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Egil Lien PhD

InstitutionUMass Chan Medical School
AddressUMass Chan Medical School
364 Plantation Street LRB
Worcester MA 01605
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    Other Positions
    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DivisionInfectious Diseases

    InstitutionT.H. Chan School of Medicine
    DepartmentMicrobiology and Physiological Systems

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentImmunology and Microbiology Program

    InstitutionMorningside Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
    DepartmentMD/PhD Program

    Collapse Biography 
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    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, , NorwayMSBiochemistry
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, , NorwayPHDCell Biology

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    Research Interests:

    Pathogen activation and evasion of innate immune signaling - cell death pathways, inflammasomes and Toll-like Receptors.

    Over the last three decades, we have gained a lot of information on how the body defends itself against pathogenic microbes by activation of the innate immune system. This part of the immune system provides the immediate defense against invading bacteria, virus or fungi, and is also able to fine-tune and optimize the subsequent more specialized adaptive immune response.

    My laboratory is primarily focused on understanding how recognition of pathogens leads to activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), inflammasomes, and cell death pathways. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria (also called endotoxin) is particularly interesting, it is a saccharide containing acyl chains. LPS is a main component of the Gram-negative outer membrane, and one of the most potent activators of immune cells. LPS activates cells via TLR4 and MD-2, but recognition of other microbial components, such as secretion system apparatus interacting with inflammasomes and cell death pathways, also participates in the host response. Inflammasomes formed in response to microbial compounds typically involve complex formation with NOD-like receptors (NLRs), often an adapter called Asc and inflammatory caspases such as caspase-1. Activation leads to the generation of active caspase and subsequent cleavage of pro-IL-1b and pro-IL-18 into mature IL-1b/IL-18, key cytokines in many inflammatory responses, and cleavage of Gasdermin D, generating membrane pores during pyroptotic cell death. A number of pathogens may attempt to evade or minimize signaling via TLRs and NLRs, as this may be beneficial from a pathogen point of view.

    Two methods Gram-negative pathogens may use for evasion are "stealth" by modifying their LPS, and active manipulation of host signaling by their type III secretion systems. However, this latter type of "pathological activity" can also be sensed by the host and lead to backup mechanisms. Increasingly, it is recognized that a great deal of cross-talk exists in innate immunity between different inflammatory and cell death pathways. One such example is from our work suggests that elements of extrinsic apoptosis, such as RIPK1 and caspase-8, can trigger mechanisms involving pyroptotic cell death and inflammasomes. A greater understanding of microbial activation and evasion of innate immunity can lead to new therapies and vaccines against infectious diseases.

    One of the model systems we utilize involves bacteria of the genus Yersiniae, such as Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of plague, and the other human-pathogenic Yersinia, Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica. We are also interested in innate immune responses to other pathogens such as Salmonella, Klebsiella, E. coli, SARS-CoV-2 and cytomegalovirus, and in understanding mechanisms of adjuvant action for vaccines. Other topics of interest are inflammation during IBD, obesity/diabetes and neurological diseases.



    Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), M.Sc. 1992

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Ph.D. 1998

    Boston University/Boston Medical Center; Postdoc 1997-99

    NTNU; Postdoc 1999-2001

    UMass Medical School; Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, 2002-2007

    UMass Medical School; Associate Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and Physiological Systems 2007-2016

    UMass Medical School; Professor (tenured) of Medicine, and Microbiology and Physiological Systems 2016-present

    NTNU; Associate Professor II, 2008-2011

    NTNU; Professor II, 2011-present


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Nilsen KE, Zhang B, Skjesol A, Ryan L, Vagle H, B?e MH, Orning P, Kim H, Bakke SS, Elamurugan K, Mestvedt IB, Stenvik J, Husebye H, Lien E, Espevik T, Yurchenko M. Peptide derived from SLAMF1 prevents TLR4-mediated inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Life Sci Alliance. 2023 12; 6(12). PMID: 37788908.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    2. Lentini G, Fam? A, De Gaetano GV, Coppolino F, Mahjoub AK, Ryan L, Lien E, Espevik T, Beninati C, Teti G. Caspase-8 inhibition improves the outcome of bacterial infections in mice by promoting neutrophil activation. Cell Rep Med. 2023 07 18; 4(7):101098. PMID: 37390829.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. de Carvalho Ribeiro M, Iracheta-Vellve A, Babuta M, Calenda CD, Copeland C, Zhuang Y, Lowe PP, Hawryluk D, Catalano D, Cho Y, Barton B, Dasarathy S, McClain C, McCullough AJ, Mitchell MC, Nagy LE, Radaeva S, Lien E, Golenbock DT, Szabo G. Alcohol-induced extracellular ASC specks perpetuate liver inflammation and damage in alcohol-associated hepatitis even after alcohol cessation. Hepatology. 2023 07 01; 78(1):225-242. PMID: 36862512.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Lei X, Chen Y, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA. MLKL-Driven Inflammasome Activation and Caspase-8 Mediate Inflammatory Cell Death in Influenza A Virus Infection. mBio. 2023 04 25; 14(2):e0011023. PMID: 36852999.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    5. Zelic M, Pontarelli F, Woodworth L, Zhu C, Mahan A, Ren Y, LaMorte M, Gruber R, Keane A, Loring P, Guo L, Xia TH, Zhang B, Orning P, Lien E, Degterev A, Hammond T, Ofengeim D. RIPK1 activation mediates neuroinflammation and disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Cell Rep. 2021 05 11; 35(6):109112. PMID: 33979622.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    6. Tao L, Yi Y, Chen Y, Zhang H, Orning P, Lien E, Jie J, Zhang W, Xu Q, Li Y, Ding Z, Wu C, Ding Q, Wang J, Zhang J, Weng D. RIP1 kinase activity promotes steatohepatitis through mediating cell death and inflammation in macrophages. Cell Death Differ. 2021 04; 28(4):1418-1433. PMID: 33208891.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Pereira LMN, Assis PA, de Ara?jo NM, Durso DF, Junqueira C, Ata?de MA, Pereira DB, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Zamboni DS, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Author Correction: Caspase-8 mediates inflammation and disease in rodent malaria. Nat Commun. 2020 Nov 03; 11(1):5673. PMID: 33144583.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    8. Pereira LMN, Assis PA, de Ara?jo NM, Durso DF, Junqueira C, Ata?de MA, Pereira DB, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Zamboni DS, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Caspase-8 mediates inflammation and disease in rodent malaria. Nat Commun. 2020 09 14; 11(1):4596. PMID: 32929083.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Orning P, Lien E. Multiple roles of caspase-8 in cell death, inflammation, and innate immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2021 01; 109(1):121-141. PMID: 32531842.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    10. Choudhury A, Bullock D, Lim A, Argemi J, Orning P, Lien E, Bataller R, Mandrekar P. Inhibition of HSP90 and Activation of HSF1 Diminish Macrophage NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity in Alcohol-Associated Liver Injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 06; 44(6):1300-1311. PMID: 32282939.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Shahini N, Schjalm C, Nilsson PH, Holt MF, ?gaard JDS, Lien E, Ahmed MS, Attramadal H, Aukrust P, Yndestad A, Mollnes TE, Louwe MC. Complement component C3 and the TLR co-receptor CD14 are not involved in angiotensin II induced cardiac remodelling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 03 19; 523(4):867-873. PMID: 31955888.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Orning P, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA. Gasdermins and their role in immunity and inflammation. J Exp Med. 2019 11 04; 216(11):2453-2465. PMID: 31548300.
      Citations: 106     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Sokolova M, Sjaastad I, Louwe MC, Alfsnes K, Aronsen JM, Zhang L, Haugstad SB, Bendiksen BA, ?gaard J, Bliks?en M, Lien E, Berge RK, Aukrust P, Ranheim T, Yndestad A. NLRP3 Inflammasome Promotes Myocardial Remodeling During Diet-Induced Obesity. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:1621. PMID: 31379826.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    14. Hancz D, Westerlund E, Valfridsson C, Aemero GM, Bastiat-Sempe B, Orning P, Lien E, Wessels MR, Persson JJ. Streptolysin O Induces the Ubiquitination and Degradation of Pro-IL-1?. J Innate Immun. 2019; 11(6):457-468. PMID: 30889575.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Orning P, Weng D, Starheim K, Ratner D, Best Z, Lee B, Brooks A, Xia S, Wu H, Kelliher MA, Berger SB, Gough PJ, Bertin J, Proulx MM, Goguen JD, Kayagaki N, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E. Pathogen blockade of TAK1 triggers caspase-8-dependent cleavage of gasdermin D and cell death. Science. 2018 11 30; 362(6418):1064-1069. PMID: 30361383.
      Citations: 402     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Orning P, Flo TH, Lien E. A Sugar Rush for Innate Immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 10 10; 24(4):461-463. PMID: 30308148.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Sokolova M, Sahraoui A, H?yem M, ?gaard J, Lien E, Aukrust P, Yndestad A, Ranheim T, Scholz H. NLRP3 inflammasome mediates oxidative stress-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2018 11 01; 315(5):E912-E923. PMID: 30016155.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Ratner D, Orning MP, Proulx MK, Wang D, Gavrilin MA, Wewers MD, Alnemri ES, Johnson PF, Lee B, Mecsas J, Kayagaki N, Goguen JD, Lien E. The Yersinia pestis Effector YopM Inhibits Pyrin Inflammasome Activation. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Dec; 12(12):e1006035. PMID: 27911947.
      Citations: 55     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Sokolova M, Vinge LE, Alfsnes K, Olsen MB, Eide L, Kaasb?ll OJ, Attramadal H, Torp MK, Fosshaug LE, Rashidi A, Lien E, Finsen AV, Sandanger ?, Aukrust P, Ranheim T, Yndestad A. Palmitate promotes inflammatory responses and cellular senescence in cardiac fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017 Feb; 1862(2):234-245. PMID: 27845246.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Ratner D, Orning MP, Lien E. Bacterial secretion systems and regulation of inflammasome activation. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 01; 101(1):165-181. PMID: 27810946.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Martinez N, Ketheesan N, Martens GW, West K, Lien E, Kornfeld H. Defects in early cell recruitment contribute to the increased susceptibility to respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in diabetic mice. Microbes Infect. 2016 Oct; 18(10):649-655. PMID: 27256462.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Ratner D, Orning MP, Starheim KK, Marty-Roix R, Proulx MK, Goguen JD, Lien E. Manipulation of Interleukin-1? and Interleukin-18 Production by Yersinia pestis Effectors YopJ and YopM and Redundant Impact on Virulence. J Biol Chem. 2016 May 06; 291(19):9894-905. PMID: 26884330.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Marty-Roix R, Vladimer GI, Pouliot K, Weng D, Buglione-Corbett R, West K, MacMicking JD, Chee JD, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E. Identification of QS-21 as an Inflammasome-activating Molecular Component of Saponin Adjuvants. J Biol Chem. 2016 Jan 15; 291(3):1123-36. PMID: 26555265.
      Citations: 90     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Wilks J, Lien E, Jacobson AN, Fischbach MA, Qureshi N, Chervonsky AV, Golovkina TV. Mammalian Lipopolysaccharide Receptors Incorporated into the Retroviral Envelope Augment Virus Transmission. Cell Host Microbe. 2015 Oct 14; 18(4):456-62. PMID: 26468748.
      Citations: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Ystgaard MB, Sejersted Y, L?berg EM, Lien E, Yndestad A, Saugstad OD. Early Upregulation of NLRP3 in the Brain of Neonatal Mice Exposed to Hypoxia-Ischemia: No Early Neuroprotective Effects of NLRP3 Deficiency. Neonatology. 2015; 108(3):211-9. PMID: 26279061.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Cero FT, Hillestad V, Sjaastad I, Yndestad A, Aukrust P, Ranheim T, Lunde IG, Olsen MB, Lien E, Zhang L, Haugstad SB, L?berg EM, Christensen G, Larsen KO, Skj?nsberg OH. Absence of the inflammasome adaptor ASC reduces hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015 Aug 15; 309(4):L378-87. PMID: 26071556.
      Citations: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Nilsen NJ, Vladimer GI, Stenvik J, Orning MP, Zeid-Kilani MV, Bugge M, Bergstroem B, Conlon J, Husebye H, Hise AG, Fitzgerald KA, Espevik T, Lien E. A role for the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF in toll-like receptor 2 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 06; 290(6):3209-22. PMID: 25505250.
      Citations: 52     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Pouliot K, Buglione-Corbett R, Marty-Roix R, Montminy-Paquette S, West K, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E. Contribution of TLR4 and MyD88 for adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) activity in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Sep 03; 32(39):5049-56. PMID: 25045815.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Weng D, Marty-Roix R, Ganesan S, Proulx MK, Vladimer GI, Kaiser WJ, Mocarski ES, Pouliot K, Chan FK, Kelliher MA, Harris PA, Bertin J, Gough PJ, Shayakhmetov DM, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Silverman N, Lien E. Caspase-8 and RIP kinases regulate bacteria-induced innate immune responses and cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20; 111(20):7391-6. PMID: 24799678.
      Citations: 154     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Gupta R, Ghosh S, Monks B, DeOliveira RB, Tzeng TC, Kalantari P, Nandy A, Bhattacharjee B, Chan J, Ferreira F, Rathinam V, Sharma S, Lien E, Silverman N, Fitzgerald K, Firon A, Trieu-Cuot P, Henneke P, Golenbock DT. RNA and ?-hemolysin of group B Streptococcus induce interleukin-1? (IL-1?) by activating NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 16; 289(20):13701-5. PMID: 24692555.
      Citations: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    31. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, Li W, West K, Wang S, Morelli AB, Lien E, Lu S. Reduced MyD88 dependency of ISCOMATRIX? adjuvant in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV vaccine. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(4):1078-90. PMID: 24513632.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    32. Alkanani AK, Hara N, Lien E, Ir D, Kotter CV, Robertson CE, Wagner BD, Frank DN, Zipris D. Induction of diabetes in the RIP-B7.1 mouse model is critically dependent on TLR3 and MyD88 pathways and is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiome. Diabetes. 2014 Feb; 63(2):619-31. PMID: 24353176.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Buglione-Corbett R, Pouliot K, Marty-Roix R, West K, Wang S, Lien E, Lu S. Serum cytokine profiles associated with specific adjuvants used in a DNA prime-protein boost vaccination strategy. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74820. PMID: 24019983.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Marty-Roix R, Lien E. (De-) oiling inflammasomes. Immunity. 2013 Jun 27; 38(6):1088-90. PMID: 23809158.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Sandanger ?, Ranheim T, Vinge LE, Bliks?en M, Alfsnes K, Finsen AV, Dahl CP, Askevold ET, Florholmen G, Christensen G, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Valen G, Espevik T, Aukrust P, Yndestad A. The NLRP3 inflammasome is up-regulated in cardiac fibroblasts and mediates myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Jul 01; 99(1):164-74. PMID: 23580606.
      Citations: 216     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Vladimer GI, Marty-Roix R, Ghosh S, Weng D, Lien E. Inflammasomes and host defenses against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Feb; 16(1):23-31. PMID: 23318142.
      Citations: 83     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. Vladimer GI, Weng D, Paquette SW, Vanaja SK, Rathinam VA, Aune MH, Conlon JE, Burbage JJ, Proulx MK, Liu Q, Reed G, Mecsas JC, Iwakura Y, Bertin J, Goguen JD, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E. The NLRP12 inflammasome recognizes Yersinia pestis. Immunity. 2012 Jul 27; 37(1):96-107. PMID: 22840842.
      Citations: 183     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Johnsen IB, Nguyen TT, Bergstr?m B, Lien E, Anthonsen MW. Toll-like receptor 3-elicited MAPK activation induces stabilization of interferon-? mRNA. Cytokine. 2012 Mar; 57(3):337-46. PMID: 22200507.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Husebye H, Aune MH, Stenvik J, Samstad E, Skjeldal F, Halaas O, Nilsen NJ, Stenmark H, Latz E, Lien E, Mollnes TE, Bakke O, Espevik T. The Rab11a GTPase controls Toll-like receptor 4-induced activation of interferon regulatory factor-3 on phagosomes. Immunity. 2010 Oct 29; 33(4):583-96. PMID: 20933442.
      Citations: 111     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Melo MB, Kasperkovitz P, Cerny A, K?nen-Waisman S, Kurt-Jones EA, Lien E, Beutler B, Howard JC, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 26; 6(8):e1001071. PMID: 20865117.
      Citations: 38     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Dickinson GS, Piccone H, Sun G, Lien E, Gatto L, Alugupalli KR. Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency results in impaired antibody responses and septic shock during Borrelia hermsii infection. Infect Immun. 2010 Nov; 78(11):4579-88. PMID: 20696824.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Duewell P, Kono H, Rayner KJ, Sirois CM, Vladimer G, Bauernfeind FG, Abela GS, Franchi L, Nu?ez G, Schnurr M, Espevik T, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Rock KL, Moore KJ, Wright SD, Hornung V, Latz E. NLRP3 inflammasomes are required for atherogenesis and activated by cholesterol crystals. Nature. 2010 Apr 29; 464(7293):1357-61. PMID: 20428172.
      Citations: 1625     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. He X, Mekasha S, Mavrogiorgos N, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Ingalls RR. Inflammation and fibrosis during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is regulated by IL-1 and the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome. J Immunol. 2010 May 15; 184(10):5743-54. PMID: 20393140.
      Citations: 84     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Zhao H, Leu SW, Shi L, Dedaj R, Zhao G, Garg HG, Shen L, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Shiedlin A, Shen H, Quinn DA, Hales CA. TLR4 is a negative regulator in noninfectious lung inflammation. J Immunol. 2010 May 01; 184(9):5308-14. PMID: 20357263.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Nguyen TT, Johnsen IB, Knetter CF, Drabl?s F, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Anthonsen MW. Differential gene expression downstream of Toll-like receptors (TLRs): role of c-Src and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). J Biol Chem. 2010 May 28; 285(22):17011-9. PMID: 20351107.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Meng J, Lien E, Golenbock DT. MD-2-mediated ionic interactions between lipid A and TLR4 are essential for receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 19; 285(12):8695-702. PMID: 20018893.
      Citations: 53     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Szaba FM, Kummer LW, Wilhelm LB, Lin JS, Parent MA, Montminy-Paquette SW, Lien E, Johnson LL, Smiley ST. D27-pLpxL, an avirulent strain of Yersinia pestis, primes T cells that protect against pneumonic plague. Infect Immun. 2009 Oct; 77(10):4295-304. PMID: 19620344.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Kenzel S, Santos-Sierra S, Deshmukh SD, Moeller I, Ergin B, Fitzgerald KA, Lien E, Akira S, Golenbock DT, Henneke P. Role of p38 and early growth response factor 1 in the macrophage response to group B streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2009 Jun; 77(6):2474-81. PMID: 19332535.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Lien E, Zipris D. The role of Toll-like receptor pathways in the mechanism of type 1 diabetes. Curr Mol Med. 2009 Feb; 9(1):52-68. PMID: 19199942.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Dam?s JK, Dav? G, Jensenius M, Santilli F, Otterdal K, Ueland T, Flo TH, Lien E, Espevik T, Fr?land SS, Vitale G, Raoult D, Aukrust P. Relative chemokine and adhesion molecule expression in Mediterranean spotted fever and African tick bite fever. J Infect. 2009 Jan; 58(1):68-75. PMID: 19091423.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Robinson RT, Khader SA, Locksley RM, Lien E, Smiley ST, Cooper AM. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL-12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5560-7. PMID: 18832714.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    52. Bartholomeu DC, Ropert C, Melo MB, Parroche P, Junqueira CF, Teixeira SM, Sirois C, Kasperkovitz P, Knetter CF, Lien E, Latz E, Golenbock DT, Gazzinelli RT. Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15; 181(2):1333-44. PMID: 18606688.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    53. Nilsen NJ, Deininger S, Nonstad U, Skjeldal F, Husebye H, Rodionov D, von Aulock S, Hartung T, Lien E, Bakke O, Espevik T. Cellular trafficking of lipoteichoic acid and Toll-like receptor 2 in relation to signaling: role of CD14 and CD36. J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Jul; 84(1):280-91. PMID: 18458151.
      Citations: 78     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    54. Jain V, Halle A, Halmen KA, Lien E, Charrel-Dennis M, Ram S, Golenbock DT, Visintin A. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing of MD-2 opsonized gram-negative bacteria depend on TLR4 signaling. Blood. 2008 May 01; 111(9):4637-45. PMID: 18203953.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Pouliot K, Pan N, Wang S, Lu S, Lien E, Goguen JD. Evaluation of the role of LcrV-Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immunomodulation in the virulence of Yersinia pestis. Infect Immun. 2007 Jul; 75(7):3571-80. PMID: 17438030.
      Citations: 27     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Alugupalli KR, Akira S, Lien E, Leong JM. MyD88- and Bruton's tyrosine kinase-mediated signals are essential for T cell-independent pathogen-specific IgM responses. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 15; 178(6):3740-9. PMID: 17339472.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Zipris D, Lien E, Nair A, Xie JX, Greiner DL, Mordes JP, Rossini AA. TLR9-signaling pathways are involved in Kilham rat virus-induced autoimmune diabetes in the biobreeding diabetes-resistant rat. J Immunol. 2007 Jan 15; 178(2):693-701. PMID: 17202329.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Montminy SW, Khan N, McGrath S, Walkowicz MJ, Sharp F, Conlon JE, Fukase K, Kusumoto S, Sweet C, Miyake K, Akira S, Cotter RJ, Goguen JD, Lien E. Virulence factors of Yersinia pestis are overcome by a strong lipopolysaccharide response. Nat Immunol. 2006 Oct; 7(10):1066-73. PMID: 16980981.
      Citations: 216     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    59. Visintin A, Halmen KA, Khan N, Monks BG, Golenbock DT, Lien E. MD-2 expression is not required for cell surface targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). J Leukoc Biol. 2006 Dec; 80(6):1584-92. PMID: 16946018.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Johnsen IB, Nguyen TT, Ringdal M, Tryggestad AM, Bakke O, Lien E, Espevik T, Anthonsen MW. Toll-like receptor 3 associates with c-Src tyrosine kinase on endosomes to initiate antiviral signaling. EMBO J. 2006 Jul 26; 25(14):3335-46. PMID: 16858407.
      Citations: 87     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. Lehnardt S, Henneke P, Lien E, Kasper DL, Volpe JJ, Bechmann I, Nitsch R, Weber JR, Golenbock DT, Vartanian T. A mechanism for neurodegeneration induced by group B streptococci through activation of the TLR2/MyD88 pathway in microglia. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 01; 177(1):583-92. PMID: 16785556.
      Citations: 83     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Ngampasutadol J, Ram S, Blom AM, Jarva H, Jerse AE, Lien E, Goguen J, Gulati S, Rice PA. Human C4b-binding protein selectively interacts with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and results in species-specific infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 102(47):17142-7. PMID: 16275906.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Zipris D, Lien E, Xie JX, Greiner DL, Mordes JP, Rossini AA. TLR activation synergizes with Kilham rat virus infection to induce diabetes in BBDR rats. J Immunol. 2005 Jan 01; 174(1):131-42. PMID: 15611235.
      Citations: 48     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. Heggelund L, Flo T, Berg K, Lien E, Mollnes TE, Ueland T, Aukrust P, Espevik T, Fr?land SS. Soluble toll-like receptor 2 in HIV infection: association with disease progression. AIDS. 2004 Dec 03; 18(18):2437-9. PMID: 15622324.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    65. Heggelund L, M?ller F, Lien E, Yndestad A, Ueland T, Kristiansen KI, Espevik T, Aukrust P, Fr?land SS. Increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 on monocytes in HIV infection: possible roles in inflammation and viral replication. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Jul 15; 39(2):264-9. PMID: 15307037.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    66. Nilsen N, Nonstad U, Khan N, Knetter CF, Akira S, Sundan A, Espevik T, Lien E. Lipopolysaccharide and double-stranded RNA up-regulate toll-like receptor 2 independently of myeloid differentiation factor 88. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep 17; 279(38):39727-35. PMID: 15190057.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Gibson FC, Hong C, Chou HH, Yumoto H, Chen J, Lien E, Wong J, Genco CA. Innate immune recognition of invasive bacteria accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Circulation. 2004 Jun 08; 109(22):2801-6. PMID: 15123526.
      Citations: 121     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    68. Latz E, Schoenemeyer A, Visintin A, Fitzgerald KA, Monks BG, Knetter CF, Lien E, Nilsen NJ, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. TLR9 signals after translocating from the ER to CpG DNA in the lysosome. Nat Immunol. 2004 Feb; 5(2):190-8. PMID: 14716310.
      Citations: 499     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    69. Lien E, Golenbock DT. Adjuvants and their signaling pathways: beyond TLRs. Nat Immunol. 2003 Dec; 4(12):1162-4. PMID: 14639464.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Kandimalla ER, Bhagat L, Zhu FG, Yu D, Cong YP, Wang D, Tang JX, Tang JY, Knetter CF, Lien E, Agrawal S. A dinucleotide motif in oligonucleotides shows potent immunomodulatory activity and overrides species-specific recognition observed with CpG motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25; 100(24):14303-8. PMID: 14610275.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    71. Paterson HM, Murphy TJ, Purcell EJ, Shelley O, Kriynovich SJ, Lien E, Mannick JA, Lederer JA. Injury primes the innate immune system for enhanced Toll-like receptor reactivity. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 01; 171(3):1473-83. PMID: 12874240.
      Citations: 83     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Heine H, Lien E. Toll-like receptors and their function in innate and adaptive immunity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2003 Mar; 130(3):180-92. PMID: 12660422.
      Citations: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Espevik T, Latz E, Lien E, Monks B, Golenbock DT. Cell distributions and functions of Toll-like receptor 4 studied by fluorescent gene constructs. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003; 35(9):660-4. PMID: 14620151.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Latz E, Visintin A, Lien E, Fitzgerald KA, Espevik T, Golenbock DT. The LPS receptor generates inflammatory signals from the cell surface. J Endotoxin Res. 2003; 9(6):375-80. PMID: 14733724.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    75. Bieback K, Lien E, Klagge IM, Avota E, Schneider-Schaulies J, Duprex WP, Wagner H, Kirschning CJ, Ter Meulen V, Schneider-Schaulies S. Hemagglutinin protein of wild-type measles virus activates toll-like receptor 2 signaling. J Virol. 2002 Sep; 76(17):8729-36. PMID: 12163593.
      Citations: 196     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    76. Flo TH, Ryan L, Latz E, Takeuchi O, Monks BG, Lien E, Halaas ?, Akira S, Skj?k-Braek G, Golenbock DT, Espevik T. Involvement of toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in cell activation by mannuronic acid polymers. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 20; 277(38):35489-95. PMID: 12089142.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    77. Fichorova RN, Cronin AO, Lien E, Anderson DJ, Ingalls RR. Response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae by cervicovaginal epithelial cells occurs in the absence of toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling. J Immunol. 2002 Mar 01; 168(5):2424-32. PMID: 11859134.
      Citations: 96     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    78. Kristo C, Godang K, Ueland T, Lien E, Aukrust P, Froland SS, Bollerslev J. Raised serum levels of interleukin-8 and interleukin-18 in relation to bone metabolism in endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002 Mar; 146(3):389-95. PMID: 11888846.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    79. Lien E, Ingalls RR. Toll-like receptors. Crit Care Med. 2002 Jan; 30(1 Suppl):S1-11. PMID: 11782555.
      Citations: 37     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    80. Ingalls RR, Heine H, Lien E, Yoshimura A, Golenbock D. Lipopolysaccharide recognition, CD14, and lipopolysaccharide receptors. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1999 Jun; 13(2):341-53, vii. PMID: 10340170.
      Citations: 39     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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