID: 15690031.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Barnard DC, Ryan K, Manley JL, Richter JD. Symplekin and xGLD-2 are required for CPEB-mediated cytoplasmic polyadenylation. Cell. 2004 Nov 24; 119(5):641-51. PMID: 15550246.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Richter JD. RNA transport (partly) revealed! Neuron. 2004 Aug 19; 43(4):442-3. PMID: 15312643.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Huang YS, Richter JD. Regulation of local mRNA translation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004 Jun; 16(3):308-13. PMID: 15145356.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Alarcon JM, Hodgman R, Theis M, Huang YS, Kandel ER, Richter JD. Selective modulation of some forms of schaffer collateral-CA1 synaptic plasticity in mice with a disruption of the CPEB-1 gene. Learn Mem. 2004 May-Jun; 11(3):318-27. PMID: 15169862.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Sarkissian M, Mendez R, Richter JD. Progesterone and insulin stimulation of CPEB-dependent polyadenylation is regulated by Aurora A and glycogen synthase kinase-3. Genes Dev. 2004 Jan 1; 18(1):48-61. PMID: 14724178.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Tay J, Hodgman R, Sarkissian M, Richter JD. Regulated CPEB phosphorylation during meiotic progression suggests a mechanism for temporal control of maternal mRNA translation. Genes Dev. 2003 Jun 15; 17(12):1457-62. PMID: 12815066.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Huang YS, Carson JH, Barbarese E, Richter JD. Facilitation of dendritic mRNA transport by CPEB. Genes Dev. 2003 Mar 1; 17(5):638-53. PMID: 12629046.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Cao Q, Richter JD. Dissolution of the maskin-eIF4E complex by cytoplasmic polyadenylation and poly(A)-binding protein controls cyclin B1 mRNA translation and oocyte maturation. EMBO J. 2002 Jul 15; 21(14):3852-62. PMID: 12110596.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Richter JD, Lorenz LJ. Selective translation of mRNAs at synapses. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2002 Jun; 12(3):300-4. PMID: 12049937.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Groisman I, Jung MY, Sarkissian M, Cao Q, Richter JD. Translational control of the embryonic cell cycle. Cell. 2002 May 17; 109(4):473-83. PMID: 12086604.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Huang YS, Jung MY, Sarkissian M, Richter JD. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling results in Aurora kinase-catalyzed CPEB phosphorylation and alpha CaMKII mRNA polyadenylation at synapses. EMBO J. 2002 May 1; 21(9):2139-48. PMID: 11980711.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Mendez R, Barnard D, Richter JD. Differential mRNA translation and meiotic progression require Cdc2-mediated CPEB destruction. EMBO J. 2002 Apr 2; 21(7):1833-44. PMID: 11927567.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Wells DG, Dong X, Quinlan EM, Huang YS, Bear MF, Richter JD, Fallon JR. A role for the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element in NMDA receptor-regulated mRNA translation in neurons. J Neurosci. 2001 Dec 15; 21(24):9541-8. PMID: 11739565.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Richter JD, Theurkauf WE. Development. The message is in the translation. Science. 2001 Jul 6; 293(5527):60-2. PMID: 11441171.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Richter JD. Think globally, translate locally: what mitotic spindles and neuronal synapses have in common. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jun 19; 98(13):7069-71. PMID: 11416189.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Wells DG, Richter JD, Fallon JR. Molecular mechanisms for activity-regulated protein synthesis in the synapto-dendritic compartment. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2000 Feb; 10(1):132-7. PMID: 10679431.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Richter JD. Introduction: Processing eukaryotic mRNAs. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1997 Dec; 8(6):527-8. PMID: 9642166.
      View in: PubMed
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