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George B Witman PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
55 Lake Avenue North
Worcester MA 01655
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    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

    Collapse Biography 
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    University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United StatesBAZoology
    Yale University, New Haven, CT, United StatesPH DBiology

    Collapse Overview 
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    Cilia and Flagella, Molecular Motors, Sensory Transduction, Proteomics, Molecular Basis for Diseases Involving Cilia and Flagella

    Our research is concerned with the biology of cilia and flagella, including the non-motile primary cilia that are present on most cells in our bodies and function as cell antennae, receiving signals from the environment and transmitting these to the cell body. Our findings have important implications for human development and male infertility, and for diseases of the lung, kidney, and eye, all of which contain cilia. Such diseases are known as "ciliopathies."

    In many of these studies we are using the unicellular Chlamydomonas, a model flagellated organism amenable to biochemical, genetic, and molecular genetic approaches. We recently completed a proteomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas flagellum. This has resulted in a virtual "gold mine" of data that has and will continue to form the basis for many exciting projects. Because the proteins of cilia and flagella have been highly conserved throughout evolution, the human homologues of most of these proteins are readily identified. This opens the door to understanding the functions of many previously uncharacterized ciliary proteins. We currently are investigating the functions of several proteins whose homologues in humans or mice are known to cause disease, including blindness (Leber congenital amaurosis), cystic kidney disease, hydrocephalus, and syndromic ciliopathies such as Bardet-Biedl syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Typically, we explore the functions of these proteins in Chlamydomonas and then in the mouse to be sure that what we learn from Chlamydomonas is applicable to mammals.

    In addition, many members of this laboratory are participating in a large-scale project to generate and identify insertional Chlamydomonas mutants for all the genes encoding flagellar proteins. Chlamydomonas cells are transformed with a selectable marker that integrates at random into the genome, disrupting any gene at the site of insertion. Using PCR, we can then readily determine the genomic sequence flanking the insert, and thus identify the mutated gene. The mutant can then be characterized structurally and biochemically to understand the function of the mutated gene.

    Finally, we are studying a process called "intraflagellar transport" (IFT), which involves the active movement of multi-subunit protein particles from the base to the tip of the cilium or flagellum, and back to the base again (Fig. 1). These particles carry cargo necessary for assembly and maintenance of the cilium or flagellum, and also transport signals from the cilium or flagellum to the cell body and vice versa (Fig. 2). We are characterizing the motors responsible for this transport, the individual polypeptides that make up the IFT particles, and the proteins and protein complexes that interact with the IFT particle and generally function as cargo adaptors. These studies are providing new insights into a process that is essential for the assembly of almost all cilia and flagella.

    Witman Figure 1 a

    Figure 1. The intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery. During IFT, linear arrays of IFT particles (yellow) are transported towards the 'plus' (distal) ends of the flagellar outer doublet microtubules (blue) by kinesin-II (pink), and towards the 'minus' (proximal) ends of the microtubules by cytoplasmic dynein 1b (green). The IFT particles, which are composed of at least 19 different proteins, are believed to be carrying precursors that are necessary for the assembly of the flagellar axoneme. The IFT particles are linked to the flagellar membrane (grey lines), and there is evidence that their cargo also includes membrane proteins.

    Witman Figure 2

    Figure 2. IFT and targeting of proteins to the flagellar compartment. Flagellar membrane proteins are carried by vesicles from the Golgi apparatus to the base of the flagellum, where they fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell. In this figure, proteins destined for the flagellar membrane are sorted into specific vesicles that are then targeted to the base of the flagellum. This sorting and targeting appears to be aided by one or more IFT-particle proteins that cycle from the base of the flagellum back through the endomembrane system, where they become associated with the proteins that are destined for the flagellar membrane. Once the vesicle is exocytosed, the IFT-particle proteins, with attached flagellar membrane proteins, become incorporated into IFT particles and are moved through the flagellar pore (involving outer doublet-membrane links in the flagellar transition zone) into the flagellar compartment.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Patel MB, Griffin PJ, Olson SF, Dai J, Hou Y, Malik T, Das P, Zhang G, Zhao W, Witman GB, Lechtreck KF. Distribution and bulk flow analyses of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) motor kinesin-2 support an "on-demand" model for Chlamydomonas ciliary length control. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2024 Mar 08. PMID: 38456596.
    2. Hou Y, Cheng X, Witman GB. Direct in situ protein tagging in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii utilizing TIM, a method for CRISPR/Cas9-based targeted insertional mutagenesis. PLoS One. 2022; 17(12):e0278972. PMID: 36490276.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Braschi B, Omran H, Witman GB, Pazour GJ, Pfister KK, Bruford EA, King SM. Consensus nomenclature for dyneins and associated assembly factors. J Cell Biol. 2022 02 07; 221(2). PMID: 35006274.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Cai K, Zhao Y, Zhao L, Phan N, Hou Y, Cheng X, Witman GB, Nicastro D. Structural organization of the C1b projection within the ciliary central apparatus. J Cell Sci. 2021 11 01; 134(21). PMID: 34651179.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    5. Hou Y, Zhao L, Kubo T, Cheng X, McNeill N, Oda T, Witman GB. Chlamydomonas FAP70 is a component of the previously uncharacterized ciliary central apparatus projection C2a. J Cell Sci. 2021 06 15; 134(12). PMID: 33988244.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Craft Van De Weghe J, Harris JA, Kubo T, Witman GB, Lechtreck KF. Diffusion rather than intraflagellar transport likely provides most of the tubulin required for axonemal assembly in Chlamydomonas. J Cell Sci. 2020 09 11; 133(17). PMID: 32801124.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Picariello T, Hou Y, Kubo T, McNeill NA, Yanagisawa HA, Oda T, Witman GB. TIM, a targeted insertional mutagenesis method utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS One. 2020; 15(5):e0232594. PMID: 32401787.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. Zhao L, Hou Y, McNeill NA, Witman GB. The unity and diversity of the ciliary central apparatus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 02 17; 375(1792):20190164. PMID: 31884923.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Fu G, Zhao L, Dymek E, Hou Y, Song K, Phan N, Shang Z, Smith EF, Witman GB, Nicastro D. Structural organization of the C1a-e-c supercomplex within the ciliary central apparatus. J Cell Biol. 2019 12 02; 218(12):4236-4251. PMID: 31672705.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Zhao L, Hou Y, Picariello T, Craige B, Witman GB. Proteome of the central apparatus of a ciliary axoneme. J Cell Biol. 2019 06 03; 218(6):2051-2070. PMID: 31092556.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Picariello T, Brown JM, Hou Y, Swank G, Cochran DA, King OD, Lechtreck K, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. A global analysis of IFT-A function reveals specialization for transport of membrane-associated proteins into cilia. J Cell Sci. 2019 02 11; 132(3). PMID: 30659111.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Kubo T, Hou Y, Cochran DA, Witman GB, Oda T. A microtubule-dynein tethering complex regulates the axonemal inner dynein f (I1). Mol Biol Cell. 2018 05 01; 29(9):1060-1074. PMID: 29540525.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Hou Y, Witman GB. The N-terminus of IFT46 mediates intraflagellar transport of outer arm dynein and its cargo-adaptor ODA16. Mol Biol Cell. 2017 Sep 01; 28(18):2420-2433. PMID: 28701346.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Wingfield JL, Mengoni I, Bomberger H, Jiang YY, Walsh JD, Brown JM, Picariello T, Cochran DA, Zhu B, Pan J, Eggenschwiler J, Gaertig J, Witman GB, Kner P, Lechtreck K. IFT trains in different stages of assembly queue at the ciliary base for consecutive release into the cilium. Elife. 2017 05 31; 6. PMID: 28562242.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Brown JM, Mosley M, Montes-Berrueta D, Hou Y, Yang F, Scarbrough C, Witman GB, Wirschell M. Characterization of a new oda3 allele, oda3-6, defective in assembly of the outer dynein arm-docking complex in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3):e0173842. PMID: 28291812.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Kubo T, Brown JM, Bellve K, Craige B, Craft JM, Fogarty K, Lechtreck KF, Witman GB. Together, the IFT81 and IFT74 N-termini form the main module for intraflagellar transport of tubulin. J Cell Sci. 2016 05 15; 129(10):2106-19. PMID: 27068536.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Schmidts M, Hou Y, Cort?s CR, Mans DA, Huber C, Boldt K, Patel M, van Reeuwijk J, Plaza JM, van Beersum SE, Yap ZM, Letteboer SJ, Taylor SP, Herridge W, Johnson CA, Scambler PJ, Ueffing M, Kayserili H, Krakow D, King SM, Beales PL, Al-Gazali L, Wicking C, Cormier-Daire V, Roepman R, Mitchison HM, Witman GB. Corrigendum: TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport. Nat Commun. 2016 Mar 29; 7:11270. PMID: 27021811.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    18. San Agustin JT, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. Intraflagellar transport is essential for mammalian spermiogenesis but is absent in mature sperm. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Dec 01; 26(24):4358-72. PMID: 26424803.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Yang TT, Su J, Wang WJ, Craige B, Witman GB, Tsou MF, Liao JC. Superresolution Pattern Recognition Reveals the Architectural Map of the Ciliary Transition Zone. Sci Rep. 2015 Sep 14; 5:14096. PMID: 26365165.
      Citations: 85     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. McKenzie CW, Craige B, Kroeger TV, Finn R, Wyatt TA, Sisson JH, Pavlik JA, Strittmatter L, Hendricks GM, Witman GB, Lee L. CFAP54 is required for proper ciliary motility and assembly of the central pair apparatus in mice. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Sep 15; 26(18):3140-9. PMID: 26224312.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Kubo T, Hirono M, Aikawa T, Kamiya R, Witman GB. Reduced tubulin polyglutamylation suppresses flagellar shortness in Chlamydomonas. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Aug 01; 26(15):2810-22. PMID: 26085508.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Awata J, Song K, Lin J, King SM, Sanderson MJ, Nicastro D, Witman GB. DRC3 connects the N-DRC to dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Aug 01; 26(15):2788-800. PMID: 26063732.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Schmidts M, Hou Y, Cort?s CR, Mans DA, Huber C, Boldt K, Patel M, van Reeuwijk J, Plaza JM, van Beersum SE, Yap ZM, Letteboer SJ, Taylor SP, Herridge W, Johnson CA, Scambler PJ, Ueffing M, Kayserili H, Krakow D, King SM, Beales PL, Al-Gazali L, Wicking C, Cormier-Daire V, Roepman R, Mitchison HM, Witman GB. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport. Nat Commun. 2015 Jun 05; 6:7074. PMID: 26044572.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Brown JM, Cochran DA, Craige B, Kubo T, Witman GB. Assembly of IFT trains at the ciliary base depends on IFT74. Curr Biol. 2015 Jun 15; 25(12):1583-93. PMID: 26051893.
      Citations: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Damerla RR, Cui C, Gabriel GC, Liu X, Craige B, Gibbs BC, Francis R, Li Y, Chatterjee B, San Agustin JT, Eguether T, Subramanian R, Witman GB, Michaud JL, Pazour GJ, Lo CW. Novel Jbts17 mutant mouse model of Joubert syndrome with cilia transition zone defects and cerebellar and other ciliopathy related anomalies. Hum Mol Genet. 2015 Jul 15; 24(14):3994-4005. PMID: 25877302.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Hou Y, Witman GB. Dynein and intraflagellar transport. Exp Cell Res. 2015 May 15; 334(1):26-34. PMID: 25725253.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Song K, Awata J, Tritschler D, Bower R, Witman GB, Porter ME, Nicastro D. In situ localization of N and C termini of subunits of the flagellar nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) using SNAP tag and cryo-electron tomography. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 27; 290(9):5341-53. PMID: 25564608.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Brown JM, Witman GB. Cilia and Diseases. Bioscience. 2014 Dec 01; 64(12):1126-1137. PMID: 25960570.
      Citations: 94     Fields:    
    29. Craige B, Witman GB. Flipping a phosphate switch on kinesin-II to turn IFT around. Dev Cell. 2014 Sep 08; 30(5):492-3. PMID: 25203204.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Awata J, Takada S, Standley C, Lechtreck KF, Bellv? KD, Pazour GJ, Fogarty KE, Witman GB. NPHP4 controls ciliary trafficking of membrane proteins and large soluble proteins at the transition zone. J Cell Sci. 2014 Nov 01; 127(Pt 21):4714-27. PMID: 25150219.
      Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Johnson EA, Rice SL, Preimesberger MR, Nye DB, Gilevicius L, Wenke BB, Brown JM, Witman GB, Lecomte JT. Characterization of THB1, a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii truncated hemoglobin: linkage to nitrogen metabolism and identification of lysine as the distal heme ligand. Biochemistry. 2014 Jul 22; 53(28):4573-89. PMID: 24964018.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Blaby IK, Blaby-Haas CE, Tourasse N, Hom EF, Lopez D, Aksoy M, Grossman A, Umen J, Dutcher S, Porter M, King S, Witman GB, Stanke M, Harris EH, Goodstein D, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Vallon O, Merchant SS, Prochnik S. The Chlamydomonas genome project: a decade on. Trends Plant Sci. 2014 Oct; 19(10):672-80. PMID: 24950814.
      Citations: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Owa M, Furuta A, Usukura J, Arisaka F, King SM, Witman GB, Kamiya R, Wakabayashi K. Cooperative binding of the outer arm-docking complex underlies the regular arrangement of outer arm dynein in the axoneme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9461-6. PMID: 24979786.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    34. Lechtreck KF, Gould TJ, Witman GB. Flagellar central pair assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Cilia. 2013 Nov 27; 2(1):15. PMID: 24283352.
    35. Craige B, Brown JM, Witman GB. Isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella. Curr Protoc Cell Biol. 2013 Jun; Chapter 3:Unit 3.41.1-9. PMID: 23728744.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Lechtreck KF, Brown JM, Sampaio JL, Craft JM, Shevchenko A, Evans JE, Witman GB. Cycling of the signaling protein phospholipase D through cilia requires the BBSome only for the export phase. J Cell Biol. 2013 Apr 15; 201(2):249-61. PMID: 23589493.
      Citations: 85     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Ludington WB, Wemmer KA, Lechtreck KF, Witman GB, Marshall WF. Avalanche-like behavior in ciliary import. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 05; 110(10):3925-30. PMID: 23431147.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Engel BD, Ishikawa H, Wemmer KA, Geimer S, Wakabayashi K, Hirono M, Craige B, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, Kamiya R, Marshall WF. The role of retrograde intraflagellar transport in flagellar assembly, maintenance, and function. J Cell Biol. 2012 Oct 01; 199(1):151-67. PMID: 23027906.
      Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Brown JM, Dipetrillo CG, Smith EF, Witman GB. A FAP46 mutant provides new insights into the function and assembly of the C1d complex of the ciliary central apparatus. J Cell Sci. 2012 Aug 15; 125(Pt 16):3904-13. PMID: 22573824.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Hom EF, Witman GB, Harris EH, Dutcher SK, Kamiya R, Mitchell DR, Pazour GJ, Porter ME, Sale WS, Wirschell M, Yagi T, King SM. A unified taxonomy for ciliary dyneins. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2011 Oct; 68(10):555-65. PMID: 21953912.
      Citations: 49     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Yang Y, Cochran DA, Gargano MD, King I, Samhat NK, Burger BP, Sabourin KR, Hou Y, Awata J, Parry DA, Marshall WF, Witman GB, Lu X. Regulation of flagellar motility by the conserved flagellar protein CG34110/Ccdc135/FAP50. Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Apr; 22(7):976-87. PMID: 21289096.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Craige B, Tsao CC, Diener DR, Hou Y, Lechtreck KF, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. CEP290 tethers flagellar transition zone microtubules to the membrane and regulates flagellar protein content. J Cell Biol. 2010 Sep 06; 190(5):927-40. PMID: 20819941.
      Citations: 238     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Lechtreck KF, Johnson EC, Sakai T, Cochran D, Ballif BA, Rush J, Pazour GJ, Ikebe M, Witman GB. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii BBSome is an IFT cargo required for export of specific signaling proteins from flagella. J Cell Biol. 2009 Dec 28; 187(7):1117-32. PMID: 20038682.
      Citations: 204     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Engel BD, Lechtreck KF, Sakai T, Ikebe M, Witman GB, Marshall WF. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy of Chlamydomonas flagella. Methods Cell Biol. 2009; 93:157-77. PMID: 20409817.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Lechtreck KF, Sanderson MJ, Witman GB. High-speed digital imaging of ependymal cilia in the murine brain. Methods Cell Biol. 2009; 91:255-64. PMID: 20409790.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Lechtreck KF, Luro S, Awata J, Witman GB. HA-tagging of putative flagellar proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii identifies a novel protein of intraflagellar transport complex B. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009 Aug; 66(8):469-82. PMID: 19382199.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Wirschell M, Yang C, Yang P, Fox L, Yanagisawa HA, Kamiya R, Witman GB, Porter ME, Sale WS. IC97 is a novel intermediate chain of I1 dynein that interacts with tubulin and regulates interdoublet sliding. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Jul; 20(13):3044-54. PMID: 19420136.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Lechtreck KF, Delmotte P, Robinson ML, Sanderson MJ, Witman GB. Mutations in Hydin impair ciliary motility in mice. J Cell Biol. 2008 Feb 11; 180(3):633-43. PMID: 18250199.
      Citations: 130     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Huang K, Diener DR, Mitchell A, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, Rosenbaum JL. Function and dynamics of PKD2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella. J Cell Biol. 2007 Nov 05; 179(3):501-14. PMID: 17984324.
      Citations: 106     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Merchant SS, Prochnik SE, Vallon O, Harris EH, Karpowicz SJ, Witman GB, Terry A, Salamov A, Fritz-Laylin LK, Mar?chal-Drouard L, Marshall WF, Qu LH, Nelson DR, Sanderfoot AA, Spalding MH, Kapitonov VV, Ren Q, Ferris P, Lindquist E, Shapiro H, Lucas SM, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Cardol P, Cerutti H, Chanfreau G, Chen CL, Cognat V, Croft MT, Dent R, Dutcher S, Fern?ndez E, Fukuzawa H, Gonz?lez-Ballester D, Gonz?lez-Halphen D, Hallmann A, Hanikenne M, Hippler M, Inwood W, Jabbari K, Kalanon M, Kuras R, Lefebvre PA, Lemaire SD, Lobanov AV, Lohr M, Manuell A, Meier I, Mets L, Mittag M, Mittelmeier T, Moroney JV, Moseley J, Napoli C, Nedelcu AM, Niyogi K, Novoselov SV, Paulsen IT, Pazour G, Purton S, Ral JP, Ria?o-Pach?n DM, Riekhof W, Rymarquis L, Schroda M, Stern D, Umen J, Willows R, Wilson N, Zimmer SL, Allmer J, Balk J, Bisova K, Chen CJ, Elias M, Gendler K, Hauser C, Lamb MR, Ledford H, Long JC, Minagawa J, Page MD, Pan J, Pootakham W, Roje S, Rose A, Stahlberg E, Terauchi AM, Yang P, Ball S, Bowler C, Dieckmann CL, Gladyshev VN, Green P, Jorgensen R, Mayfield S, Mueller-Roeber B, Rajamani S, Sayre RT, Brokstein P, Dubchak I, Goodstein D, Hornick L, Huang YW, Jhaveri J, Luo Y, Mart?nez D, Ngau WC, Otillar B, Poliakov A, Porter A, Szajkowski L, Werner G, Zhou K, Grigoriev IV, Rokhsar DS, Grossman AR. The Chlamydomonas genome reveals the evolution of key animal and plant functions. Science. 2007 Oct 12; 318(5848):245-50. PMID: 17932292.
      Citations: 1056     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Hou Y, Qin H, Follit JA, Pazour GJ, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Functional analysis of an individual IFT protein: IFT46 is required for transport of outer dynein arms into flagella. J Cell Biol. 2007 Feb 26; 176(5):653-65. PMID: 17312020.
      Citations: 127     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Lechtreck KF, Witman GB. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydin is a central pair protein required for flagellar motility. J Cell Biol. 2007 Feb 12; 176(4):473-82. PMID: 17296796.
      Citations: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Yang P, Diener DR, Yang C, Kohno T, Pazour GJ, Dienes JM, Agrin NS, King SM, Sale WS, Kamiya R, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB. Radial spoke proteins of Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Sci. 2006 Mar 15; 119(Pt 6):1165-74. PMID: 16507594.
      Citations: 121     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Pfister KK, Fisher EM, Gibbons IR, Hays TS, Holzbaur EL, McIntosh JR, Porter ME, Schroer TA, Vaughan KT, Witman GB, King SM, Vallee RB. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature. J Cell Biol. 2005 Nov 07; 171(3):411-3. PMID: 16260502.
      Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. DiBella LM, Gorbatyuk O, Sakato M, Wakabayashi K, Patel-King RS, Pazour GJ, Witman GB, King SM. Differential light chain assembly influences outer arm dynein motor function. Mol Biol Cell. 2005 Dec; 16(12):5661-74. PMID: 16195342.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Pazour GJ, Agrin N, Leszyk J, Witman GB. Proteomic analysis of a eukaryotic cilium. J Cell Biol. 2005 Jul 04; 170(1):103-13. PMID: 15998802.
      Citations: 497     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Pazour GJ, Agrin N, Walker BL, Witman GB. Identification of predicted human outer dynein arm genes: candidates for primary ciliary dyskinesia genes. J Med Genet. 2006 Jan; 43(1):62-73. PMID: 15937072.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    58. Wang H, San Agustin JT, Witman GB, Kilpatrick DL. Novel role for a sterol response element binding protein in directing spermatogenic cell-specific gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec; 24(24):10681-8. PMID: 15572673.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Jurczyk A, Gromley A, Redick S, San Agustin J, Witman G, Pazour GJ, Peters DJ, Doxsey S. Pericentrin forms a complex with intraflagellar transport proteins and polycystin-2 and is required for primary cilia assembly. J Cell Biol. 2004 Aug 30; 166(5):637-43. PMID: 15337773.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Hou Y, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. A dynein light intermediate chain, D1bLIC, is required for retrograde intraflagellar transport. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Oct; 15(10):4382-94. PMID: 15269286.
      Citations: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. Wirschell M, Pazour G, Yoda A, Hirono M, Kamiya R, Witman GB. Oda5p, a novel axonemal protein required for assembly of the outer dynein arm and an associated adenylate kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2004 Jun; 15(6):2729-41. PMID: 15064350.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Wang S, Luo Y, Wilson PD, Witman GB, Zhou J. The autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease protein is localized to primary cilia, with concentration in the basal body area. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Mar; 15(3):592-602. PMID: 14978161.
      Citations: 56     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Witman GB. Cell motility: deaf Drosophila keep the beat. Curr Biol. 2003 Oct 14; 13(20):R796-8. PMID: 14561418.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Casey DM, Yagi T, Kamiya R, Witman GB. DC3, the smallest subunit of the Chlamydomonas flagellar outer dynein arm-docking complex, is a redox-sensitive calcium-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 24; 278(43):42652-9. PMID: 12920131.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Casey DM, Inaba K, Pazour GJ, Takada S, Wakabayashi K, Wilkerson CG, Kamiya R, Witman GB. DC3, the 21-kDa subunit of the outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC), is a novel EF-hand protein important for assembly of both the outer arm and the ODA-DC. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Sep; 14(9):3650-63. PMID: 12972554.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Pazour GJ, Witman GB. The vertebrate primary cilium is a sensory organelle. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2003 Feb; 15(1):105-10. PMID: 12517711.
      Citations: 201     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    67. Pazour GJ, Baker SA, Deane JA, Cole DG, Dickert BL, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Besharse JC. The intraflagellar transport protein, IFT88, is essential for vertebrate photoreceptor assembly and maintenance. J Cell Biol. 2002 Apr 01; 157(1):103-13. PMID: 11916979.
      Citations: 248     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Takada S, Wilkerson CG, Wakabayashi K, Kamiya R, Witman GB. The outer dynein arm-docking complex: composition and characterization of a subunit (oda1) necessary for outer arm assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2002 Mar; 13(3):1015-29. PMID: 11907279.
      Citations: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    69. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Differential expression of the C(s) and Calpha1 isoforms of the catalytic subunit of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase testicular cells. Biol Reprod. 2001 Jul; 65(1):151-64. PMID: 11420235.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    70. Wakabayashi K, Takada S, Witman GB, Kamiya R. Transport and arrangement of the outer-dynein-arm docking complex in the flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants that lack outer dynein arms. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2001 Apr; 48(4):277-86. PMID: 11276076.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. Pazour GJ, Witman GB. Forward and reverse genetic analysis of microtubule motors in Chlamydomonas. Methods. 2000 Dec; 22(4):285-98. PMID: 11133235.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Vucica Y, Seeley ES, Rosenbaum JL, Witman GB, Cole DG. Chlamydomonas IFT88 and its mouse homologue, polycystic kidney disease gene tg737, are required for assembly of cilia and flagella. J Cell Biol. 2000 Oct 30; 151(3):709-18. PMID: 11062270.
      Citations: 510     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Agustin JT, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The unique catalytic subunit of sperm cAMP-dependent protein kinase is the product of an alternative Calpha mRNA expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2000 Sep; 11(9):3031-44. PMID: 10982398.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Horst CJ, Fishkind DJ, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. An insertional mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with defective microtubule positioning. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1999 Oct; 44(2):143-54. PMID: 10506749.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    75. Pazour GJ, Koutoulis A, Benashski SE, Dickert BL, Sheng H, Patel-King RS, King SM, Witman GB. LC2, the chlamydomonas homologue of the t complex-encoded protein Tctex2, is essential for outer dynein arm assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Oct; 10(10):3507-20. PMID: 10512883.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    76. Pazour GJ, Dickert BL, Witman GB. The DHC1b (DHC2) isoform of cytoplasmic dynein is required for flagellar assembly. J Cell Biol. 1999 Feb 08; 144(3):473-81. PMID: 9971742.
      Citations: 214     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Omoto CK, Gibbons IR, Kamiya R, Shingyoji C, Takahashi K, Witman GB. Rotation of the central pair microtubules in eukaryotic flagella. Mol Biol Cell. 1999 Jan; 10(1):1-4. PMID: 9880321.
      Citations: 46     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. San Agustin JT, Leszyk JD, Nuwaysir LM, Witman GB. The catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase of ovine sperm flagella has a unique amino-terminal sequence. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 18; 273(38):24874-83. PMID: 9733793.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Pazour GJ, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. A dynein light chain is essential for the retrograde particle movement of intraflagellar transport (IFT). J Cell Biol. 1998 May 18; 141(4):979-92. PMID: 9585416.
      Citations: 193     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Wilkerson CG, Inaba K, Sheng H, Takada S, Witman GB. The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ODA3 gene encodes a protein of the outer dynein arm docking complex. J Cell Biol. 1997 Jun 02; 137(5):1069-80. PMID: 9166407.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Nakamura K, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. Functional interaction between Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein subunits: the gamma subunit suppresses the ATPase activity of the alpha beta dimer. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1997; 37(4):338-45. PMID: 9258506.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. King SM, Patel-King RS, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The 78,000-M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein is a microtubule-binding protein. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct; 131(2):399-409. PMID: 7593167.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Pazour GJ, Sineshchekov OA, Witman GB. Mutational analysis of the phototransduction pathway of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Cell Biol. 1995 Oct; 131(2):427-40. PMID: 7593169.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    84. Ogawa K, Kamiya R, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. Interspecies conservation of outer arm dynein intermediate chain sequences defines two intermediate chain subclasses. Mol Biol Cell. 1995 Jun; 6(6):685-96. PMID: 7579688.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. Wilkerson CG, King SM, Koutoulis A, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. The 78,000 M(r) intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein isa WD-repeat protein required for arm assembly. J Cell Biol. 1995 Apr; 129(1):169-78. PMID: 7698982.
      Citations: 67     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    86. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Detection of flagellar protein kinases on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:135-40. PMID: 7476478.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Preparation and reactivation of demembranated, cytosol-free ram spermatozoa. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:251-5. PMID: 7476496.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Moss AG, Pazour GJ, Witman GB. Assay of Chlamydomonas phototaxis. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:281-7. PMID: 7476500.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    89. Horst CJ, Witman GB. Reactivation of Chlamydomonas cell models. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:207-10. PMID: 7476489.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Isolation of ram sperm flagella. Methods Cell Biol. 1995; 47:31-6. PMID: 7476505.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    91. Wilkerson CG, King SM, Witman GB. Molecular analysis of the gamma heavy chain of Chlamydomonas flagellar outer-arm dynein. J Cell Sci. 1994 Mar; 107 ( Pt 3):497-506. PMID: 7516341.
      Citations: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    92. King SM, Witman GB. Multiple sites of phosphorylation within the alpha heavy chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 18; 269(7):5452-7. PMID: 7508939.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    93. Kreimer G, Witman GB. Novel touch-induced, Ca(2+)-dependent phobic response in a flagellate green alga. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1994; 29(2):97-109. PMID: 7820869.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    94. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Role of cAMP in the reactivation of demembranated ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1994; 27(3):206-18. PMID: 8020107.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    95. Sakakibara H, Takada S, King SM, Witman GB, Kamiya R. A Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein mutant with a truncated beta heavy chain. J Cell Biol. 1993 Aug; 122(3):653-61. PMID: 8335691.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    96. Horst CJ, Witman GB. ptx1, a nonphototactic mutant of Chlamydomonas, lacks control of flagellar dominance. J Cell Biol. 1993 Feb; 120(3):733-41. PMID: 8425899.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    97. San Agustin JT, Witman GB. Reactivation of demembranated, cytosol-free ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1993; 24(4):264-73. PMID: 8477457.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. Moss AG, Gatti JL, Witman GB. The motile beta/IC1 subunit of sea urchin sperm outer arm dynein does not form a rigor bond. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep; 118(5):1177-88. PMID: 1387405.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    99. Moss AG, Sale WS, Fox LA, Witman GB. The alpha subunit of sea urchin sperm outer arm dynein mediates structural and rigor binding to microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep; 118(5):1189-200. PMID: 1387406.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    100. Witman GB. Axonemal dyneins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1992 Feb; 4(1):74-9. PMID: 1532722.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. King SM, Wilkerson CG, Witman GB. The Mr 78,000 intermediate chain of Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein interacts with alpha-tubulin in situ. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 05; 266(13):8401-7. PMID: 1827120.
      Citations: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    102. Moss AG, Gatti JL, King SM, Witman GB. Purification and characterization of Salmo gairdneri outer arm dynein. Methods Enzymol. 1991; 196:201-22. PMID: 1827864.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. King SM, Witman GB. Localization of an intermediate chain of outer arm dynein by immunoelectron microscopy. J Biol Chem. 1990 Nov 15; 265(32):19807-11. PMID: 2147183.
      Citations: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    104. King SM, Gatti JL, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer-arm dynein from trout spermatozoa: substructural organization. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1990; 16(4):266-78. PMID: 1697510.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    105. Gatti JL, King SM, Moss AG, Witman GB. Outer arm dynein from trout spermatozoa. Purification, polypeptide composition, and enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 05; 264(19):11450-7. PMID: 2525558.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    106. King SM, Haley BE, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Nucleotide binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jun 15; 264(17):10210-8. PMID: 2524490.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    107. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the gamma heavy chain of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Biol. 1988 Nov; 107(5):1799-808. PMID: 2460468.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Location of epitopes and protease-sensitive sites. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 05; 263(19):9244-55. PMID: 2454234.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    109. King SM, Witman GB. Structure of the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer arm dynein from Chlamydomonas flagella. Masses of chains and sites of ultraviolet-induced vanadate-dependent cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1987 Dec 25; 262(36):17596-604. PMID: 2961738.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    110. Paschal BM, King SM, Moss AG, Collins CA, Vallee RB, Witman GB. Isolated flagellar outer arm dynein translocates brain microtubules in vitro. Nature. 1987 Dec 17-23; 330(6149):672-4. PMID: 2960903.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Otter T, King SM, Witman GB. A two-step procedure for efficient electrotransfer of both high-molecular-weight (greater than 400,000) and low-molecular-weight (less than 20,000) proteins. Anal Biochem. 1987 May 01; 162(2):370-7. PMID: 2440344.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    112. Ishijima S, Witman GB. Flagellar movement of intact and demembranated, reactivated ram spermatozoa. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1987; 8(4):375-91. PMID: 2826021.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    113. King SM, Otter T, Witman GB. Purification and characterization of Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins. Methods Enzymol. 1986; 134:291-306. PMID: 3029544.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    114. Witman GB. Isolation of Chlamydomonas flagella and flagellar axonemes. Methods Enzymol. 1986; 134:280-90. PMID: 3821567.
      Citations: 171     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Pfister KK, Haley BE, Witman GB. Labeling of Chlamydomonas 18 S dynein polypeptides by 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate, a photoaffinity analog of ATP. J Biol Chem. 1985 Oct 15; 260(23):12844-50. PMID: 2931435.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    116. King SM, Otter T, Witman GB. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Chlamydomonas flagellar dyneins by high-resolution protein blotting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Jul; 82(14):4717-21. PMID: 3161075.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    117. Hoops HJ, Witman GB. Basal bodies and associated structures are not required for normal flagellar motion or phototaxis in the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum. J Cell Biol. 1985 Jan; 100(1):297-309. PMID: 3965476.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    118. Pfister KK, Witman GB. Subfractionation of Chlamydomonas 18 S dynein into two unique subunits containing ATPase activity. J Biol Chem. 1984 Oct 10; 259(19):12072-80. PMID: 6237107.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    119. Pfister KK, Haley BE, Witman GB. The photoaffinity probe 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate selectively labels the heavy chain of Chlamydomonas 12 S dynein. J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 10; 259(13):8499-504. PMID: 6234314.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    120. Hoops HJ, Wright RL, Jarvik JW, Witman GB. Flagellar waveform and rotational orientation in a Chlamydomonas mutant lacking normal striated fibers. J Cell Biol. 1984 Mar; 98(3):818-24. PMID: 6699086.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    121. Kamiya R, Witman GB. Submicromolar levels of calcium control the balance of beating between the two flagella in demembranated models of Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1984 Jan; 98(1):97-107. PMID: 6707098.
      Citations: 101     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    122. Hoops HJ, Witman GB. Outer doublet heterogeneity reveals structural polarity related to beat direction in Chlamydomonas flagella. J Cell Biol. 1983 Sep; 97(3):902-8. PMID: 6224802.
      Citations: 104     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    123. Remillard SP, Witman GB. Synthesis, transport, and utilization of specific flagellar proteins during flagellar regeneration in Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1982 Jun; 93(3):615-31. PMID: 7118994.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    124. Pfister KK, Fay RB, Witman GB. Purification and polypeptide composition of dynein ATPases from Chlamydomonas flagella. Cell Motil. 1982; 2(6):525-47. PMID: 6220806.
      Citations: 71     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    125. Witman GB, Minervini N. Dynein arm conformation and mechanochemical transduction in the eukaryotic flagellum. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1982; 35:203-23. PMID: 6223397.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    126. Witman GB, Minervini N. Role of calmodulin in the flagellar axoneme: effect of phenothiazines on reactivated axonemes of Chlamydomonas. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 80:199-204. PMID: 6285386.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    127. Gitelman SE, Witman GB. Purification of calmodulin from Chlamydomonas: calmodulin occurs in cell bodies and flagella. J Cell Biol. 1980 Dec; 87(3 Pt 1):764-70. PMID: 6257728.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    128. Bessen M, Fay RB, Witman GB. Calcium control of waveform in isolated flagellar axonemes of Chlamydomonas. J Cell Biol. 1980 Aug; 86(2):446-55. PMID: 6447155.
      Citations: 89     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    129. Penningroth SM, Witman GB. Effects of adenylyl imidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable adenosine triphosphate analog, on reactivated and rigor wave sea urchin sperm. J Cell Biol. 1978 Dec; 79(3):827-32. PMID: 153347.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    130. Witman GB, Plummer J, Sander G. Chlamydomonas flagellar mutants lacking radial spokes and central tubules. Structure, composition, and function of specific axonemal components. J Cell Biol. 1978 Mar; 76(3):729-47. PMID: 632325.
      Citations: 163     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    131. Witman GB. The site of in vivo assembly of flagellar microtubules. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975 Jun 30; 253:178-91. PMID: 1056740.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    132. Dentler WL, Granett S, Witman GB, Rosenbaum JL. Directionality of brain microtubule assembly in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 May; 71(5):1710-4. PMID: 4134974.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    133. Witman GB, Carlson K, Rosenbaum JL. Chlamydomonas flagella. II. The distribution of tubulins 1 and 2 in the outer doublet microtubules. J Cell Biol. 1972 Sep; 54(3):540-55. PMID: 5044758.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    134. Witman GB, Carlson K, Berliner J, Rosenbaum JL. Chlamydomonas flagella. I. Isolation and electrophoretic analysis of microtubules, matrix, membranes, and mastigonemes. J Cell Biol. 1972 Sep; 54(3):507-39. PMID: 4558009.
      Citations: 199     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    135. Olmsted JB, Witman GB, Carlson K, Rosenbaum JL. Comparison of the microtubule proteins of neuroblastoma cells, brain, and Chlamydomonas flagella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Sep; 68(9):2273-7. PMID: 5289385.
      Citations: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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