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Sudhir Agrawal MSc, DPhil

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
364 Plantation Street
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP, IndiaBSChem, Botany, Zoology
    University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP, IndiaMSScience
    University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP, IndiaDPHILChemistry
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UKPost DoctoralNucleic Acids
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MAFoundation ScholarAntisense
    Collapse awards and honors
    2022Life Time Achievement Award, Oligonucleotide Therapeutic Society

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview

    Over three decades, three drug-discovery platforms based on RNA Therapeutics have been introduced in my laboratory. These include Antisense technology, Toll-Like Receptor Agonism, and Toll-Like Receptor Antagonism. Drug candidates from these technologies have been created and have advanced to clinical proof of concept trials in patients. Several drugs have been approved based on ASO chemistries and mechanisms developed in our labs. At a recent conference of the Oligonucleotide Therapeutic Society meeting, I reviewed the work in an award lecture.


    Publications available on Google Scholar

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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Agrawal S. Considerations for Creating the Next Generation of RNA Therapeutics: Oligonucleotide Chemistry and Innate Immune Responses to Nucleic Acids. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2024 04; 34(2):37-51. PMID: 38578231.
    2. Agrawal S. The Evolution of Antisense Oligonucleotide Chemistry-A Personal Journey. Biomedicines. 2021 May 03; 9(5). PMID: 34063675.
    3. Agrawal S. RNA Therapeutics Are Stepping Out of the Maze. Trends Mol Med. 2020 12; 26(12):1061-1064. PMID: 32988738.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER. Intratumoural immunotherapy: activation of nucleic acid sensing pattern recognition receptors. Immunooncol Technol. 2019 Oct; 3:15-23. PMID: 35757301.
    5. Pelka K, Phulphagar K, Zimmermann J, Stahl R, Schmid-Burgk JL, Schmidt T, Spille JH, Labzin LI, Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER, Casanova JL, Hornung V, Marshak-Rothstein A, H?ning S, Latz E. Cutting edge: the UNC93B1 tyrosine-based motif regulates trafficking and TLR responses via separate mechanisms. J Immunol. 2014 Oct 01; 193(7):3257-61. PMID: 25187660.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Henriques-Pons A, Yu Q, Rayavarapu S, Cohen TV, Ampong B, Cha HJ, Jahnke V, Van der Meulen J, Wang D, Jiang W, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Spurney CF, Nagaraju K. Role of Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of dystrophin-deficient skeletal and heart muscle. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 May 15; 23(10):2604-17. PMID: 24368419.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Zhu FG, Jiang W, Bhagat L, Wang D, Yu D, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, La Monica N, Agrawal S. A novel antagonist of Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9 suppresses lupus disease-associated parameters in NZBW/F1 mice. Autoimmunity. 2013 Nov; 46(7):419-28. PMID: 24083389.
      Citations: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Wang D, Yu D, Sullivan T, La Monica N, Agrawal S. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel antagonist compounds of Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Apr 01; 41(6):3947-61. PMID: 23396449.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Jiang W, Zhu FG, Bhagat L, Yu D, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, La Monica N, Agrawal S. A Toll-like receptor 7, 8, and 9 antagonist inhibits Th1 and Th17 responses and inflammasome activation in a model of IL-23-induced psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Jul; 133(7):1777-84. PMID: 23370539.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Putta MR, Bhagat L, Wang D, Zhu FG, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Immune-Stimulatory Dinucleotide at the 5'-End of Oligodeoxynucleotides Is Critical for TLR9-Mediated Immune Responses. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Feb 14; 4(2):302-5. PMID: 24900663.
    11. Lan T, Wang D, Bhagat L, Philbin VJ, Yu D, Tang JX, Putta MR, Sullivan T, La Monica N, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Design of synthetic oligoribonucleotide-based agonists of Toll-like receptor 3 and their immune response profiles in vitro and in vivo. Org Biomol Chem. 2013 Feb 14; 11(6):1049-58. PMID: 23292214.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Zhang H, Liu L, Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Sun HB, Agrawal S, Guha C. An in situ autologous tumor vaccination with combined radiation therapy and TLR9 agonist therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e38111. PMID: 22666458.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    13. Saha S, Bhanja P, Liu L, Alfieri AA, Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Guha C. TLR9 agonist protects mice from radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29357. PMID: 22238604.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    14. Kandimalla ER, Struthers M, Bett AJ, Wisniewski T, Dubey SA, Jiang W, Precopio M, Sun Z, Wang H, Lan T, Agrawal S, Casimiro DR. Synthesis and immunological activities of novel Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonists. Cell Immunol. 2011; 270(2):126-34. PMID: 21570062.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Bhagat L, Putta MR, Wang D, Yu D, Lan T, Jiang W, Sun Z, Wang H, Tang JX, La Monica N, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Novel oligonucleotides containing two 3'-ends complementary to target mRNA show optimal gene-silencing activity. J Med Chem. 2011 Apr 28; 54(8):3027-36. PMID: 21466154.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Wang D, Precopio M, Lan T, Yu D, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Antitumor activity and immune response induction of a dual agonist of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Jun; 9(6):1788-97. PMID: 20515950.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Conforti A, Cipriani B, Peruzzi D, Dharmapuri S, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Mori F, Ciliberto G, La Monica N, Aurisicchio L. A TLR9 agonist enhances therapeutic effects of telomerase genetic vaccine. Vaccine. 2010 Apr 30; 28(20):3522-30. PMID: 20332048.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Struthers M, Bett AJ, Wisniewski T, Dubey SA, Precopio M, Jiang W, Sun Z, Wang H, Nowak I, Putta MR, Yu D, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Casimiro DR. Synthesis and immunological activities of novel agonists of toll-like receptor 9. Cell Immunol. 2010; 263(1):105-13. PMID: 20381019.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Putta MR, Zhu FG, Wang D, Bhagat L, Dai M, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Peptide conjugation at the 5'-end of oligodeoxynucleotides abrogates toll-like receptor 9-mediated immune stimulatory activity. Bioconjug Chem. 2010 Jan; 21(1):39-45. PMID: 20020767.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. Lan T, Dai M, Wang D, Zhu FG, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Toll-like receptor 7 selective synthetic oligoribonucleotide agonists: synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies. J Med Chem. 2009 Nov 12; 52(21):6871-9. PMID: 19824640.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Damiano V, Garofalo S, Rosa R, Bianco R, Caputo R, Gelardi T, Merola G, Racioppi L, Garbi C, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Tortora G. A novel toll-like receptor 9 agonist cooperates with trastuzumab in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors through multiple mechanisms of action. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15; 15(22):6921-30. PMID: 19903791.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    22. Yu D, Wang D, Zhu FG, Bhagat L, Dai M, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Modifications incorporated in CpG motifs of oligodeoxynucleotides lead to antagonist activity of toll-like receptors 7 and 9. J Med Chem. 2009 Aug 27; 52(16):5108-14. PMID: 19650625.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Dharmapuri S, Peruzzi D, Mennuni C, Calvaruso F, Giampaoli S, Barbato G, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Scarselli E, Mesiti G, Ciliberto G, La Monica N, Aurisicchio L. Coadministration of telomerase genetic vaccine and a novel TLR9 agonist in nonhuman primates. Mol Ther. 2009 10; 17(10):1804-13. PMID: 19623161.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Lan T, Putta MR, Wang D, Dai M, Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Synthetic oligoribonucleotides-containing secondary structures act as agonists of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 28; 386(3):443-8. PMID: 19523922.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    25. Aurisicchio L, Peruzzi D, Conforti A, Dharmapuri S, Biondo A, Giampaoli S, Fridman A, Bagchi A, Winkelmann CT, Gibson R, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Ciliberto G, La Monica N. Treatment of mammary carcinomas in HER-2 transgenic mice through combination of genetic vaccine and an agonist of Toll-like receptor 9. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 01; 15(5):1575-84. PMID: 19240169.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Lan T, Bhagat L, Wang D, Dai M, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Synthetic oligoribonucleotides containing arabinonucleotides act as agonists of TLR7 and 8. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Apr 01; 19(7):2044-7. PMID: 19269175.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Wang D, Bhagat L, Yu D, Zhu FG, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide-based antagonists for Toll-like receptors 7 and 9. J Med Chem. 2009 Jan 22; 52(2):551-8. PMID: 19102653.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Yu D, Putta MR, Bhagat L, Dai M, Wang D, Trombino AF, Sullivan T, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Impact of secondary structure of toll-like receptor 9 agonists on interferon alpha induction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec; 52(12):4320-5. PMID: 18852281.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Yu D, Putta MR, Bhagat L, Li Y, Zhu F, Wang D, Tang JX, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 containing synthetic dinucleotide motifs. J Med Chem. 2007 Dec 13; 50(25):6411-8. PMID: 17988082.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    30. Lan T, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Bhagat L, Li Y, Wang D, Zhu F, Tang JX, Putta MR, Cong Y, Trombino AF, Sullivan T, Agrawal S. Stabilized immune modulatory RNA compounds as agonists of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Aug 21; 104(34):13750-5. PMID: 17698957.
      Citations: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Ebert CS, Rose AS, Blanks DA, Eapen RP, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. Immune modulatory oligonucleotides in prevention of nasal allergen-induced Eustachian tube dysfunction in rats. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Aug; 137(2):250-5. PMID: 17666251.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Blanks DA, Ebert CS, Eapen RP, Zdanski C, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Prazma J. Immune modulatory oligonucleotides in the prevention and treatment of OVA-induced eustachian tube dysfunction in rats. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Aug; 137(2):321-6. PMID: 17666264.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    33. Damiano V, Caputo R, Garofalo S, Bianco R, Rosa R, Merola G, Gelardi T, Racioppi L, Fontanini G, De Placido S, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Ciardiello F, Tortora G. TLR9 agonist acts by different mechanisms synergizing with bevacizumab in sensitive and cetuximab-resistant colon cancer xenografts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 24; 104(30):12468-73. PMID: 17636117.
      Citations: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Zhu FG, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Agrawal S. Oral administration of a synthetic agonist of Toll-like receptor 9 potently modulates peanut-induced allergy in mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Sep; 120(3):631-7. PMID: 17582479.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. LaCasse EC, Cherton-Horvat GG, Hewitt KE, Jerome LJ, Morris SJ, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Wang H, Wang W, Zhang R, Agrawal S, Gillard JW, Durkin JP. Preclinical characterization of AEG35156/GEM 640, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide targeting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Sep 01; 12(17):5231-41. PMID: 16951243.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Ebert CS, Rose AS, Patel MR, Hardy SM, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. The role of immunomodulatory oligonucleotides in prevention of OVA-induced Eustachian tube dysfunction. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Dec; 70(12):2019-26. PMID: 16939693.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    37. Wang H, Rayburn ER, Wang W, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Zhang R. Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides as novel therapy for breast cancer: pharmacokinetics, in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity, and potentiation of antibody therapy. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Aug; 5(8):2106-14. PMID: 16928832.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    38. Putta MR, Zhu F, Li Y, Bhagat L, Cong Y, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Novel oligodeoxynucleotide agonists of TLR9 containing N3-Me-dC or N1-Me-dG modifications. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006; 34(11):3231-8. PMID: 16798912.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Wang H, Rayburn ER, Wang W, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Zhang R. Chemotherapy and chemosensitization of non-small cell lung cancer with a novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotide targeting Toll-like receptor 9. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 Jun; 5(6):1585-92. PMID: 16818518.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Lacasse EC, Kandimalla ER, Winocour P, Sullivan T, Agrawal S, Gillard JW, Durkin J. Application of XIAP antisense to cancer and other proliferative disorders: development of AEG35156/ GEM640. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov; 1058:215-34. PMID: 16394139.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    41. Trabattoni D, Clivio A, Bray DH, Bhagat L, Beltrami S, Maffeis G, Cesana E, Lowry P, Lissoni F, Kandimalla ER, Sullivan T, Agrawal S, Bartholomew R, Clerici M. Immunization with gp120-depleted whole killed HIV immunogen and a second-generation CpG DNA elicits strong HIV-specific responses in mice. Vaccine. 2006 Feb 27; 24(9):1470-7. PMID: 16221513.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Li Y, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Agrawal S. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing synthetic immunostimulatory motifs augment potent Th1 immune responses to HBsAg in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 5(6):981-91. PMID: 15829414.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Li Y, Yu D, Wang D, Cong YP, Song SS, Tang JX, Sullivan T, Agrawal S. Immunomodulatory oligonucleotides containing a cytosine-phosphate-2'-deoxy-7-deazaguanosine motif as potent toll-like receptor 9 agonists. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 10; 102(19):6925-30. PMID: 15860583.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Wang D, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Tang JX, Agrawal S. Oral administration of second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides induces mucosal Th1 immune responses and adjuvant activity. Vaccine. 2005 Apr 08; 23(20):2614-22. PMID: 15780444.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER. Role of Toll-like receptors in antisense and siRNA [corrected]. Nat Biotechnol. 2004 Dec; 22(12):1533-7. PMID: 15583662.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. McManus DC, Lefebvre CA, Cherton-Horvat G, St-Jean M, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Morris SJ, Durkin JP, Lacasse EC. Loss of XIAP protein expression by RNAi and antisense approaches sensitizes cancer cells to functionally diverse chemotherapeutics. Oncogene. 2004 Oct 21; 23(49):8105-17. PMID: 15378029.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    47. Zhu FG, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Tang JX, Agrawal S. Modulation of ovalbumin-induced Th2 responses by second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Jul; 4(7):851-62. PMID: 15182725.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Bjersing JL, Tarkowski A, Kandimalla ER, Karlsson H, Agrawal S, Collins LV. Impact of site-specific nucleobase deletions on the arthritogenicity of DNA. Inflammation. 2004 Jun; 28(3):159-68. PMID: 15527171.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Kandimalla ER, Pandey RK, Agrawal S. Hybridization-based fluorescence assay allows quantitation of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides in low nanomolar range. Anal Biochem. 2004 May 01; 328(1):93-5. PMID: 15081915.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    50. Wang D, Li Y, Yu D, Song SS, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Immunopharmacological and antitumor effects of second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides containing synthetic CpR motifs. Int J Oncol. 2004 Apr; 24(4):901-8. PMID: 15010828.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Agrawal DK, Edwan J, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Bhagat L, Wang D, Agrawal S. Novel immunomodulatory oligonucleotides prevent development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Jan; 4(1):127-38. PMID: 14975367.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER. Modulation of Toll-like Receptor 9 Responses through Synthetic Immunostimulatory Motifs of DNA. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Dec; 1002:30-42. PMID: 14751820.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Zhu FG, Yu D, Cong YP, Wang D, Tang JX, Tang JY, Knetter CF, Lien E, Agrawal S. A dinucleotide motif in oligonucleotides shows potent immunomodulatory activity and overrides species-specific recognition observed with CpG motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25; 100(24):14303-8. PMID: 14610275.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. Cong YP, Song SS, Bhagat L, Pandey RK, Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Self-stabilized CpG DNAs optimally activate human B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Oct 31; 310(4):1133-9. PMID: 14559233.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Cong YP, Pandey RK, Yu D, Zhao Q, Agrawal S. Secondary structures in CpG oligonucleotides affect immunostimulatory activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jul 11; 306(4):948-53. PMID: 12821134.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Wang D, Yu D, Zhu FG, Tang J, Wang H, Huang P, Zhang R, Agrawal S. Divergent synthetic nucleotide motif recognition pattern: design and development of potent immunomodulatory oligodeoxyribonucleotide agents with distinct cytokine induction profiles. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 May 01; 31(9):2393-400. PMID: 12711684.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    57. Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S. Chemistry of CpG DNA. Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2003 May; Chapter 4:Unit 4.16. PMID: 18428906.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    58. Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Zhao Q, Bhagat L, Cong Y, Agrawal S. Requirement of nucleobase proximal to CpG dinucleotide for immunostimulatory activity of synthetic CpG DNA. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Feb 06; 11(3):459-64. PMID: 12517441.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Bhagat L, Zhu FG, Yu D, Tang J, Wang H, Kandimalla ER, Zhang R, Agrawal S. CpG penta- and hexadeoxyribonucleotides as potent immunomodulatory agents. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Jan 24; 300(4):853-61. PMID: 12559951.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Tang JY, Cong Y, Tang J, Agrawal S. 'Immunomers'--novel 3'-3'-linked CpG oligodeoxyribonucleotides as potent immunomodulatory agents. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Oct 15; 30(20):4460-9. PMID: 12384593.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Cong Y, Tang J, Tang JY, Zhao Q, Agrawal S. Design, synthesis, and immunostimulatory properties of CpG DNAs containing alkyl-linker substitutions: role of nucleosides in the flanking sequences. J Med Chem. 2002 Sep 26; 45(20):4540-8. PMID: 12238933.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Yu D, Zhu FG, Bhagat L, Wang H, Kandimalla ER, Zhang R, Agrawal S. Potent CpG oligonucleotides containing phosphodiester linkages: in vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory properties. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Sep 13; 297(1):83-90. PMID: 12220512.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    63. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Yu D, Cong Y, Tang J, Agrawal S. Conjugation of ligands at the 5'-end of CpG DNA affects immunostimulatory activity. Bioconjug Chem. 2002 Sep-Oct; 13(5):966-74. PMID: 12236778.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Ball R, Lombardi G, Lucas T, Dexter DL, Hollister BA, Chen SF. GEM 231, a second-generation antisense agent complementary to protein kinase A RIalpha subunit, potentiates antitumor activity of irinotecan in human colon, pancreas, prostate and lung cancer xenografts. Int J Oncol. 2002 Jul; 21(1):65-72. PMID: 12063551.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    65. Wang H, Hang J, Shi Z, Li M, Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Agrawal S, Zhang R. Antisense oligonucleotide targeted to RIalpha subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (GEM231) enhances therapeutic effectiveness of cancer chemotherapeutic agent irinotecan in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts: in vivo synergistic activity, pharmacokinetics and host toxicity. Int J Oncol. 2002 Jul; 21(1):73-80. PMID: 12063552.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    66. Kandimalla ER, Yu D, Agrawal S. Towards optimal design of second-generation immunomodulatory oligonucleotides. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2002 Apr; 4(2):122-9. PMID: 12044033.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    67. Yu D, Kandimalla ER, Zhao Q, Cong Y, Agrawal S. Immunostimulatory properties of phosphorothioate CpG DNA containing both 3'-5'- and 2'-5'-internucleotide linkages. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Apr 01; 30(7):1613-9. PMID: 11917022.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Agrawal S, Kandimalla ER. Medicinal chemistry and therapeutic potential of CpG DNA. Trends Mol Med. 2002 Mar; 8(3):114-21. PMID: 11879771.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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