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    Keywords
    Last Name
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    Katherine A Fitzgerald PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-6518
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMD/PhD Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentTranslational Science

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentCenter for AIDS Research

        Biography 
        awards and honors
        BD-Investigator Award2014American Association of Imunologists
        Eli Lilly and Elanco Company Award2014American Microbiology Society
        2011Irish Times Public Lecture Award
        Overview 
        Narrative

        Biography

        Kate Fitzgerald received her B.Sc. in 1995 from University College Cork, Ireland, and her Ph.D. in 1999 from Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. From 1999 to 2001, she was a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Biochemistry at Trinity College Dublin in the Laboratory of Professor Luke O'Neill. Dr. Fitzgerald joined the Division of Infectious Disease at the University of Massachusetts Medical School as a recipient of a Wellcome Trust International Award in 2001. In 2004 she joined the Faculty as an Assistant Professor and is currently Professor of Medicine and Co-Director of the Program in Innate Immunity.

        Research InformationKate Fitzgerald

        INNATE IMMUNE SIGNALING

        Research in the Fitzgerald lab is focussed on understanding the molecular basis of host defense and the inflammatory process.  Active research areas include: (1) mechanisms and biology of caspase-1 activating inflammasome complexes, (2) nucleic acid sensors, with a particular focus on cytosolic DNA recognition systems and (3) role of long non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression.  Enabling these studies, our research uses immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics to understand these mechanisms. Our longer term goals are to understand how dysregulation of sensing, signaling and gene regulation in innate immunity underlie the pathogenesis of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune disease in humans. 

         



        Rotation Projects
        Please email Kate.Fitzgerald@umassmed.edu if you are interested in rotations.

        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Woo SR, Fuertes MB, Corrales L, Spranger S, Furdyna MJ, Leung MY, Duggan R, Wang Y, Barber GN, Fitzgerald KA, Alegre ML, Gajewski TF. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Mediates Innate Immune Recognition of Immunogenic Tumors. Immunity. 2014 Nov 20; 41(5):830-42.
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        2. Gazzinelli RT, Kalantari P, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Innate sensing of malaria parasites. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 Nov; 14(11):744-57.
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        3. Martin BN, Wang C, Willette-Brown J, Herjan T, Gulen MF, Zhou H, Bulek K, Franchi L, Sato T, Alnemri ES, Narla G, Zhong XP, Thomas J, Klinman D, Fitzgerald KA, Karin M, Nuñez G, Dubyak G, Hu Y, Li X. IKKa negatively regulates ASC-dependent inflammasome activation. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4977.
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        4. Collins JW, Keeney KM, Crepin VF, Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA, Finlay BB, Frankel G. Citrobacter rodentium: infection, inflammation and the microbiota. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Sep; 12(9):612-23.
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        5. Ganesan S, Rathinam VA, Bossaller L, Army K, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Dillon CP, Green DR, Mayadas TN, Levitz SM, Hise AG, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA. Caspase-8 Modulates Dectin-1 and Complement Receptor 3-Driven IL-1ß Production in Response to ß-Glucans and the Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2014 Sep 1; 193(5):2519-30.
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        6. Wochal P, Rathinam VA, Dunne A, Carlson T, Kuang W, Seidl KJ, Hall JP, Lin LL, Collins M, Schattgen SA, MacKay CR, Fagundes CT, Carpenter S, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. TRIL Is Involved in Cytokine Production in the Brain following Escherichia coli Infection. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1911-9.
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        7. Narayan K, Waggoner L, Pham ST, Hendricks GL, Waggoner SN, Conlon J, Wang JP, Fitzgerald KA, Kang J. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production. J Virol. 2014 Sep 15; 88(18):10748-57.
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        8. Thompson MR, Sharma S, Atianand M, Jensen SB, Carpenter S, Knipe DM, Fitzgerald KA, Kurt-Jones EA. Interferon ?-inducible Protein (IFI) 16 Transcriptionally Regulates Type I Interferons and Other Interferon-stimulated Genes and Controls the Interferon Response to both DNA and RNA Viruses. J Biol Chem. 2014 Aug 22; 289(34):23568-81.
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        9. Carpenter S, Ricci EP, Mercier BC, Moore MJ, Fitzgerald KA. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in innate immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 May 23; 14(6):361-76.
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        10. Kailasan Vanaja S, Rathinam VA, Atianand MK, Kalantari P, Skehan B, Fitzgerald KA, Leong JM. Bacterial RNA:DNA hybrids are activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 27; 111(21):7765-70.
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        11. Weng D, Marty-Roix R, Ganesan S, Proulx MK, Vladimer GI, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Pouliot K, Chan FK, Kelliher MA, Harris PA, Bertin J, Gough PJ, Shayakhmetov DM, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Silverman N, Lien E. Caspase-8 and RIP kinases regulate bacteria-induced innate immune responses and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20; 111(20):7391-6.
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        12. Davaro F, Forde SD, Garfield M, Jiang Z, Halmen K, Tamburro ND, Kurt-Jones E, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Wang D. 3-Hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) Reductase Inhibitor (Statin)-induced 28-kDa Interleukin-1ß Interferes with Mature IL-1ß Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2014 Jun 6; 289(23):16214-22.
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        13. Gupta R, Ghosh S, Monks B, DeOliveira RB, Tzeng TC, Kalantari P, Nandy A, Bhattacharjee B, Chan J, Ferreira F, Rathinam V, Sharma S, Lien E, Silverman N, Fitzgerald K, Firon A, Trieu-Cuot P, Henneke P, Golenbock DT. RNA and ß-Hemolysin of Group B Streptococcus Induce Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Mouse Macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 16; 289(20):13701-5.
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        14. Lu A, Magupalli VG, Ruan J, Yin Q, Atianand MK, Vos MR, Schröder GF, Fitzgerald KA, Wu H, Egelman EH. Unified Polymerization Mechanism for the Assembly of ASC-Dependent Inflammasomes. Cell. 2014 Mar 13; 156(6):1193-206.
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        15. Zhang L, Mo J, Swanson KV, Wen H, Petrucelli A, Gregory SM, Zhang Z, Schneider M, Jiang Y, Fitzgerald KA, Ouyang S, Liu ZJ, Damania B, Shu HB, Duncan JA, Ting JP. NLRC3, a Member of the NLR Family of Proteins, Is a Negative Regulator of Innate Immune Signaling Induced by the DNA Sensor STING. Immunity. 2014 Mar 20; 40(3):329-41.
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        16. Janssen E, Ozcan E, Liadaki K, Jabara HH, Manis J, Ullas S, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Geha RS. TRIF Signaling Is Essential for TLR4-Driven IgE Class Switching. J Immunol. 2014 Mar 15; 192(6):2651-8.
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        17. Severa M, Islam SA, Waggoner SN, Jiang Z, Kim ND, Ryan G, Kurt-Jones E, Charo I, Caffrey DR, Boyartchuk VL, Luster AD, Fitzgerald KA. The Transcriptional Repressor BLIMP1 Curbs Host Defenses by Suppressing Expression of the Chemokine CCL8. J Immunol. 2014 Mar 1; 192(5):2291-304.
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        18. Ataide MA, Andrade WA, Zamboni DS, Wang D, Souza Mdo C, Franklin BS, Elian S, Martins FS, Pereira D, Reed G, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Malaria-Induced NLRP12/NLRP3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation and Hypersensitivity to Bacterial Superinfection. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003885.
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        19. Bhat N, Fitzgerald KA. Recognition of cytosolic DNA by cGAS and other STING-dependent sensors. Eur J Immunol. 2014 Mar; 44(3):634-40.
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        20. Kalantari P, Deoliveira RB, Chan J, Corbett Y, Rathinam V, Stutz A, Latz E, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA. Dual Engagement of the NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes by Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin and DNA during Malaria. Cell Rep. 2014 Jan 16; 6(1):196-210.
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        21. Moy RH, Gold B, Molleston JM, Schad V, Yanger K, Salzano MV, Yagi Y, Fitzgerald KA, Stanger BZ, Soldan SS, Cherry S. Antiviral autophagy restricts rift valley Fever virus infection and is conserved from flies to mammals. Immunity. 2014 Jan 16; 40(1):51-65.
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        22. Liehl P, Zuzarte-Luís V, Chan J, Zillinger T, Baptista F, Carapau D, Konert M, Hanson KK, Carret C, Lassnig C, Müller M, Kalinke U, Saeed M, Chora AF, Golenbock DT, Strobl B, Prudêncio M, Coelho LP, Kappe SH, Superti-Furga G, Pichlmair A, Vigário AM, Rice CM, Fitzgerald KA, Barchet W, Mota MM. Host-cell sensors for Plasmodium activate innate immunity against liver-stage infection. Nat Med. 2014 Jan; 20(1):47-53.
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        23. Fitzgerald KA, Caffrey DR. Long noncoding RNAs in innate and adaptive immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Feb; 26:140-6.
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        24. Kim HY, Lee HJ, Chang YJ, Pichavant M, Shore SA, Fitzgerald KA, Iwakura Y, Israel E, Bolger K, Faul J, Dekruyff RH, Umetsu DT. Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2014 Jan; 20(1):54-61.
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        25. Ermler ME, Traylor Z, Patel K, Schattgen SA, Vanaja SK, Fitzgerald KA, Hise AG. Rift Valley fever virus infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology. 2014 Jan 20; 449:174-80.
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        26. Man SM, Tourlomousis P, Hopkins L, Monie TP, Fitzgerald KA, Bryant CE. Salmonella Infection Induces Recruitment of Caspase-8 to the Inflammasome To Modulate IL-1ß Production. J Immunol. 2013 Nov 15; 191(10):5239-46.
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        27. Petrasek J, Iracheta-Vellve A, Csak T, Satishchandran A, Kodys K, Kurt-Jones EA, Fitzgerald KA, Szabo G. STING-IRF3 pathway links endoplasmic reticulum stress with hepatocyte apoptosis in early alcoholic liver disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 8; 110(41):16544-9.
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        28. Fernandes-Alnemri T, Kang S, Anderson C, Sagara J, Fitzgerald KA, Alnemri ES. Cutting edge: TLR signaling licenses IRAK1 for rapid activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15; 191(8):3995-9.
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        29. Abdul-Sater AA, Tattoli I, Jin L, Grajkowski A, Levi A, Koller BH, Allen IC, Beaucage SL, Fitzgerald KA, Ting JP, Cambier JC, Girardin SE, Schindler C. Cyclic-di-GMP and cyclic-di-AMP activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. EMBO Rep. 2013 Oct; 14(10):900-6.
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        30. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Immunology: Lipopolysaccharide sensing on the inside. Nature. 2013 Sep 12; 501(7466):173-5.
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        31. Shah S, Bohsali A, Ahlbrand SE, Srinivasan L, Rathinam VA, Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, Sutterwala FS, Briken V. Cutting edge: Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not nonvirulent mycobacteria inhibits IFN-ß and AIM2 inflammasome-dependent IL-1ß production via its ESX-1 secretion system. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 1; 191(7):3514-8.
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        32. Kaminski JJ, Schattgen SA, Tzeng TC, Bode C, Klinman DM, Fitzgerald KA. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing suppressive TTAGGG motifs inhibit AIM2 inflammasome activation. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 1; 191(7):3876-83.
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        33. Bossaller L, Rathinam VA, Bonegio R, Chiang PI, Busto P, Wespiser AR, Caffrey DR, Li QZ, Mohan C, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Marshak-Rothstein A. Overexpression of membrane-bound fas ligand (CD95L) exacerbates autoimmune disease and renal pathology in pristane-induced lupus. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 1; 191(5):2104-14.
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        34. Carpenter S, Aiello D, Atianand MK, Ricci EP, Gandhi P, Hall LL, Byron M, Monks B, Henry-Bezy M, Lawrence JB, O'Neill LA, Moore MJ, Caffrey DR, Fitzgerald KA. A long noncoding RNA mediates both activation and repression of immune response genes. Science. 2013 Aug 16; 341(6147):789-92.
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        35. Xiao TS, Fitzgerald KA. The cGAS-STING pathway for DNA sensing. Mol Cell. 2013 Jul 25; 51(2):135-9.
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        36. Sheedy FJ, Grebe A, Rayner KJ, Kalantari P, Ramkhelawon B, Carpenter SB, Becker CE, Ediriweera HN, Mullick AE, Golenbock DT, Stuart LM, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Moore KJ. CD36 coordinates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by facilitating intracellular nucleation of soluble ligands into particulate ligands in sterile inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):812-20.
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        37. Sokolovska A, Becker CE, Ip WK, Rathinam VA, Brudner M, Paquette N, Tanne A, Vanaja SK, Moore KJ, Fitzgerald KA, Lacy-Hulbert A, Stuart LM. Activation of caspase-1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the NADPH oxidase NOX2 to control phagosome function. Nat Immunol. 2013 Jun; 14(6):543-53.
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        38. Conlon J, Burdette DL, Sharma S, Bhat N, Thompson M, Jiang Z, Rathinam VA, Monks B, Jin T, Xiao TS, Vogel SN, Vance RE, Fitzgerald KA. Mouse, but not human STING, binds and signals in response to the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid. J Immunol. 2013 May 15; 190(10):5216-25.
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        39. Sandanger Ø, Ranheim T, Vinge LE, Bliksøen M, Alfsnes K, Finsen AV, Dahl CP, Askevold ET, Florholmen G, Christensen G, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Valen G, Espevik T, Aukrust P, Yndestad A. The NLRP3 inflammasome is up-regulated in cardiac fibroblasts and mediates myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Jul 1; 99(1):164-74.
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        40. Atianand MK, Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. SnapShot: inflammasomes. Cell. 2013 Mar 28; 153(1):272-272.e1.
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        41. Atianand MK, Fitzgerald KA. Molecular basis of DNA recognition in the immune system. J Immunol. 2013 Mar 1; 190(5):1911-8.
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        42. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Parlato M, de Oliveira RB, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald K, Shalova IN, Biswas SK, Cavaillon JM, Adib-Conquy M. Interferon-? and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor production by natural killer cells involves different signaling pathways and the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12; 288(15):10715-21.
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        43. Ermler ME, Yerukhim E, Schriewer J, Schattgen S, Traylor Z, Wespiser AR, Caffrey DR, Chen ZJ, King CH, Gale M, Colonna M, Fitzgerald KA, Buller RM, Hise AG. RNA helicase signaling is critical for type i interferon production and protection against Rift Valley fever virus during mucosal challenge. J Virol. 2013 May; 87(9):4846-60.
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        44. Wang D, Höing S, Patterson HC, Ahmad UM, Rathinam VA, Rajewsky K, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Inflammation in mice ectopically expressing human Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA) Syndrome-associated PSTPIP1 A230T mutant proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 15; 288(7):4594-601.
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        45. Ramirez A, Rathinam V, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Mathew A. Defective pro-IL-1ß responses in macrophages from aged mice. Immun Ageing. 2012; 9(1):27.
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        46. Mishra BB, Rathinam VA, Martens GW, Martinot AJ, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Sassetti CM. Nitric oxide controls the immunopathology of tuberculosis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent processing of IL-1ß. Nat Immunol. 2013 Jan; 14(1):52-60.
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        47. Bossaller L, Chiang PI, Schmidt-Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser WJ, Rathinam VA, Mocarski ES, Subramanian D, Green DR, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A, Latz E. Cutting edge: FAS (CD95) mediates noncanonical IL-1ß and IL-18 maturation via caspase-8 in an RIP3-independent manner. J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5508-12.
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        48. Prantner D, Perkins DJ, Lai W, Williams MS, Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA, Vogel SN. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) activates stimulator of interferon gene (STING)-dependent innate immune pathways and is regulated by mitochondrial membrane potential. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 16; 287(47):39776-88.
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        49. Hafner-Bratkovic I, Bencina M, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Jerala R. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophage cell lines by prion protein fibrils as the source of IL-1ß and neuronal toxicity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Dec; 69(24):4215-28.
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        50. Zhou S, Cerny AM, Fitzgerald KA, Kurt-Jones EA, Finberg RW. Role of interferon regulatory factor 7 in T cell responses during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. J Virol. 2012 Oct; 86(20):11254-65.
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        51. Vladimer GI, Weng D, Paquette SW, Vanaja SK, Rathinam VA, Aune MH, Conlon JE, Burbage JJ, Proulx MK, Liu Q, Reed G, Mecsas JC, Iwakura Y, Bertin J, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E. The NLRP12 inflammasome recognizes Yersinia pestis. Immunity. 2012 Jul 27; 37(1):96-107.
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        52. Rathinam VA, Vanaja SK, Waggoner L, Sokolovska A, Becker C, Stuart LM, Leong JM, Fitzgerald KA. TRIF licenses caspase-11-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation by gram-negative bacteria. Cell. 2012 Aug 3; 150(3):606-19.
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        53. Paquette N, Conlon J, Sweet C, Rus F, Wilson L, Pereira A, Rosadini CV, Goutagny N, Weber AN, Lane WS, Shaffer SA, Maniatis S, Fitzgerald KA, Stuart L, Silverman N. Serine/threonine acetylation of TGFß-activated kinase (TAK1) by Yersinia pestis YopJ inhibits innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12710-5.
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        54. Holm CK, Jensen SB, Jakobsen MR, Cheshenko N, Horan KA, Moeller HB, Gonzalez-Dosal R, Rasmussen SB, Christensen MH, Yarovinsky TO, Rixon FJ, Herold BC, Fitzgerald KA, Paludan SR. Virus-cell fusion as a trigger of innate immunity dependent on the adaptor STING. Nat Immunol. 2012 Aug; 13(8):737-43.
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        55. Jabara HH, McDonald DR, Janssen E, Massaad MJ, Ramesh N, Borzutzky A, Rauter I, Benson H, Schneider L, Baxi S, Recher M, Notarangelo LD, Wakim R, Dbaibo G, Dasouki M, Al-Herz W, Barlan I, Baris S, Kutukculer N, Ochs HD, Plebani A, Kanariou M, Lefranc G, Reisli I, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Manis J, Keles S, Ceja R, Chatila TA, Geha RS. DOCK8 functions as an adaptor that links TLR-MyD88 signaling to B cell activation. Nat Immunol. 2012 Jun; 13(6):612-20.
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        56. Caffrey DR, Fitzgerald KA. Immunology. Select inflammasome assembly. Science. 2012 Apr 27; 336(6080):420-1.
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        57. Jin T, Perry A, Jiang J, Smith P, Curry JA, Unterholzner L, Jiang Z, Horvath G, Rathinam VA, Johnstone RW, Hornung V, Latz E, Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA, Xiao TS. Structures of the HIN domain:DNA complexes reveal ligand binding and activation mechanisms of the AIM2 inflammasome and IFI16 receptor. Immunity. 2012 Apr 20; 36(4):561-71.
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        58. Rathinam VA, Vanaja SK, Fitzgerald KA. Regulation of inflammasome signaling. Nat Immunol. 2012 Apr; 13(4):333-2.
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        59. Shimada K, Crother TR, Karlin J, Dagvadorj J, Chiba N, Chen S, Ramanujan VK, Wolf AJ, Vergnes L, Ojcius DM, Rentsendorj A, Vargas M, Guerrero C, Wang Y, Fitzgerald KA, Underhill DM, Town T, Arditi M. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis. Immunity. 2012 Mar 23; 36(3):401-14.
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        60. Shi CS, Shenderov K, Huang NN, Kabat J, Abu-Asab M, Fitzgerald KA, Sher A, Kehrl JH. Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1ß production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction. Nat Immunol. 2012 Mar; 13(3):255-63.
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        61. Conrady CD, Zheng M, Fitzgerald KA, Liu C, Carr DJ. Resistance to HSV-1 infection in the epithelium resides with the novel innate sensor, IFI-16. Mucosal Immunol. 2012 Mar; 5(2):173-83.
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        62. Tomalka J, Ganesan S, Azodi E, Patel K, Majmudar P, Hall BA, Fitzgerald KA, Hise AG. A novel role for the NLRC4 inflammasome in mucosal defenses against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Dec; 7(12):e1002379.
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        63. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Cytosolic surveillance and antiviral immunity. Curr Opin Virol. 2011 Dec; 1(6):455-62.
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        64. Schattgen SA, Fitzgerald KA. The PYHIN protein family as mediators of host defenses. Immunol Rev. 2011 Sep; 243(1):109-18.
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        65. Dai P, Cao H, Merghoub T, Avogadri F, Wang W, Parikh T, Fang CM, Pitha PM, Fitzgerald KA, Rahman MM, McFadden G, Hu X, Houghton AN, Shuman S, Deng L. Myxoma virus induces type I interferon production in murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells via a TLR9/MyD88-, IRF5/IRF7-, and IFNAR-dependent pathway. J Virol. 2011 Oct; 85(20):10814-25.
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        66. Sharma S, DeOliveira RB, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Chan J, Bartholomeu DC, Lauw F, Hall JP, Barber GN, Gazzinelli RT, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):194-207.
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        67. Thompson MR, Kaminski JJ, Kurt-Jones EA, Fitzgerald KA. Pattern recognition receptors and the innate immune response to viral infection. Viruses. 2011 Jun; 3(6):920-40.
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        68. Ather JL, Ckless K, Martin R, Foley KL, Suratt BT, Boyson JE, Fitzgerald KA, Flavell RA, Eisenbarth SC, Poynter ME. Serum amyloid A activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes Th17 allergic asthma in mice. J Immunol. 2011 Jul 1; 187(1):64-73.
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        69. Parker D, Martin FJ, Soong G, Harfenist BS, Aguilar JL, Ratner AJ, Fitzgerald KA, Schindler C, Prince A. Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA initiates type I interferon signaling in the respiratory tract. MBio. 2011; 2(3):e00016-11.
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        70. Panchanathan R, Shen H, Duan X, Rathinam VA, Erickson LD, Fitzgerald KA, Choubey D. Aim2 deficiency in mice suppresses the expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaRIIB) through the induction of the IFN-inducible p202, a lupus susceptibility protein. J Immunol. 2011 Jun 15; 186(12):6762-70.
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        71. Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA. Innate immune sensing of DNA. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Apr; 7(4):e1001310.
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        72. Wang L, Trebicka E, Fu Y, Waggoner L, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA, Kagan JC, Cherayil BJ. Regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced translation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by the toll-like receptor 4 adaptor protein TRAM. J Innate Immun. 2011; 3(5):437-46.
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        73. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Innate immune sensing of DNA viruses. Virology. 2011 Mar 15; 411(2):153-62.
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        74. Siednienko J, Gajanayake T, Fitzgerald KA, Moynagh P, Miggin SM. Absence of MyD88 results in enhanced TLR3-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3 and increased IFN-ß and RANTES production. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 15; 186(4):2514-22.
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        75. Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng SG, O'Shea A, Sharp FA, Lambe EM, Creagh EM, Golenbock DT, Tschopp J, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Lavelle EC. Autophagy controls IL-1beta secretion by targeting pro-IL-1beta for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 18; 286(11):9587-97.
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        76. Fitzgerald KA. The interferon inducible gene: Viperin. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011 Jan; 31(1):131-5.
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        77. Nakahira K, Haspel JA, Rathinam VA, Lee SJ, Dolinay T, Lam HC, Englert JA, Rabinovitch M, Cernadas M, Kim HP, Fitzgerald KA, Ryter SW, Choi AM. Autophagy proteins regulate innate immune responses by inhibiting the release of mitochondrial DNA mediated by the NALP3 inflammasome. Nat Immunol. 2011 Mar; 12(3):222-30.
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        78. McNeela EA, Burke A, Neill DR, Baxter C, Fernandes VE, Ferreira D, Smeaton S, El-Rachkidy R, McLoughlin RM, Mori A, Moran B, Fitzgerald KA, Tschopp J, Pétrilli V, Andrew PW, Kadioglu A, Lavelle EC. Pneumolysin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes proinflammatory cytokines independently of TLR4. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(11):e1001191.
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        79. Panchanathan R, Duan X, Shen H, Rathinam VA, Erickson LD, Fitzgerald KA, Choubey D. Aim2 deficiency stimulates the expression of IFN-inducible Ifi202, a lupus susceptibility murine gene within the Nba2 autoimmune susceptibility locus. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 15; 185(12):7385-93.
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        80. van Lint AL, Murawski MR, Goodbody RE, Severa M, Fitzgerald KA, Finberg RW, Knipe DM, Kurt-Jones EA. Herpes simplex virus immediate-early ICP0 protein inhibits Toll-like receptor 2-dependent inflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(20):10802-11.
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        81. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Inflammasomes and anti-viral immunity. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):632-7.
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        82. Zhou S, Cerny AM, Zacharia A, Fitzgerald KA, Kurt-Jones EA, Finberg RW. Induction and inhibition of type I interferon responses by distinct components of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol. 2010 Sep; 84(18):9452-62.
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        83. Kim S, Bauernfeind F, Ablasser A, Hartmann G, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Hornung V. Listeria monocytogenes is sensed by the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jun; 40(6):1545-51.
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        84. Rathinam VA, Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA. Catenin' on to nucleic acid sensing. Nat Immunol. 2010 Jun; 11(6):466-8.
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        85. Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA. Viral defense: it takes two MAVS to Tango. Cell. 2010 May 14; 141(4):570-2.
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        86. Bauer C, Duewell P, Mayer C, Lehr HA, Fitzgerald KA, Dauer M, Tschopp J, Endres S, Latz E, Schnurr M. Colitis induced in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. Gut. 2010 Sep; 59(9):1192-9.
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        87. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nuñez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz E. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010 Apr 29; 464(7293):1357-61.
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        88. He X, Mekasha S, Mavrogiorgos N, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Ingalls RR. Inflammation and fibrosis during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is regulated by IL-1 and the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome. J Immunol. 2010 May 15; 184(10):5743-54.
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        89. Zhao H, Leu SW, Shi L, Dedaj R, Zhao G, Garg HG, Shen L, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Shiedlin A, Shen H, Quinn DA, Hales CA. TLR4 is a negative regulator in noninfectious lung inflammation. J Immunol. 2010 May 1; 184(9):5308-14.
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        90. Nguyen TT, Johnsen IB, Knetter CF, Drabløs F, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Anthonsen MW. Differential gene expression downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLRs): role of c-Src and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). J Biol Chem. 2010 May 28; 285(22):17011-9.
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        91. Rathinam VA, Jiang Z, Waggoner SN, Sharma S, Cole LE, Waggoner L, Vanaja SK, Monks BG, Ganesan S, Latz E, Hornung V, Vogel SN, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Fitzgerald KA. The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses. Nat Immunol. 2010 May; 11(5):395-402.
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        92. Fitzgerald KA. NLR-containing inflammasomes: central mediators of host defense and inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Mar; 40(3):595-8.
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        93. Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Tian J, Parroche P, Schickli J, Monks BG, Ulbrandt N, Ji H, Kiener PA, Coyle AJ, Fitzgerald KA. Cell type-specific recognition of human metapneumoviruses (HMPVs) by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and TLR7 and viral interference of RIG-I ligand recognition by HMPV-B1 phosphoprotein. J Immunol. 2010 Feb 1; 184(3):1168-79.
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        94. Cole LE, Laird MH, Seekatz A, Santiago A, Jiang Z, Barry E, Shirey KA, Fitzgerald KA, Vogel SN. Phagosomal retention of Francisella tularensis results in TIRAP/Mal-independent TLR2 signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2010 Feb; 87(2):275-81.
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        95. Woo CW, Cui D, Arellano J, Dorweiler B, Harding H, Fitzgerald KA, Ron D, Tabas I. Adaptive suppression of the ATF4-CHOP branch of the unfolded protein response by toll-like receptor signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1473-80.
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        96. Balkhi MY, Fitzgerald KA, Pitha PM. IKKalpha negatively regulates IRF-5 function in a MyD88-TRAF6 pathway. Cell Signal. 2010 Jan; 22(1):117-27.
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        97. Bryant C, Fitzgerald KA. Molecular mechanisms involved in inflammasome activation. Trends Cell Biol. 2009 Sep; 19(9):455-64.
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        98. Piao W, Song C, Chen H, Diaz MA, Wahl LM, Fitzgerald KA, Li L, Medvedev AE. Endotoxin tolerance dysregulates MyD88- and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-beta-dependent pathways and increases expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling. J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Oct; 86(4):863-75.
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        99. McWhirter SM, Barbalat R, Monroe KM, Fontana MF, Hyodo M, Joncker NT, Ishii KJ, Akira S, Colonna M, Chen ZJ, Fitzgerald KA, Hayakawa Y, Vance RE. A host type I interferon response is induced by cytosolic sensing of the bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 31; 206(9):1899-911.
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        100. Fitzgerald KA. Integr-ating IL-1 alpha in antiviral host defenses. Immunity. 2009 Jul 17; 31(1):7-9.
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        101. Pandey AK, Yang Y, Jiang Z, Fortune SM, Coulombe F, Behr MA, Fitzgerald KA, Sassetti CM, Kelliher MA. NOD2, RIP2 and IRF5 play a critical role in the type I interferon response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Jul; 5(7):e1000500.
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        102. Schlee M, Roth A, Hornung V, Hagmann CA, Wimmenauer V, Barchet W, Coch C, Janke M, Mihailovic A, Wardle G, Juranek S, Kato H, Kawai T, Poeck H, Fitzgerald KA, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Tuschl T, Latz E, Ludwig J, Hartmann G. Recognition of 5' triphosphate by RIG-I helicase requires short blunt double-stranded RNA as contained in panhandle of negative-strand virus. Immunity. 2009 Jul 17; 31(1):25-34.
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        103. Bauernfeind FG, Horvath G, Stutz A, Alnemri ES, MacDonald K, Speert D, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Monks BG, Fitzgerald KA, Hornung V, Latz E. Cutting edge: NF-kappaB activating pattern recognition and cytokine receptors license NLRP3 inflammasome activation by regulating NLRP3 expression. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):787-91.
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        104. Nagpal K, Plantinga TS, Wong J, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Netea MG, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. A TIR domain variant of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP results in loss of MyD88 binding and reduced TLR2/TLR4 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009 Sep 18; 284(38):25742-8.
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        105. Hise AG, Tomalka J, Ganesan S, Patel K, Hall BA, Brown GD, Fitzgerald KA. An essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 8; 5(5):487-97.
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        106. Kenzel S, Santos-Sierra S, Deshmukh SD, Moeller I, Ergin B, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Role of p38 and early growth response factor 1 in the macrophage response to group B streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun; 77(6):2474-81.
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        107. Hornung V, Ablasser A, Charrel-Dennis M, Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Caffrey DR, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature. 2009 Mar 26; 458(7237):514-8.
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        108. Sun Y, Ishibashi M, Seimon T, Lee M, Sharma SM, Fitzgerald KA, Samokhin AO, Wang Y, Sayers S, Aikawa M, Jerome WG, Ostrowski MC, Bromme D, Libby P, Tabas IA, Welch CL, Tall AR. Free cholesterol accumulation in macrophage membranes activates Toll-like receptors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces cathepsin K. Circ Res. 2009 Feb 27; 104(4):455-65.
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        109. Charrel-Dennis M, Latz E, Halmen KA, Trieu-Cuot P, Fitzgerald KA, Kasper DL, Golenbock DT. TLR-independent type I interferon induction in response to an extracellular bacterial pathogen via intracellular recognition of its DNA. Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Dec 11; 4(6):543-54.
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        110. Chessler AD, Ferreira LR, Chang TH, Fitzgerald KA, Burleigh BA. A novel IFN regulatory factor 3-dependent pathway activated by trypanosomes triggers IFN-beta in macrophages and fibroblasts. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 1; 181(11):7917-24.
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        111. El Kasmi KC, Qualls JE, Pesce JT, Smith AM, Thompson RW, Henao-Tamayo M, Basaraba RJ, König T, Schleicher U, Koo MS, Kaplan G, Fitzgerald KA, Tuomanen EI, Orme IM, Kanneganti TD, Bogdan C, Wynn TA, Murray PJ. Toll-like receptor-induced arginase 1 in macrophages thwarts effective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2008 Dec; 9(12):1399-406.
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        112. Chen W, Lam SS, Srinath H, Jiang Z, Correia JJ, Schiffer CA, Fitzgerald KA, Lin K, Royer WE. Insights into interferon regulatory factor activation from the crystal structure of dimeric IRF5. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 Nov; 15(11):1213-20.
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        113. Balkhi MY, Fitzgerald KA, Pitha PM. Functional regulation of MyD88-activated interferon regulatory factor 5 by K63-linked polyubiquitination. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Dec; 28(24):7296-308.
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        114. Halle A, Hornung V, Petzold GC, Stewart CR, Monks BG, Reinheckel T, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Moore KJ, Golenbock DT. The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta. Nat Immunol. 2008 Aug; 9(8):857-65.
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        115. Hornung V, Bauernfeind F, Halle A, Samstad EO, Kono H, Rock KL, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E. Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat Immunol. 2008 Aug; 9(8):847-56.
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        116. Piao W, Song C, Chen H, Wahl LM, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA, Medvedev AE. Tyrosine phosphorylation of MyD88 adapter-like (Mal) is critical for signal transduction and blocked in endotoxin tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2008 Feb 8; 283(6):3109-19.
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        117. Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Immunology. The shape of things to come. Science. 2007 Jun 15; 316(5831):1574-6.
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        118. Roberts ZJ, Goutagny N, Perera PY, Kato H, Kumar H, Kawai T, Akira S, Savan R, van Echo D, Fitzgerald KA, Young HA, Ching LM, Vogel SN. The chemotherapeutic agent DMXAA potently and specifically activates the TBK1-IRF-3 signaling axis. J Exp Med. 2007 Jul 9; 204(7):1559-69.
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        119. Cook P, Tötemeyer S, Stevenson C, Fitzgerald KA, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Maskell DJ, Bryant CE. Salmonella-induced SipB-independent cell death requires Toll-like receptor-4 signalling via the adapter proteins Tram and Trif. Immunology. 2007 Oct; 122(2):222-9.
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        120. Zhou S, Kurt-Jones EA, Fitzgerald KA, Wang JP, Cerny AM, Chan M, Finberg RW. Role of MyD88 in route-dependent susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15; 178(8):5173-81.
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        121. Tian J, Avalos AM, Mao SY, Chen B, Senthil K, Wu H, Parroche P, Drabic S, Golenbock D, Sirois C, Hua J, An LL, Audoly L, La Rosa G, Bierhaus A, Naworth P, Marshak-Rothstein A, Crow MK, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Kiener PA, Coyle AJ. Toll-like receptor 9-dependent activation by DNA-containing immune complexes is mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. Nat Immunol. 2007 May; 8(5):487-96.
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        122. Miggin SM, Pålsson-McDermott E, Dunne A, Jefferies C, Pinteaux E, Banahan K, Murphy C, Moynagh P, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Rothwell N, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. NF-kappaB activation by the Toll-IL-1 receptor domain protein MyD88 adapter-like is regulated by caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Feb 27; 104(9):3372-7.
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        123. Hise AG, Daehnel K, Gillette-Ferguson I, Cho E, McGarry HF, Taylor MJ, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA, Kazura JW, Pearlman E. Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, TLR6, MyD88, and Mal, but not TLR4, TRIF, or TRAM. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1068-76.
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        124. Severa M, Fitzgerald KA. TLR-mediated activation of type I IFN during antiviral immune responses: fighting the battle to win the war. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007; 316:167-92.
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        125. Severa M, Coccia EM, Fitzgerald KA. Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent viperin gene expression and counter-regulation by PRDI-binding factor-1/BLIMP1. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 8; 281(36):26188-95.
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        126. Mitchell JA, Fitzgerald KA, Coyle A, Silverman N, Cartwright N. TOLLing away in Brazil. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jul; 7(7):675-9.
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        127. Goutagny N, Fitzgerald KA. Pattern recognition receptors: an update. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2006 Jul; 2(4):569-83.
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        128. McGettrick AF, Brint EK, Palsson-McDermott EM, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT, Gay NJ, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. Trif-related adapter molecule is phosphorylated by PKC{epsilon} during Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 13; 103(24):9196-201.
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        129. Fitzgerald KA, Chen ZJ. Sorting out Toll signals. Cell. 2006 Jun 2; 125(5):834-6.
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        130. Rowe DC, McGettrick AF, Latz E, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Yamamoto M, Akira S, O'Neill LA, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The myristoylation of TRIF-related adaptor molecule is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6299-304.
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        131. Rothenfusser S, Goutagny N, DiPerna G, Gong M, Monks BG, Schoenemeyer A, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA. The RNA helicase Lgp2 inhibits TLR-independent sensing of viral replication by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I. J Immunol. 2005 Oct 15; 175(8):5260-8.
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        132. Jefferies CA, Fitzgerald KA. Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Sep; 11(9):403-11.
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        133. Youn HS, Lee JY, Fitzgerald KA, Young HA, Akira S, Hwang DH. Specific inhibition of MyD88-independent signaling pathways of TLR3 and TLR4 by resveratrol: molecular targets are TBK1 and RIP1 in TRIF complex. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 1; 175(5):3339-46.
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        134. Medin CL, Fitzgerald KA, Rothman AL. Dengue virus nonstructural protein NS5 induces interleukin-8 transcription and secretion. J Virol. 2005 Sep; 79(17):11053-61.
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        135. Cusson-Hermance N, Khurana S, Lee TH, Fitzgerald KA, Kelliher MA. Rip1 mediates the Trif-dependent toll-like receptor 3- and 4-induced NF-{kappa}B activation but does not contribute to interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 4; 280(44):36560-6.
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        136. Stack J, Haga IR, Schröder M, Bartlett NW, Maloney G, Reading PC, Fitzgerald KA, Smith GL, Bowie AG. Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 21; 201(6):1007-18.
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        137. Schoenemeyer A, Barnes BJ, Mancl ME, Latz E, Goutagny N, Pitha PM, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The interferon regulatory factor, IRF5, is a central mediator of toll-like receptor 7 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 29; 280(17):17005-12.
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        138. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT. Endotoxin recognition and signal transduction by the TLR4/MD2-complex. Microbes Infect. 2004 Dec; 6(15):1361-7.
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        139. Björkbacka H, Fitzgerald KA, Huet F, Li X, Gregory JA, Lee MA, Ordija CM, Dowley NE, Golenbock DT, Freeman MW. The induction of macrophage gene expression by LPS predominantly utilizes Myd88-independent signaling cascades. Physiol Genomics. 2004 Nov 17; 19(3):319-30.
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        140. DiPerna G, Stack J, Bowie AG, Boyd A, Kotwal G, Zhang Z, Arvikar S, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Marshall WL. Poxvirus protein N1L targets the I-kappaB kinase complex, inhibits signaling to NF-kappaB by the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of receptors, and inhibits NF-kappaB and IRF3 signaling by toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 27; 279(35):36570-8.
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        141. Liberati NT, Fitzgerald KA, Kim DH, Feinbaum R, Golenbock DT, Ausubel FM. Requirement for a conserved Toll/interleukin-1 resistance domain protein in the Caenorhabditis elegans immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27; 101(17):6593-8.
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        142. Lee JY, Zhao L, Youn HS, Weatherill AR, Tapping R, Feng L, Lee WH, Fitzgerald KA, Hwang DH. Saturated fatty acid activates but polyunsaturated fatty acid inhibits Toll-like receptor 2 dimerized with Toll-like receptor 6 or 1. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):16971-9.
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        143. Latz E, Schoenemeyer A, Visintin A, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Knetter CF, Lien E, Nilsen NJ, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):190-8.
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        144. McWhirter SM, Fitzgerald KA, Rosains J, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT, Maniatis T. IFN-regulatory factor 3-dependent gene expression is defective in Tbk1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jan 6; 101(1):233-8.
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        145. Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, Fenton MJ. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol Interv. 2003 Dec; 3(8):466-77.
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        146. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ, Caffrey DR, Visintin A, Latz E, Monks B, Pitha PM, Golenbock DT. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 6; 198(7):1043-55.
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        147. O'Neill LA, Fitzgerald KA, Bowie AG. The Toll-IL-1 receptor adaptor family grows to five members. Trends Immunol. 2003 Jun; 24(6):286-90.
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        148. Fitzgerald KA, McWhirter SM, Faia KL, Rowe DC, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Coyle AJ, Liao SM, Maniatis T. IKKepsilon and TBK1 are essential components of the IRF3 signaling pathway. Nat Immunol. 2003 May; 4(5):491-6.
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        149. Brint EK, Fitzgerald KA, Smith P, Coyle AJ, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Fallon PG, O'Neill LA. Characterization of signaling pathways activated by the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor homologue T1/ST2. A role for Jun N-terminal kinase in IL-4 induction. J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 20; 277(51):49205-11.
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        150. Fitzgerald KA, Palsson-McDermott EM, Bowie AG, Jefferies CA, Mansell AS, Brady G, Brint E, Dunne A, Gray P, Harte MT, McMurray D, Smith DE, Sims JE, Bird TA, O'Neill LA. Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction. Nature. 2001 Sep 6; 413(6851):78-83.
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        151. Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. The role of the interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor superfamily in inflammation and host defence. Microbes Infect. 2000 Jul; 2(8):933-43.
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        152. Wilkinson HA, Fitzgerald K, Greenwald I. Reciprocal changes in expression of the receptor lin-12 and its ligand lag-2 prior to commitment in a C. elegans cell fate decision. Cell. 1994 Dec 30; 79(7):1187-98.
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        153. Struhl G, Fitzgerald K, Greenwald I. Intrinsic activity of the Lin-12 and Notch intracellular domains in vivo. Cell. 1993 Jul 30; 74(2):331-45.
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        154. Meuer SC, Hussey RE, Fabbi M, Fox D, Acuto O, Fitzgerald KA, Hodgdon JC, Protentis JP, Schlossman SF, Reinherz EL. An alternative pathway of T-cell activation: a functional role for the 50 kd T11 sheep erythrocyte receptor protein. Cell. 1984 Apr; 36(4):897-906.
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        155. Acuto O, Hussey RE, Fitzgerald KA, Protentis JP, Meuer SC, Schlossman SF, Reinherz EL. The human T cell receptor: appearance in ontogeny and biochemical relationship of alpha and beta subunits on IL-2 dependent clones and T cell tumors. Cell. 1983 Oct; 34(3):717-26.
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        156. Reinherz EL, Meuer S, Fitzgerald KA, Hussey RE, Levine H, Schlossman SF. Antigen recognition by human T lymphocytes is linked to surface expression of the T3 molecular complex. Cell. 1982 Oct; 30(3):735-43.
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