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    Eicke Latz MD

    TitleAssistant Professor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-5889
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Bossaller L, Rathinam VA, Bonegio R, Chiang PI, Busto P, Wespiser AR, Caffrey DR, Li QZ, Mohan C, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Marshak-Rothstein A. Overexpression of membrane-bound fas ligand (CD95L) exacerbates autoimmune disease and renal pathology in pristane-induced lupus. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 1; 191(5):2104-14.
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        2. Pelka K, Latz E. IRF5, IRF8, and IRF7 in human pDCs - the good, the bad, and the insignificant? Eur J Immunol. 2013 Jul; 43(7):1693-7.
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        3. Sheedy FJ, Grebe A, Rayner KJ, Kalantari P, Ramkhelawon B, Carpenter SB, Becker CE, Ediriweera HN, Mullick AE, Golenbock DT, Stuart LM, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Moore KJ. CD36 coordinates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by facilitating intracellular nucleation of soluble ligands into particulate ligands in sterile inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):812-20.
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        4. Latz E, Xiao TS, Stutz A. Activation and regulation of the inflammasomes. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jun; 13(6):397-411.
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        5. McAuley JL, Tate MD, Mackenzie-Kludas CJ, Pinar A, Zeng W, Stutz A, Latz E, Brown LE, Mansell A. Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome by IAV Virulence Protein PB1-F2 Contributes to Severe Pathophysiology and Disease. PLoS Pathog. 2013 May; 9(5):e1003392.
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        6. Hett EC, Slater LH, Mark KG, Kawate T, Monks BG, Stutz A, Latz E, Hung DT. Chemical genetics reveals a kinase-independent role for protein kinase R in pyroptosis. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Jun; 9(6):398-405.
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        7. Grebe A, Latz E. Cholesterol crystals and inflammation. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013 Mar; 15(3):313.
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        8. Bartok E, Bauernfeind F, Khaminets MG, Jakobs C, Monks B, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Hornung V. iGLuc: a luciferase-based inflammasome and protease activity reporter. Nat Methods. 2013 Feb; 10(2):147-54.
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        9. Duewell P, Latz E. Assessment and quantification of crystal-induced lysosomal damage. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1040:19-27.
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        10. Stutz A, Horvath GL, Monks BG, Latz E. ASC Speck Formation as a Readout for Inflammasome Activation. Methods Mol Biol. 2013; 1040:91-101.
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        11. Heneka MT, Kummer MP, Stutz A, Delekate A, Schwartz S, Vieira-Saecker A, Griep A, Axt D, Remus A, Tzeng TC, Gelpi E, Halle A, Korte M, Latz E, Golenbock DT. NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer's disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Nature. 2013 Jan 31; 493(7434):674-8.
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        12. Henault J, Martinez J, Riggs JM, Tian J, Mehta P, Clarke L, Sasai M, Latz E, Brinkmann MM, Iwasaki A, Coyle AJ, Kolbeck R, Green DR, Sanjuan MA. Noncanonical Autophagy Is Required for Type I Interferon Secretion in Response to DNA-Immune Complexes. Immunity. 2012 Dec 14; 37(6):986-97.
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        13. Bossaller L, Chiang PI, Schmidt-Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser WJ, Rathinam VA, Mocarski ES, Subramanian D, Green DR, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A, Latz E. Cutting Edge: FAS (CD95) Mediates Noncanonical IL-1ß and IL-18 Maturation via Caspase-8 in an RIP3-Independent Manner. J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5508-12.
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        14. Stunden HJ, Latz E. PKR stirs up inflammasomes. Cell Res. 2013 Feb; 23(2):168-70.
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        15. Jansen F, Yang X, Hoyer FF, Paul K, Heiermann N, Becher MU, Hussein NA, Kebschull M, Bedorf J, Franklin BS, Latz E, Nickenig G, Werner N. Endothelial microparticle uptake in target cells is annexin i/phosphatidylserine receptor dependent and prevents apoptosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 Aug; 32(8):1925-35.
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        16. Franklin BS, Latz E. For gut's sake: NLRC4 inflammasomes distinguish friend from foe. Nat Immunol. 2012; 13(5):429-31.
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        17. Jin T, Perry A, Jiang J, Smith P, Curry JA, Unterholzner L, Jiang Z, Horvath G, Rathinam VA, Johnstone RW, Hornung V, Latz E, Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA, Xiao TS. Structures of the HIN Domain:DNA Complexes Reveal Ligand Binding and Activation Mechanisms of the AIM2 Inflammasome and IFI16 Receptor. Immunity. 2012 Apr 20; 36(4):561-71.
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        18. Grebe A, Latz E. IL-1, quo vadis? Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jun; 222(2):324-5.
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        19. Brockschmidt A, Trost D, Peterziel H, Zimmermann K, Ehrler M, Grassmann H, Pfenning PN, Waha A, Wohlleber D, Brockschmidt FF, Jugold M, Hoischen A, Kalla C, Waha A, Seifert G, Knolle PA, Latz E, Hans VH, Wick W, Pfeifer A, Angel P, Weber RG. KIAA1797/FOCAD encodes a novel focal adhesion protein with tumour suppressor function in gliomas. Brain. 2012 Apr; 135(Pt 4):1027-41.
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        20. Hernández JC, Stevenson M, Latz E, Urcuqui-Inchima S. HIV Type 1 Infection Up-Regulates TLR2 and TLR4 Expression and Function in Vivo and in Vitro. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Oct; 28(10):1313-28.
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        21. Klein DC, Ovrebø KM, Latz E, Espevik T, Stokke BT. Direct measurement of the interaction force between immunostimulatory CpG-DNA and TLR9 fusion protein. J Mol Recognit. 2012 Feb; 25(2):74-81.
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        22. Horvath GL, Schrum JE, De Nardo CM, Latz E. Intracellular sensing of microbes and danger signals by the inflammasomes. Immunol Rev. 2011 Sep; 243(1):119-35.
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        23. Schlaweck S, Zimmer S, Struck R, Bartok E, Werner N, Bauernfeind F, Latz E, Nickenig G, Hornung V, Ghanem A. Critical role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 in vascular repair. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Aug 5; 411(3):627-31.
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        24. De Nardo D, Latz E. NLRP3 inflammasomes link inflammation and metabolic disease. Trends Immunol. 2011 Aug; 32(8):373-9.
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        25. Masters SL, Latz E, O'Neill LA. The inflammasome in atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. Sci Transl Med. 2011 May 4; 3(81):81ps17.
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        26. Pelka K, Latz E. Getting closer to the dirty little secret. Immunity. 2011 Apr 22; 34(4):455-8.
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        27. Hernández JC, Arteaga J, Paul S, Kumar A, Latz E, Urcuqui-Inchima S. Up-Regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 in Dendritic Cells in Response to HIV Type 1 and Coinfection with Opportunistic Pathogens. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Oct; 27(10):1099-109.
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        28. Ashman RF, Goeken JA, Latz E, Lenert P. Optimal oligonucleotide sequences for TLR9 inhibitory activity in human cells: lack of correlation with TLR9 binding. Int Immunol. 2011 Mar; 23(3):203-14.
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        29. Nagpal K, Plantinga TS, Sirois CM, Monks BG, Latz E, Netea MG, Golenbock DT. Natural Loss-of-function Mutation of Myeloid Differentiation Protein 88 Disrupts Its Ability to Form Myddosomes. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 1; 286(13):11875-82.
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        30. Kim TW, Febbraio M, Robinet P, Dugar B, Greene D, Cerny A, Latz E, Gilmour R, Staschke K, Chisolm G, Fox PL, Dicorleto PE, Smith JD, Li X. The Critical Role of IL-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4-Mediated NF-{kappa}B Activation in Modified Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Inflammatory Gene Expression and Atherosclerosis. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 1; 186(5):2871-80.
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        31. Stutz A, Bertheloot D, Latz E. Innate immune receptors for nucleic acids. Methods Mol Biol. 2011; 748:69-82.
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        32. Husebye H, Aune MH, Stenvik J, Samstad E, Skjeldal F, Halaas O, Nilsen NJ, Stenmark H, Latz E, Lien E, Mollnes TE, Bakke O, Espevik T. The Rab11a GTPase controls Toll-like receptor 4-induced activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 on phagosomes. Immunity. 2010 Oct 29; 33(4):583-96.
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        33. Unterholzner L, Keating SE, Baran M, Horan KA, Jensen SB, Sharma S, Sirois CM, Jin T, Latz E, Xiao TS, Fitzgerald KA, Paludan SR, Bowie AG. IFI16 is an innate immune sensor for intracellular DNA. Nat Immunol. 2010 Nov; 11(11):997-1004.
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        34. Latz E. NOX-free inflammasome activation. Blood. 2010 Sep 2; 116(9):1393-4.
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        35. Kumpf O, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Koch A, Hamann L, Mouktaroudi M, Oh DY, Latz E, Lorenz E, Schwartz DA, Ferwerda B, Routsi C, Skalioti C, Kullberg BJ, van der Meer JW, Schlag PM, Netea MG, Zacharowski K, Schumann RR. Influence of genetic variations in TLR4 and TIRAP/Mal on the course of sepsis and pneumonia and cytokine release: an observational study in three cohorts. Crit Care. 2010; 14(3):R103.
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        36. Kim S, Bauernfeind F, Ablasser A, Hartmann G, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Hornung V. Listeria monocytogenes is sensed by the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jun; 40(6):1545-51.
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        37. Bauer C, Duewell P, Mayer C, Lehr HA, Fitzgerald KA, Dauer M, Tschopp J, Endres S, Latz E, Schnurr M. Colitis induced in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. Gut. 2010 Sep; 59(9):1192-9.
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        38. Gray P, Michelsen KS, Sirois CM, Lowe E, Shimada K, Crother TR, Chen S, Brikos C, Bulut Y, Latz E, Underhill D, Arditi M. Identification of a novel human MD-2 splice variant that negatively regulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signaling. J Immunol. 2010 Jun 1; 184(11):6359-66.
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        39. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nuñez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz E. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010 Apr 29; 464(7293):1357-61.
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        40. Rathinam VA, Jiang Z, Waggoner SN, Sharma S, Cole LE, Waggoner L, Vanaja SK, Monks BG, Ganesan S, Latz E, Hornung V, Vogel SN, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Fitzgerald KA. The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses. Nat Immunol. 2010 May; 11(5):395-402.
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        41. Hornung V, Latz E. Critical functions of priming and lysosomal damage for NLRP3 activation. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar; 40(3):620-3.
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        42. Rock KL, Latz E, Ontiveros F, Kono H. The sterile inflammatory response. Annu Rev Immunol. 2010 Mar; 28:321-42.
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        43. Klein DC, Latz E, Espevik T, Stokke BT. Higher order structure of short immunostimulatory oligonucleotides studied by atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy. 2010 May; 110(6):689-93.
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        44. Gantier MP, Tong S, Behlke MA, Irving AT, Lappas M, Nilsson UW, Latz E, McMillan NA, Williams BR. Rational design of immunostimulatory siRNAs. Mol Ther. 2010 Apr; 18(4):785-95.
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        45. Hornung V, Latz E. Intracellular DNA recognition. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Feb; 10(2):123-30.
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        46. Juliana C, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Datta P, Solorzano L, Yu JW, Meng R, Quong AA, Latz E, Scott CP, Alnemri ES. Anti-inflammatory compounds parthenolide and Bay 11-7082 are direct inhibitors of the inflammasome. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 26; 285(13):9792-802.
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        47. Latz E. The inflammasomes: mechanisms of activation and function. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010 Feb; 22(1):28-33.
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        48. Stutz A, Golenbock DT, Latz E. Inflammasomes: too big to miss. J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec; 119(12):3502-11.
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        49. Liehl P, França AR, Prudêncio M, Latz E, Zaidman-Rémy A, Mota MM. Phosphothioate oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit Plasmodium sporozoite gliding motility. Cell Microbiol. 2010 Apr 1; 12(4):506-15.
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        50. Avalos AM, Latz E, Mousseau B, Christensen SR, Shlomchik MJ, Lund F, Marshak-Rothstein A. Differential cytokine production and bystander activation of autoreactive B cells in response to CpG-A and CpG-B oligonucleotides. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 15; 183(10):6262-8.
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        51. Hamm S, Latz E, Hangel D, Müller T, Yu P, Golenbock D, Sparwasser T, Wagner H, Bauer S. Alternating 2'-O-ribose methylation is a universal approach for generating non-stimulatory siRNA by acting as TLR7 antagonist. Immunobiology. 2010 Jul; 215(7):559-69.
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        52. Ablasser A, Bauernfeind F, Hartmann G, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Hornung V. RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Nat Immunol. 2009 Oct; 10(10):1065-72.
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        53. Motshwene PG, Moncrieffe MC, Grossmann JG, Kao C, Ayaluru M, Sandercock AM, Robinson CV, Latz E, Gay NJ. An oligomeric signaling platform formed by the Toll-like receptor signal transducers MyD88 and IRAK-4. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 11; 284(37):25404-11.
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        54. Schlee M, Roth A, Hornung V, Hagmann CA, Wimmenauer V, Barchet W, Coch C, Janke M, Mihailovic A, Wardle G, Juranek S, Kato H, Kawai T, Poeck H, Fitzgerald KA, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Tuschl T, Latz E, Ludwig J, Hartmann G. Recognition of 5' triphosphate by RIG-I helicase requires short blunt double-stranded RNA as contained in panhandle of negative-strand virus. Immunity. 2009 Jul 17; 31(1):25-34.
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        55. Bauernfeind FG, Horvath G, Stutz A, Alnemri ES, MacDonald K, Speert D, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Monks BG, Fitzgerald KA, Hornung V, Latz E. Cutting edge: NF-kappaB activating pattern recognition and cytokine receptors license NLRP3 inflammasome activation by regulating NLRP3 expression. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):787-91.
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        56. Hornung V, Ablasser A, Charrel-Dennis M, Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Caffrey DR, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature. 2009 Mar 26; 458(7237):514-8.
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        57. Horvath G, Young S, Latz E. Toll-like receptor interactions imaged by FRET microscopy and GFP fragment reconstitution. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 517:33-54.
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        58. Charrel-Dennis M, Latz E, Halmen KA, Trieu-Cuot P, Fitzgerald KA, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. TLR-independent type I interferon induction in response to an extracellular bacterial pathogen via intracellular recognition of its DNA. Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Dec 11; 4(6):543-54.
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        59. Bartholomeu DC, Ropert C, Melo MB, Parroche P, Junqueira CF, Teixeira SM, Sirois C, Kasperkovitz P, Knetter CF, Lien E, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15; 181(2):1333-44.
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        60. Halle A, Hornung V, Petzold GC, Stewart CR, Monks BG, Reinheckel T, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Moore KJ, Golenbock DT. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008 Aug; 9(8):857-65.
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        61. Hornung V, Bauernfeind F, Halle A, Samstad EO, Kono H, Rock KL, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E. Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat Immunol. 2008 Aug; 9(8):847-56.
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        62. Tamehiro N, Zhou S, Okuhira K, Benita Y, Brown CE, Zhuang DZ, Latz E, Hornemann T, von Eckardstein A, Xavier RJ, Freeman MW, Fitzgerald ML. SPTLC1 binds ABCA1 to negatively regulate trafficking and cholesterol efflux activity of the transporter. Biochemistry. 2008 Jun 10; 47(23):6138-47.
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        63. Williams B, Vanags D, Hall S, McCormack C, Foley P, Weiss J, Johnson B, Latz E, Feeney D. Efficacy and safety of chaperonin 10 in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: evidence of utility beyond a single indication. Arch Dermatol. 2008 May; 144(5):683-5.
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        64. Haas T, Metzger J, Schmitz F, Heit A, Müller T, Latz E, Wagner H. The DNA sugar backbone 2' deoxyribose determines toll-like receptor 9 activation. Immunity. 2008 Mar; 28(3):315-23.
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        65. Asagiri M, Hirai T, Kunigami T, Kamano S, Gober HJ, Okamoto K, Nishikawa K, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Aoki K, Ohya K, Imai Y, Morishita Y, Miyazono K, Kato S, Saftig P, Takayanagi H. Cathepsin K-dependent toll-like receptor 9 signaling revealed in experimental arthritis. Science. 2008 Feb 1; 319(5863):624-7.
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        66. Latz E, Verma A, Visintin A, Gong M, Sirois CM, Klein DC, Monks BG, McKnight CJ, Lamphier MS, Duprex WP, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Ligand-induced conformational changes allosterically activate Toll-like receptor 9. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jul; 8(7):772-9.
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        67. Tian J, Avalos AM, Mao SY, Chen B, Senthil K, Wu H, Parroche P, Drabic S, Golenbock D, Sirois C, Hua J, An LL, Audoly L, La Rosa G, Bierhaus A, Naworth P, Marshak-Rothstein A, Crow MK, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Kiener PA, Coyle AJ. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007 May; 8(5):487-96.
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        68. Parroche P, Lauw FN, Goutagny N, Latz E, Monks BG, Visintin A, Halmen KA, Lamphier M, Olivier M, Bartholomeu DC, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT. Malaria hemozoin is immunologically inert but radically enhances innate responses by presenting malaria DNA to Toll-like receptor 9. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 6; 104(6):1919-24.
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        69. Wang JP, Liu P, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW, Libraty DH. Flavivirus activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells delineates key elements of TLR7 signaling beyond endosomal recognition. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15; 177(10):7114-21.
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        70. Lamphier MS, Sirois CM, Verma A, Golenbock DT, Latz E. TLR9 and the recognition of self and non-self nucleic acids. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct; 1082:31-43.
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        71. Yu M, Wang H, Ding A, Golenbock DT, Latz E, Czura CJ, Fenton MJ, Tracey KJ, Yang H. HMGB1 signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR2. Shock. 2006 Aug; 26(2):174-9.
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        72. Rowe DC, McGettrick AF, Latz E, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Yamamoto M, Akira S, O'Neill LA, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The myristoylation of TRIF-related adaptor molecule is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6299-304.
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        73. Mansour MK, Latz E, Levitz SM. Cryptococcus neoformans glycoantigens are captured by multiple lectin receptors and presented by dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2006 Mar 1; 176(5):3053-61.
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        74. Husebye H, Halaas Ø, Stenmark H, Tunheim G, Sandanger Ø, Bogen B, Brech A, Latz E, Espevik T. Endocytic pathways regulate Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and link innate and adaptive immunity. EMBO J. 2006 Feb 22; 25(4):683-92.
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        75. Mann PB, Wolfe D, Latz E, Golenbock D, Preston A, Harvill ET. Comparative toll-like receptor 4-mediated innate host defense to Bordetella infection. Infect Immun. 2005 Dec; 73(12):8144-52.
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        76. Visintin A, Halmen KA, Latz E, Monks BG, Golenbock DT. Pharmacological inhibition of endotoxin responses is achieved by targeting the TLR4 coreceptor, MD-2. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15; 175(10):6465-72.
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        77. Means TK, Latz E, Hayashi F, Murali MR, Golenbock DT, Luster AD. Human lupus autoantibody-DNA complexes activate DCs through cooperation of CD32 and TLR9. J Clin Invest. 2005 Feb; 115(2):407-17.
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        78. Schoenemeyer A, Barnes BJ, Mancl ME, Latz E, Goutagny N, Pitha PM, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The interferon regulatory factor, IRF5, is a central mediator of toll-like receptor 7 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29; 280(17):17005-12.
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        79. DiPerna G, Stack J, Bowie AG, Boyd A, Kotwal G, Zhang Z, Arvikar S, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Marshall WL. Poxvirus protein N1L targets the I-kappaB kinase complex, inhibits signaling to NF-kappaB by the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of receptors, and inhibits NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling by toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 27; 279(35):36570-8.
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        80. Latz E, Franko J, Golenbock DT, Schreiber JR. Haemophilus influenzae type b-outer membrane protein complex glycoconjugate vaccine induces cytokine production by engaging human toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and requires the presence of TLR2 for optimal immunogenicity. J Immunol. 2004 Feb 15; 172(4):2431-8.
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        81. Latz E, Schoenemeyer A, Visintin A, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Knetter CF, Lien E, Nilsen NJ, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):190-8.
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        82. Latz E, Visintin A, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Mechanisms of TLR9 activation. J Endotoxin Res. 2004; 10(6):406-12.
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        83. Latz E, Golenbock DT. Receptor "cross talk" in innate immunity. J Clin Invest. 2003 Oct; 112(8):1136-7.
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        84. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ, Caffrey DR, Visintin A, Latz E, Monks B, Pitha PM, Golenbock DT. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 6; 198(7):1043-55.
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        85. Sandor F, Latz E, Re F, Mandell L, Repik G, Golenbock DT, Espevik T, Kurt-Jones EA, Finberg RW. Importance of extra- and intracellular domains of TLR1 and TLR2 in NFkappa B signaling. J Cell Biol. 2003 Sep 15; 162(6):1099-110.
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        86. Visintin A, Latz E, Monks BG, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. Lysines 128 and 132 enable lipopolysaccharide binding to MD-2, leading to Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48):48313-20.
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        87. Sau K, Mambula SS, Latz E, Henneke P, Golenbock DT, Levitz SM. The antifungal drug amphotericin B promotes inflammatory cytokine release by a Toll-like receptor- and CD14-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 26; 278(39):37561-8.
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        88. Hohenberger P, Latz E, Kettelhack C, Rezaei AH, Schumann R, Schlag PM. Pentoxifyllin attenuates the systemic inflammatory response induced during isolated limb perfusion with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha and melphalan. Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Jun; 10(5):562-8.
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        89. Fitzgerald KA, McWhirter SM, Faia KL, Rowe DC, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Coyle AJ, Liao SM, Maniatis T. IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003 May; 4(5):491-6.
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        90. Compton T, Kurt-Jones EA, Boehme KW, Belko J, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Finberg RW. Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2. J Virol. 2003 Apr; 77(8):4588-96.
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        91. Espevik T, Latz E, Lien E, Monks B, Golenbock DT. Cell distributions and functions of Toll-like receptor 4 studied by fluorescent gene constructs. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003; 35(9):660-4.
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        92. Latz E, Visintin A, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. The LPS receptor generates inflammatory signals from the cell surface. J Endotoxin Res. 2003; 9(6):375-80.
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        93. van der Kleij D, Latz E, Brouwers JF, Kruize YC, Schmitz M, Kurt-Jones EA, Espevik T, de Jong EC, Kapsenberg ML, Golenbock DT, Tielens AG, Yazdanbakhsh M. A novel host-parasite lipid cross-talk. Schistosomal lyso-phosphatidylserine activates toll-like receptor 2 and affects immune polarization. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 13; 277(50):48122-9.
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