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    Last Name
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    Katherine A Fitzgerald PhD

    TitleProfessor
    InstitutionUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    DepartmentMedicine
    AddressUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School
    364 Plantation Street, LRB
    Worcester MA 01605
    Phone508-856-6518
      Other Positions
      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentImmunology and Virology

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentInterdisciplinary Graduate Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentMD/PhD Program

      InstitutionUMMS - Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
      DepartmentTranslational Science

      InstitutionUMMS - Programs, Centers and Institutes
      DepartmentCenter for AIDS Research

        Biography 
        awards and honors
        BD-Investigator Award2014American Association of Imunologists
        Eli Lilly and Elanco Company Award2014American Microbiology Society
        2011Irish Times Public Lecture Award
        Irish Government and Science Foundation Ireland2015Saint Patricks Day Medal
        NIH2015MERIT Award
        Overview 
        Narrative

        Biography

        Kate Fitzgerald received her B.Sc. in 1995 from University College Cork, Ireland, and her Ph.D. in 1999 from Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. From 1999 to 2001, she was a post-doctoral fellow in the Department of Biochemistry at Trinity College Dublin in the Laboratory of Professor Luke O'Neill. Dr. Fitzgerald joined the Division of Infectious Disease at the University of Massachusetts Medical School as a recipient of a Wellcome Trust International Award in 2001. In 2004 she joined the Faculty as an Assistant Professor and is currently Professor of Medicine and Co-Director of the Program in Innate Immunity.

        Research InformationKate Fitzgerald

        INNATE IMMUNE SIGNALING

        Research in the Fitzgerald lab is focussed on understanding the molecular basis of host defense and the inflammatory process.  Active research areas include: (1) mechanisms and biology of caspase-1 activating inflammasome complexes, (2) nucleic acid sensors, with a particular focus on cytosolic DNA recognition systems and (3) role of long non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression.  Enabling these studies, our research uses immunology, molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics to understand these mechanisms. Our longer term goals are to understand how dysregulation of sensing, signaling and gene regulation in innate immunity underlie the pathogenesis of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune disease in humans. 

         



        Rotation Projects
        Please email Kate.Fitzgerald@umassmed.edu if you are interested in rotations.

        Bibliographic 
        selected publications
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        1. Kang S, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Rogers C, Mayes L, Wang Y, Dillon C, Roback L, Kaiser W, Oberst A, Sagara J, Fitzgerald KA, Green DR, Zhang J, Mocarski ES, Alnemri ES. Caspase-8 scaffolding function and MLKL regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation downstream of TLR3. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7515.
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        2. Fitzgerald KA, Rathinam VA. GBPs take AIM at Francisella. Nat Immunol. 2015 Apr 21; 16(5):443-4.
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        3. Vanaja SK, Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Mechanisms of inflammasome activation: recent advances and novel insights. Trends Cell Biol. 2015 May; 25(5):308-15.
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        4. Nilsen NJ, Vladimer GI, Stenvik J, Orning MP, Zeid-Kilani MV, Bugge M, Bergstroem B, Conlon J, Husebye H, Hise AG, Fitzgerald KA, Espevik T, Lien E. A Role for the Adaptor Proteins TRAM and TRIF in Toll-like Receptor 2 Signaling. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 6; 290(6):3209-22.
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        5. Woo SR, Fuertes MB, Corrales L, Spranger S, Furdyna MJ, Leung MY, Duggan R, Wang Y, Barber GN, Fitzgerald KA, Alegre ML, Gajewski TF. STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Mediates Innate Immune Recognition of Immunogenic Tumors. Immunity. 2014 Nov 20; 41(5):830-42.
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        6. Martin BN, Wang C, Willette-Brown J, Herjan T, Gulen MF, Zhou H, Bulek K, Franchi L, Sato T, Alnemri ES, Narla G, Zhong XP, Thomas J, Klinman D, Fitzgerald KA, Karin M, Nuñez G, Dubyak G, Hu Y, Li X. IKKa negatively regulates ASC-dependent inflammasome activation. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4977.
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        7. Collins JW, Keeney KM, Crepin VF, Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA, Finlay BB, Frankel G. Citrobacter rodentium: infection, inflammation and the microbiota. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Sep; 12(9):612-23.
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        8. Ganesan S, Rathinam VA, Bossaller L, Army K, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Dillon CP, Green DR, Mayadas TN, Levitz SM, Hise AG, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA. Caspase-8 modulates dectin-1 and complement receptor 3-driven IL-1ß production in response to ß-glucans and the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. J Immunol. 2014 Sep 1; 193(5):2519-30.
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        9. Wochal P, Rathinam VA, Dunne A, Carlson T, Kuang W, Seidl KJ, Hall JP, Lin LL, Collins M, Schattgen SA, MacKay CR, Fagundes CT, Carpenter S, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. TRIL is involved in cytokine production in the brain following Escherichia coli infection. J Immunol. 2014 Aug 15; 193(4):1911-9.
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        10. Narayan K, Waggoner L, Pham ST, Hendricks GL, Waggoner SN, Conlon J, Wang JP, Fitzgerald KA, Kang J. TRIM13 is a negative regulator of MDA5-mediated type I interferon production. J Virol. 2014 Sep; 88(18):10748-57.
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        11. Kailasan Vanaja S, Rathinam VA, Atianand MK, Kalantari P, Skehan B, Fitzgerald KA, Leong JM. Bacterial RNA:DNA hybrids are activators of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 27; 111(21):7765-70.
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        12. Weng D, Marty-Roix R, Ganesan S, Proulx MK, Vladimer GI, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Pouliot K, Chan FK, Kelliher MA, Harris PA, Bertin J, Gough PJ, Shayakhmetov DM, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Silverman N, Lien E. Caspase-8 and RIP kinases regulate bacteria-induced innate immune responses and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20; 111(20):7391-6.
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        13. Gupta R, Ghosh S, Monks B, DeOliveira RB, Tzeng TC, Kalantari P, Nandy A, Bhattacharjee B, Chan J, Ferreira F, Rathinam V, Sharma S, Lien E, Silverman N, Fitzgerald K, Firon A, Trieu-Cuot P, Henneke P, Golenbock DT. RNA and ß-hemolysin of group B Streptococcus induce interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) by activating NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 16; 289(20):13701-5.
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        14. Lu A, Magupalli VG, Ruan J, Yin Q, Atianand MK, Vos MR, Schröder GF, Fitzgerald KA, Wu H, Egelman EH. Unified polymerization mechanism for the assembly of ASC-dependent inflammasomes. Cell. 2014 Mar 13; 156(6):1193-206.
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        15. Zhang L, Mo J, Swanson KV, Wen H, Petrucelli A, Gregory SM, Zhang Z, Schneider M, Jiang Y, Fitzgerald KA, Ouyang S, Liu ZJ, Damania B, Shu HB, Duncan JA, Ting JP. NLRC3, a member of the NLR family of proteins, is a negative regulator of innate immune signaling induced by the DNA sensor STING. Immunity. 2014 Mar 20; 40(3):329-41.
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        16. Janssen E, Ozcan E, Liadaki K, Jabara HH, Manis J, Ullas S, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Geha RS. TRIF signaling is essential for TLR4-driven IgE class switching. J Immunol. 2014 Mar 15; 192(6):2651-8.
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        17. Ataide MA, Andrade WA, Zamboni DS, Wang D, Souza Mdo C, Franklin BS, Elian S, Martins FS, Pereira D, Reed G, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Malaria-induced NLRP12/NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation mediates inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial superinfection. PLoS Pathog. 2014 Jan; 10(1):e1003885.
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        18. Kalantari P, DeOliveira RB, Chan J, Corbett Y, Rathinam V, Stutz A, Latz E, Gazzinelli RT, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA. Dual engagement of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes by plasmodium-derived hemozoin and DNA during malaria. Cell Rep. 2014 Jan 16; 6(1):196-210.
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        19. Moy RH, Gold B, Molleston JM, Schad V, Yanger K, Salzano MV, Yagi Y, Fitzgerald KA, Stanger BZ, Soldan SS, Cherry S. Antiviral autophagy restrictsRift Valley fever virus infection and is conserved from flies to mammals. Immunity. 2014 Jan 16; 40(1):51-65.
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        20. Kim HY, Lee HJ, Chang YJ, Pichavant M, Shore SA, Fitzgerald KA, Iwakura Y, Israel E, Bolger K, Faul J, DeKruyff RH, Umetsu DT. Interleukin-17-producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2014 Jan; 20(1):54-61.
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        21. Ermler ME, Traylor Z, Patel K, Schattgen SA, Vanaja SK, Fitzgerald KA, Hise AG. Rift Valley fever virus infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology. 2014 Jan 20; 449:174-80.
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        22. Man SM, Tourlomousis P, Hopkins L, Monie TP, Fitzgerald KA, Bryant CE. Salmonella infection induces recruitment of Caspase-8 to the inflammasome to modulate IL-1ß production. J Immunol. 2013 Nov 15; 191(10):5239-46.
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        23. Fernandes-Alnemri T, Kang S, Anderson C, Sagara J, Fitzgerald KA, Alnemri ES. Cutting edge: TLR signaling licenses IRAK1 for rapid activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 15; 191(8):3995-9.
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        24. Abdul-Sater AA, Tattoli I, Jin L, Grajkowski A, Levi A, Koller BH, Allen IC, Beaucage SL, Fitzgerald KA, Ting JP, Cambier JC, Girardin SE, Schindler C. Cyclic-di-GMP and cyclic-di-AMP activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. EMBO Rep. 2013 Oct; 14(10):900-6.
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        25. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Immunology: Lipopolysaccharide sensing on the inside. Nature. 2013 Sep 12; 501(7466):173-5.
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        26. Shah S, Bohsali A, Ahlbrand SE, Srinivasan L, Rathinam VA, Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, Sutterwala FS, Briken V. Cutting edge: Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not nonvirulent mycobacteria inhibits IFN-ß and AIM2 inflammasome-dependent IL-1ß production via its ESX-1 secretion system. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 1; 191(7):3514-8.
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        27. Kaminski JJ, Schattgen SA, Tzeng TC, Bode C, Klinman DM, Fitzgerald KA. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing suppressive TTAGGG motifs inhibit AIM2 inflammasome activation. J Immunol. 2013 Oct 1; 191(7):3876-83.
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        28. Bossaller L, Rathinam VA, Bonegio R, Chiang PI, Busto P, Wespiser AR, Caffrey DR, Li QZ, Mohan C, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Marshak-Rothstein A. Overexpression of membrane-bound fas ligand (CD95L) exacerbates autoimmune disease and renal pathology in pristane-induced lupus. J Immunol. 2013 Sep 1; 191(5):2104-14.
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        29. Sheedy FJ, Grebe A, Rayner KJ, Kalantari P, Ramkhelawon B, Carpenter SB, Becker CE, Ediriweera HN, Mullick AE, Golenbock DT, Stuart LM, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA, Moore KJ. CD36 coordinates NLRP3 inflammasome activation by facilitating intracellular nucleation of soluble ligands into particulate ligands in sterile inflammation. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):812-20.
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        30. Sokolovska A, Becker CE, Ip WK, Rathinam VA, Brudner M, Paquette N, Tanne A, Vanaja SK, Moore KJ, Fitzgerald KA, Lacy-Hulbert A, Stuart LM. Activation of caspase-1 by the NLRP3 inflammasome regulates the NADPH oxidase NOX2 to control phagosome function. Nat Immunol. 2013 Jun; 14(6):543-53.
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        31. Conlon J, Burdette DL, Sharma S, Bhat N, Thompson M, Jiang Z, Rathinam VA, Monks B, Jin T, Xiao TS, Vogel SN, Vance RE, Fitzgerald KA. Mouse, but not human STING, binds and signals in response to the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid. J Immunol. 2013 May 15; 190(10):5216-25.
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        32. Sandanger Ø, Ranheim T, Vinge LE, Bliksøen M, Alfsnes K, Finsen AV, Dahl CP, Askevold ET, Florholmen G, Christensen G, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Valen G, Espevik T, Aukrust P, Yndestad A. The NLRP3 inflammasome is up-regulated in cardiac fibroblasts and mediates myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Jul 1; 99(1):164-74.
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        33. Atianand MK, Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. SnapShot: inflammasomes. Cell. 2013 Mar 28; 153(1):272-272.e1.
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        34. Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F, Parlato M, de Oliveira RB, Golenbock D, Fitzgerald K, Shalova IN, Biswas SK, Cavaillon JM, Adib-Conquy M. Interferon-? and granulocyte/monocyte colony-stimulating factor production by natural killer cells involves different signaling pathways and the adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 12; 288(15):10715-21.
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        35. Ermler ME, Yerukhim E, Schriewer J, Schattgen S, Traylor Z, Wespiser AR, Caffrey DR, Chen ZJ, King CH, Gale M, Colonna M, Fitzgerald KA, Buller RM, Hise AG. RNA helicase signaling is critical for type i interferon production and protection against Rift Valley fever virus during mucosal challenge. J Virol. 2013 May; 87(9):4846-60.
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        36. Wang D, Höing S, Patterson HC, Ahmad UM, Rathinam VA, Rajewsky K, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Inflammation in mice ectopically expressing human Pyogenic Arthritis, Pyoderma Gangrenosum, and Acne (PAPA) Syndrome-associated PSTPIP1 A230T mutant proteins. J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 15; 288(7):4594-601.
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        37. Ramirez A, Rathinam V, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT, Mathew A. Defective pro-IL-1ß responses in macrophages from aged mice. Immun Ageing. 2012; 9(1):27.
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        38. Mishra BB, Rathinam VA, Martens GW, Martinot AJ, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Sassetti CM. Nitric oxide controls the immunopathology of tuberculosis by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent processing of IL-1ß. Nat Immunol. 2013 Jan; 14(1):52-60.
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        39. Bossaller L, Chiang PI, Schmidt-Lauber C, Ganesan S, Kaiser WJ, Rathinam VA, Mocarski ES, Subramanian D, Green DR, Silverman N, Fitzgerald KA, Marshak-Rothstein A, Latz E. Cutting edge: FAS (CD95) mediates noncanonical IL-1ß and IL-18 maturation via caspase-8 in an RIP3-independent manner. J Immunol. 2012 Dec 15; 189(12):5508-12.
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        40. Hafner-Bratkovic I, Bencina M, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock D, Jerala R. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophage cell lines by prion protein fibrils as the source of IL-1ß and neuronal toxicity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012 Dec; 69(24):4215-28.
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        41. Zhou S, Cerny AM, Fitzgerald KA, Kurt-Jones EA, Finberg RW. Role of interferon regulatory factor 7 in T cell responses during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. J Virol. 2012 Oct; 86(20):11254-65.
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        42. Vladimer GI, Weng D, Paquette SW, Vanaja SK, Rathinam VA, Aune MH, Conlon JE, Burbage JJ, Proulx MK, Liu Q, Reed G, Mecsas JC, Iwakura Y, Bertin J, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E. The NLRP12 inflammasome recognizes Yersinia pestis. Immunity. 2012 Jul 27; 37(1):96-107.
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        43. Rathinam VA, Vanaja SK, Waggoner L, Sokolovska A, Becker C, Stuart LM, Leong JM, Fitzgerald KA. TRIF licenses caspase-11-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation by gram-negative bacteria. Cell. 2012 Aug 3; 150(3):606-19.
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        44. Paquette N, Conlon J, Sweet C, Rus F, Wilson L, Pereira A, Rosadini CV, Goutagny N, Weber AN, Lane WS, Shaffer SA, Maniatis S, Fitzgerald KA, Stuart L, Silverman N. Serine/threonine acetylation of TGFß-activated kinase (TAK1) by Yersinia pestis YopJ inhibits innate immune signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jul 31; 109(31):12710-5.
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        45. Caffrey DR, Fitzgerald KA. Immunology. Select inflammasome assembly. Science. 2012 Apr 27; 336(6080):420-1.
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        46. Jin T, Perry A, Jiang J, Smith P, Curry JA, Unterholzner L, Jiang Z, Horvath G, Rathinam VA, Johnstone RW, Hornung V, Latz E, Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA, Xiao TS. Structures of the HIN domain:DNA complexes reveal ligand binding and activation mechanisms of the AIM2 inflammasome and IFI16 receptor. Immunity. 2012 Apr 20; 36(4):561-71.
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        47. Rathinam VA, Vanaja SK, Fitzgerald KA. Regulation of inflammasome signaling. Nat Immunol. 2012 Apr; 13(4):333-42.
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        48. Shimada K, Crother TR, Karlin J, Dagvadorj J, Chiba N, Chen S, Ramanujan VK, Wolf AJ, Vergnes L, Ojcius DM, Rentsendorj A, Vargas M, Guerrero C, Wang Y, Fitzgerald KA, Underhill DM, Town T, Arditi M. Oxidized mitochondrial DNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome during apoptosis. Immunity. 2012 Mar 23; 36(3):401-14.
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        49. Shi CS, Shenderov K, Huang NN, Kabat J, Abu-Asab M, Fitzgerald KA, Sher A, Kehrl JH. Activation of autophagy by inflammatory signals limits IL-1ß production by targeting ubiquitinated inflammasomes for destruction. Nat Immunol. 2012 Mar; 13(3):255-63.
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        50. Conrady CD, Zheng M, Fitzgerald KA, Liu C, Carr DJ. Resistance to HSV-1 infection in the epithelium resides with the novel innate sensor, IFI-16. Mucosal Immunol. 2012 Mar; 5(2):173-83.
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        51. Tomalka J, Ganesan S, Azodi E, Patel K, Majmudar P, Hall BA, Fitzgerald KA, Hise AG. A novel role for the NLRC4 inflammasome in mucosal defenses against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Dec; 7(12):e1002379.
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        52. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Cytosolic surveillance and antiviral immunity. Curr Opin Virol. 2011 Dec; 1(6):455-62.
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        53. Sharma S, DeOliveira RB, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, Chan J, Bartholomeu DC, Lauw F, Hall JP, Barber GN, Gazzinelli RT, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):194-207.
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        54. Ather JL, Ckless K, Martin R, Foley KL, Suratt BT, Boyson JE, Fitzgerald KA, Flavell RA, Eisenbarth SC, Poynter ME. Serum amyloid A activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes Th17 allergic asthma in mice. J Immunol. 2011 Jul 1; 187(1):64-73.
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        55. Parker D, Martin FJ, Soong G, Harfenist BS, Aguilar JL, Ratner AJ, Fitzgerald KA, Schindler C, Prince A. Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA initiates type I interferon signaling in the respiratory tract. MBio. 2011; 2(3):e00016-11.
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        56. Panchanathan R, Shen H, Duan X, Rathinam VA, Erickson LD, Fitzgerald KA, Choubey D. Aim2 deficiency in mice suppresses the expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor (FcgammaRIIB) through the induction of the IFN-inducible p202, a lupus susceptibility protein. J Immunol. 2011 Jun 15; 186(12):6762-70.
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        57. Wang L, Trebicka E, Fu Y, Waggoner L, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA, Kagan JC, Cherayil BJ. Regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced translation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by the toll-like receptor 4 adaptor protein TRAM. J Innate Immun. 2011; 3(5):437-46.
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        58. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Innate immune sensing of DNA viruses. Virology. 2011 Mar 15; 411(2):153-62.
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        59. Siednienko J, Gajanayake T, Fitzgerald KA, Moynagh P, Miggin SM. Absence of MyD88 results in enhanced TLR3-dependent phosphorylation of IRF3 and increased IFN-ß and RANTES production. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 15; 186(4):2514-22.
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        60. Harris J, Hartman M, Roche C, Zeng SG, O'Shea A, Sharp FA, Lambe EM, Creagh EM, Golenbock DT, Tschopp J, Kornfeld H, Fitzgerald KA, Lavelle EC. Autophagy controls IL-1beta secretion by targeting pro-IL-1beta for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 18; 286(11):9587-97.
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        61. Nakahira K, Haspel JA, Rathinam VA, Lee SJ, Dolinay T, Lam HC, Englert JA, Rabinovitch M, Cernadas M, Kim HP, Fitzgerald KA, Ryter SW, Choi AM. Autophagy proteins regulate innate immune responses by inhibiting the release of mitochondrial DNA mediated by the NALP3 inflammasome. Nat Immunol. 2011 Mar; 12(3):222-30.
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        62. McNeela EA, Burke A, Neill DR, Baxter C, Fernandes VE, Ferreira D, Smeaton S, El-Rachkidy R, McLoughlin RM, Mori A, Moran B, Fitzgerald KA, Tschopp J, Pétrilli V, Andrew PW, Kadioglu A, Lavelle EC. Pneumolysin activates the NLRP3 inflammasome and promotes proinflammatory cytokines independently of TLR4. PLoS Pathog. 2010; 6(11):e1001191.
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        63. Panchanathan R, Duan X, Shen H, Rathinam VA, Erickson LD, Fitzgerald KA, Choubey D. Aim2 deficiency stimulates the expression of IFN-inducible Ifi202, a lupus susceptibility murine gene within the Nba2 autoimmune susceptibility locus. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 15; 185(12):7385-93.
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        64. Rathinam VA, Fitzgerald KA. Inflammasomes and anti-viral immunity. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):632-7.
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        65. Kim S, Bauernfeind F, Ablasser A, Hartmann G, Fitzgerald KA, Latz E, Hornung V. Listeria monocytogenes is sensed by the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Jun; 40(6):1545-51.
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        66. Rathinam VA, Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA. Catenin' on to nucleic acid sensing. Nat Immunol. 2010 Jun; 11(6):466-8.
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        67. Sharma S, Fitzgerald KA. Viral defense: it takes two MAVS to Tango. Cell. 2010 May 14; 141(4):570-2.
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        68. Bauer C, Duewell P, Mayer C, Lehr HA, Fitzgerald KA, Dauer M, Tschopp J, Endres S, Latz E, Schnurr M. Colitis induced in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. Gut. 2010 Sep; 59(9):1192-9.
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        69. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nuñez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz E. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010 Apr 29; 464(7293):1357-61.
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        70. He X, Mekasha S, Mavrogiorgos N, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Ingalls RR. Inflammation and fibrosis during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is regulated by IL-1 and the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome. J Immunol. 2010 May 15; 184(10):5743-54.
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        71. Zhao H, Leu SW, Shi L, Dedaj R, Zhao G, Garg HG, Shen L, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Shiedlin A, Shen H, Quinn DA, Hales CA. TLR4 is a negative regulator in noninfectious lung inflammation. J Immunol. 2010 May 1; 184(9):5308-14.
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        72. Nguyen TT, Johnsen IB, Knetter CF, Drabløs F, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Anthonsen MW. Differential gene expression downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLRs): role of c-Src and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). J Biol Chem. 2010 May 28; 285(22):17011-9.
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        73. Rathinam VA, Jiang Z, Waggoner SN, Sharma S, Cole LE, Waggoner L, Vanaja SK, Monks BG, Ganesan S, Latz E, Hornung V, Vogel SN, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Fitzgerald KA. The AIM2 inflammasome is essential for host defense against cytosolic bacteria and DNA viruses. Nat Immunol. 2010 May; 11(5):395-402.
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        74. Woo CW, Cui D, Arellano J, Dorweiler B, Harding H, Fitzgerald KA, Ron D, Tabas I. Adaptive suppression of the ATF4-CHOP branch of the unfolded protein response by toll-like receptor signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2009 Dec; 11(12):1473-80.
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        75. Fitzgerald KA. Integr-ating IL-1 alpha in antiviral host defenses. Immunity. 2009 Jul 17; 31(1):7-9.
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        76. Schlee M, Roth A, Hornung V, Hagmann CA, Wimmenauer V, Barchet W, Coch C, Janke M, Mihailovic A, Wardle G, Juranek S, Kato H, Kawai T, Poeck H, Fitzgerald KA, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Tuschl T, Latz E, Ludwig J, Hartmann G. Recognition of 5' triphosphate by RIG-I helicase requires short blunt double-stranded RNA as contained in panhandle of negative-strand virus. Immunity. 2009 Jul 17; 31(1):25-34.
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        77. Bauernfeind FG, Horvath G, Stutz A, Alnemri ES, MacDonald K, Speert D, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Wu J, Monks BG, Fitzgerald KA, Hornung V, Latz E. Cutting edge: NF-kappaB activating pattern recognition and cytokine receptors license NLRP3 inflammasome activation by regulating NLRP3 expression. J Immunol. 2009 Jul 15; 183(2):787-91.
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        78. Hise AG, Tomalka J, Ganesan S, Patel K, Hall BA, Brown GD, Fitzgerald KA. An essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in host defense against the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May 8; 5(5):487-97.
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        79. Kenzel S, Santos-Sierra S, Deshmukh SD, Moeller I, Ergin B, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Role of p38 and early growth response factor 1 in the macrophage response to group B streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun; 77(6):2474-81.
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        80. Hornung V, Ablasser A, Charrel-Dennis M, Bauernfeind F, Horvath G, Caffrey DR, Latz E, Fitzgerald KA. AIM2 recognizes cytosolic dsDNA and forms a caspase-1-activating inflammasome with ASC. Nature. 2009 Mar 26; 458(7237):514-8.
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        81. Sun Y, Ishibashi M, Seimon T, Lee M, Sharma SM, Fitzgerald KA, Samokhin AO, Wang Y, Sayers S, Aikawa M, Jerome WG, Ostrowski MC, Bromme D, Libby P, Tabas IA, Welch CL, Tall AR. Free cholesterol accumulation in macrophage membranes activates Toll-like receptors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces cathepsin K. Circ Res. 2009 Feb 27; 104(4):455-65.
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        82. Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. Immunology. The shape of things to come. Science. 2007 Jun 15; 316(5831):1574-6.
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        83. Cook P, Tötemeyer S, Stevenson C, Fitzgerald KA, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Maskell DJ, Bryant CE. Salmonella-induced SipB-independent cell death requires Toll-like receptor-4 signalling via the adapter proteins Tram and Trif. Immunology. 2007 Oct; 122(2):222-9.
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        84. Zhou S, Kurt-Jones EA, Fitzgerald KA, Wang JP, Cerny AM, Chan M, Finberg RW. Role of MyD88 in route-dependent susceptibility to vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15; 178(8):5173-81.
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        85. Hise AG, Daehnel K, Gillette-Ferguson I, Cho E, McGarry HF, Taylor MJ, Golenbock DT, Fitzgerald KA, Kazura JW, Pearlman E. Innate immune responses to endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus are dependent on TLR2, TLR6, MyD88, and Mal, but not TLR4, TRIF, or TRAM. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):1068-76.
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        86. Severa M, Coccia EM, Fitzgerald KA. Toll-like receptor-dependent and -independent viperin gene expression and counter-regulation by PRDI-binding factor-1/BLIMP1. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 8; 281(36):26188-95.
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        87. Mitchell JA, Fitzgerald KA, Coyle A, Silverman N, Cartwright N. TOLLing away in Brazil. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jul; 7(7):675-9.
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        88. McGettrick AF, Brint EK, Palsson-McDermott EM, Rowe DC, Golenbock DT, Gay NJ, Fitzgerald KA, O'Neill LA. Trif-related adapter molecule is phosphorylated by PKC{epsilon} during Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 13; 103(24):9196-201.
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        89. Fitzgerald KA, Chen ZJ. Sorting out Toll signals. Cell. 2006 Jun 2; 125(5):834-6.
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        90. Rowe DC, McGettrick AF, Latz E, Monks BG, Gay NJ, Yamamoto M, Akira S, O'Neill LA, Fitzgerald KA, Golenbock DT. The myristoylation of TRIF-related adaptor molecule is essential for Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Apr 18; 103(16):6299-304.
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        91. Rothenfusser S, Goutagny N, DiPerna G, Gong M, Monks BG, Schoenemeyer A, Yamamoto M, Akira S, Fitzgerald KA. The RNA helicase Lgp2 inhibits TLR-independent sensing of viral replication by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I. J Immunol. 2005 Oct 15; 175(8):5260-8.
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        92. Youn HS, Lee JY, Fitzgerald KA, Young HA, Akira S, Hwang DH. Specific inhibition of MyD88-independent signaling pathways of TLR3 and TLR4 by resveratrol: molecular targets are TBK1 and RIP1 in TRIF complex. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 1; 175(5):3339-46.
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        93. Cusson-Hermance N, Khurana S, Lee TH, Fitzgerald KA, Kelliher MA. Rip1 mediates the Trif-dependent toll-like receptor 3- and 4-induced NF-{kappa}B activation but does not contribute to interferon regulatory factor 3 activation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 4; 280(44):36560-6.
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        94. Latz E, Schoenemeyer A, Visintin A, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Knetter CF, Lien E, Nilsen NJ, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):190-8.
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        95. Fitzgerald KA, Rowe DC, Barnes BJ, Caffrey DR, Visintin A, Latz E, Monks B, Pitha PM, Golenbock DT. LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters TRAM and TRIF. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 6; 198(7):1043-55.
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        96. Wilkinson HA, Fitzgerald K, Greenwald I. Reciprocal changes in expression of the receptor lin-12 and its ligand lag-2 prior to commitment in a C. elegans cell fate decision. Cell. 1994 Dec 30; 79(7):1187-98.
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        97. Struhl G, Fitzgerald K, Greenwald I. Intrinsic activity of the Lin-12 and Notch intracellular domains in vivo. Cell. 1993 Jul 30; 74(2):331-45.
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        98. Meuer SC, Hussey RE, Fabbi M, Fox D, Acuto O, Fitzgerald KA, Hodgdon JC, Protentis JP, Schlossman SF, Reinherz EL. An alternative pathway of T-cell activation: a functional role for the 50 kd T11 sheep erythrocyte receptor protein. Cell. 1984 Apr; 36(4):897-906.
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        99. Acuto O, Hussey RE, Fitzgerald KA, Protentis JP, Meuer SC, Schlossman SF, Reinherz EL. The human T cell receptor: appearance in ontogeny and biochemical relationship of alpha and beta subunits on IL-2 dependent clones and T cell tumors. Cell. 1983 Oct; 34(3):717-26.
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        100. Reinherz EL, Meuer S, Fitzgerald KA, Hussey RE, Levine H, Schlossman SF. Antigen recognition by human T lymphocytes is linked to surface expression of the T3 molecular complex. Cell. 1982 Oct; 30(3):735-43.
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